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Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms
WATER HYACINTH
Water orchid; Pontederia crassipes Mart; Eichhornia speciosa Kunth; Water-hyacinth; Common water hyacinth; Heteranthera formosa

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Eichhornia crassipes
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 5
Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Eichhornia crassipes

Eichhornia crassipes
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Eichhornia crassipes

Eichhornia crassipes
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 4
Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
© Les Mehrhoff, 2008-2010 · 1
Eichhornia crassipes

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Aphididae  Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae @ AMNH_PBI (3)

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Kingdom Plantae  
 Phylum Magnoliophyta  
 Class Liliopsida  
 Order Commelinales  
 Family Pontederiaceae  
 Genus Eichhornia  
  Eichhornia crassipes    (Mart.) Solms, 1883 
Provider: Ching-I Peng 
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Synonyms: Eichhornia cordifolia Eichhornia crassicaulis Eichhornia speciosa Heteranthera formosa Piaropus crassipes Piaropus mesomelas Pontederia crassicaulis Pontederia crassipes Pontederia elongata   details
Citation: Flora of Taiwan 2nd ed. 5: 133, 2000 Wu, S. H., C. F. Hsieh, and Marcel Rejmanek. 2004. Catalogue of the Naturalized Flora of Taiwan. Taiwania Global Invasive Species Database(全球入侵種資料庫)
Name Code: 201845
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 26 | Pontederiaceae | Eichhornia

1. Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms in A. L. P. P. de Candolle and C. de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 4: 527. 1883.

Pontederia crassipes Martius, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 1: 9, plate 4. 1823; Eichhornia speciosa Kunth; Piaropus crassipes (Martius) Rafinesque

Plants perennial, typically free-floating. Vegetative stems condensed, except when branching. Flowering stems erect, bending over after flowering, to 25 cm, distal internode less than 4 cm. Sessile leaves in basal rosette. Petiolate leaves floating or emersed; stipule 2.5—14 cm, apex truncate; petiole at least slightly swollen, 3.5—33 cm; blade ovate to round, 2.5—11 × 3.5—9.5 cm. Spikes 4—15-flowered; spathes obovate, 4—11 cm; peduncle 5—12.5 cm, glabrous. Flowers opening individually within 2 hours after sunrise, wilting by night; perianth blue or mauve-blue, limb lobes obovate, 16—37 mm, margins entire, central distal lobe with dark blotch in center and yellow spot within blotch; proximal stamens 20—35 mm, distal 14—19 mm; anthers 1.7—2.1 mm; style 3-lobed. Seeds 11—14-winged, 1.1—2.1 × 0.6—0.9 mm. 2n = 32.

Flowering early spring--late fall. Ponds, ditches, canals, calm waters of rivers; 0--300 m; introduced; Ala., Ariz., Calif., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., N.C., S.C., Tex., Va.; worldwide, tropics and subtropics.

This is probably the most aggressive aquatic weed ever known in the tropics (T. D. Center and N. R. Spencer 1981; R. E. Fitzsimons and R. H. Vallejos 1986; W. T. Penfound and T. T. Earle 1948; H. J. Webber 1897) and has been documented to cause extensive physiological changes in the aquatic environment (G. R. Ultsch 1973). It is on the USDA/APHIS noxious weeds list and the Florida Department of Natural Resources prohibited list (D. C. Schmitz 1990). Extensive research has gone into pesticide and biological control (R. G. Baer and P. C. Quimby Jr. 1981; T. D. Center and T. K. Van 1989; J. C. Joyce and W. T. Haller 1985; D. C. Schmitz 1990), resulting in its decline in Florida. Plants were probably first introduced into the U.S. at the Louisiana exposition in 1884 (W. T. Penfound and T. T. Earle 1948), and the species is now known in all states where freezing temperatures are minimal. Research results from the 1970s suggest that the species may have an economic importance by removing toxic substances from water (F. Chigbo et al. 1982).

The inflated petiole has long been a characteristic used to separate Eichhornia crassipes from other species of the genus. Yet on older plants under crowded conditions, the petiole shows little or no swelling (W. T. Penfound and T. T. Earle 1948). This has resulted in several misidentifications of specimens as E. azurea. Inflorescences typically elongate overnight, and all flowers open the same day (W. T. Penfound and T. T. Earle 1948). However, some robust specimens have inflorescences in which the proximal flowers open the first day and the distal 2—4 flowers open on the subsequent day. Individual flowers open shortly after dawn and wilt by nightfall. By the next morning, the flowering stem has bent such that the developing fruits are typically submersed, allowing seed development to occur under water (W. T. Penfound and T. T. Earle 1948). S. C. H. Barrett (1977, 1979, 1980, 1980b, 1988, 1989) has studied the reproductive biology in depth. The water hyacinth is a tristylous species; however, the only naturally occuring populations with all three morphs are in northeastern Brazil. This led S. C. H. Barrett and I. W. Forno (1982) to conclude that Eichornia crassipes is native to Amazonia. All other studied populations in the world have only one or two of the floral morphs. In some populations, a breakdown in the tristylous condition was observed whereby the stigma was found to be adjacent to anthers in some flowers (semihomostylous condition), resulting in some seed production (S. C. H. Barrett 1979). In general, seed production in temperate populations was found to be half that of tropical populations, mainly due to differences in levels of insect visitation (S. C. H. Barrett 1980b).

Following modified from CalPhotos
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CalPhotos     Photo Database

 

Number of matches : 36
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Eichhornia crassipes%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Plant") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0000 0000 0601 0252 [detail]
© 2001 Jeff Abbas

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0175 3301 2283 0081 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0051 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0000 0000 0601 0253 [detail]
© 2001 Jeff Abbas

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0052 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0175 3301 2283 0079 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0024 3291 4863 0038 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0175 3301 2283 0082 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0175 3301 2283 0078 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0053 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0024 3291 4863 0040 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0024 3291 4863 0039 [detail]
Robert Potts
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0177 3303 3353 0054 [detail]
© 2001 CDFA

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth, Chorreja
ID: 0000 0000 0106 0704 [detail]
© 2006 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
ID: 0000 0000 0306 1603 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
ID: 0000 0000 0306 1604 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
ID: 0000 0000 0506 1831 [detail]
© 2006 Louis-M. Landry

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
ID: 0000 0000 0509 1717 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Rice

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
ID: 0000 0000 0509 1718 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Rice

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
ID: 0000 0000 0509 1719 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Rice

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
ID: 0000 0000 0509 1721 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Rice

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
ID: 0000 0000 0509 1722 [detail]
© 2009 Barry Rice

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0000 0000 0710 1449 [detail]
© 2010 Jean Pawek

Eichhornia crassipes
Eichhornia crassipes
Water Hyacinth
ID: 0000 0000 1110 1075 [detail]
© 2010 Neal Kramer

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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