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Superfamily CERAPHRONOIDEA
Family CERAPHRONIDAE

This family is treated here as restricted by Masner and Dessart in 1967.




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Taxonomy: Masner and Dessart, 1967. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. de Belg., Bui. 43: 25-29.

Genus CERAPHRON Jurinc

Ceraphron Jurine, 1807. Nouv. Meth. Class. Hym. Dipt., p. 303. Preoccupied by Ceraphron
Panzer, 1805, but validated by the International Commission on Zoological
Nomenclature in its Opinion 174, published in 1946, and placed on the Official List of
generic names in zoology as name no. 615.

Type-species: Ceraphron .sh/co^ms Jurine. Desig. by Internatl. Comn. Zool.
Nomencl., Op. 174, 1946.
Calliceras Nees, 1834. Hym. Ichn. Aff. Monog., v. 2, p. 278.

Type-species: Calliceras fuacicomis Nees. Desig. by Blanchard, 1843.
HadroceruH Foerster, 1840. Beitr. Monog. Pteromalinen, p. xliv. Unnecessarily proposed as

a new name for Calliceras Nees.
Megaspilidea Ashmead, 1888. Canad. Ent. 20: 48, 49.

Type-species: Megaspilidea ))n)iuta Ashmead. Monotypic.
Pristo)nicrops Kieffer, 1906. Soc. Sci. de Bruxelles, Ann. 30: 146.
Type-species: Pristoiiiicrops claratus Kieffer. Monotypic.
Cerataphron Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 152. Emend.
Allomicrops Kieffer, 1914. Das Tierreich, Lief. 42, pp. xv, 69, 138.

Type-species: Ceraphron abnoniiis Perkins. Monotypic.
Eulagynodes Girault, 1917. New Javanese Hymenoptera, p. 9 (private pub.).

Type-species: Eulagynodes bicolor Girault. Orig. desig.
Ceranognais Risbec, 1953. Inst. Francais d'Afrique Noire, Bui. 15: 560.
Type-species: Ceranognius testaceus Risbec. Monotypic.

Some species of Ceraphron develop as primary parasites and others as hyperparasites. There
are few published rearing records for described North American species but in other parts of
the world species of Ceraphron have been found to parasitize Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, Droso-
philidae, Phoridae, Sciaridae and Syrphidae), Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae,
Dryinidae and Bethylidae), Homoptera (Aleyrodidae, Aphididae and Coccoidea, the last two
possibly as hyperparasites) and certain small neuropteroids. Specimens of Ceraphron have also
been taken in the nests of ants.

Revision: Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 123-132. —Kieffer, 1914. Das Tierreich,
Lief. 42, pp. 70-114.

Taxonomy: Dessart, 1965. Soc. Roy. d'Ent. de Belg., Bui. et Ann. 101: 110-158 (micropterous
and brachypterous forms).

Biology: Haeussler, 1940. U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bui. 728: 31. — LePelley, 1943. Roy. Ent.
Soc. London, Trans. 93: 81.

Ceraphron abnormis Perkins
Calif.; Hawaiian Isls., Indonesia. Host: Haplogonatopus vitiensis Perkins
and Eclithrodelphax fairchildi Perkins.
Ceraphron ab)ior)nis Perkins, 1910. Fauna Hawaiiensis, v. 2, p. 617. ♀, ♂.
Eulagynodes bicolor Girault, 1917. New Javanese Hymenoptera, p. 9 (private pub.) 9 .

Ta.xonomy: Masner, 1964. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslov. 61: 126.

Biology: Swezey, 1908. Hawaii. Ent. Soc, Proc. 2: 18-21.

Ceraphron amesicola
***authority mismatch
(OglobHn). Iowa (Ames).

Calliceras a)nesicola Ogloblin, 1944. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 46: 155. ♀.

Ceraphron amplus Ashmead
Pa., D. C. Host: Megaselia sp.

Ceraphron ampins Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 129. ♀.

Ceraphron auripes Ashmead
Ont. (Ottawa).

Ceraphron anripes Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 125. ♀.

Ceraphron borealis (Whittaker)
B. C. (Hollyburn).

Calliceras boreale Whittaker, 1930. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 32: 71. ♀.

Ceraphron brevicornis Brues
Wis. (Milwaukee).

Ceraphron brericornis Brues, 1906. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 4: 145, 146. ♂.




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Ceraphron californicus Ashmead
Calif. (Folsom).

Cemphwti californicm Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 127. ♀.

Ceraphron carinatus Ashmead
Md., D. C, Va.

Ceraphron carinatus Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 125, 131. 9. The male
described by Ashmead belongs in Lagynodes.

Ceraphron carlylei Girault
111., Iowa, La.

Ceraphron carlylei Girault, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 58: 179. ♀.

Ceraphron concinnus
***authority mismatch
(Whittai
Calliceras concinna Whittai

Ceraphron crassicornis Harrington
Ont. (Ottawa).

Ceraphron craxxicontis Harrington, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 77. ♀.
croceipcs Brues. Tex. Ecology: In nest oi Labidits coecits (Latr.).

Ceraphron croceipes Brues, 1902. Amer. Nat. 36: 369. ♀.

Ceraphron fasciatus (Fouts)
Md.

Calliceras fasciata Fouts, 1924. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 26: 162. ♀.

Ceraphron flaviscapus Ashmead
D. C, Va.

Ceraphron flariscapits Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 130. ♀.

Ceraphron fusciceps Ashmead
Md., D. C.

Ceraphron fnsciceps Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 125. ♀.

Ceraphron seciouliis Dalla Torre, 1898. Cat. Hym., v. 5, p. 527. Unnecessarily proposed as
n. name.

Ceraphron glabricornis Kieffer
Nev. (Ormsby County).

Ceraphron glabricornis Kieffer, 1906 (1905). Berlin. Ent. Ztschr. 50: 260. ♂.

Ceraphron melanocerus Ashmead
Ont. (Ottawa).

Ceraphron melanocerus Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 129. ♀.

Ceraphron melantatocephalus Dessart
Fla. (Jacksonville). Host: Belonocnema treatae Mayr.

Copidosonia nivlanocephahon Ashmead, 1886. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 13: 131. "♂"=♀.

Preocc. in Cerapliron by Boheman, 1832.
Ceraphron melantatocephalus Dessart, 1967. Rec. So. Austral. Mus. 15: 551. N. name.

Ceraphron mellipes Ashmead
Fla. (Jacksonville).

Ceraphron mellipes Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 125, 131. ♂, ♀.

Ceraphron minutus (Ashmead)
Ont. (Ottawa).

Megaspilidea minuta Ashmead, 1888. Canad. Ent. 20: 49. ♀.

Ceraphron nevadensis Kieffer
Nev. (Ormsby County).

Ceraphron necadensis Kieffer, 1906 (1905). Berlin. Ent. Ztschr. 50: 260. ♀.

Ceraphron pacificus (Whittaker)
B. C. (Chilliwack).

Calliceras pacifica Whittaker, 1930. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 32: 129. ♀.

pallidipes (Fouts). Md. (Glen Echo).

Calliceras pallidipes Fouts, 1924. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 26: 161. ♀.

Ceraphron pallidiventris Ashmead
"Md. (Fort Pendleton)."

Ceraphron pallidii'entris Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 126. ♀.

Ceraphron pedalis Ashmead
Va. (Arlington).

Ceraphron pedalis Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 130. ♀.

Ceraphron punctatus Ashmead
Md., D. C, Va.

Ceraphron punctatus Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 127. ♂, ♀.

Ceraphron quissetensis Brues
Mass. (Woods Hole).

Ceraphron quissetensis Brues, 1906. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 4: 145, 147. ♀.

Ceraphron schwarzi Muesebeck and Walkley
Md., D. C.

Ceraphron glaber Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 125, 130. <5, 9. Preocc. by

Boheman, 1832.
Ceraphron schwarzi Muesebeck and Walkley, 1951. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2, p. 668.

N. name.

Ceraphron tertius Dalla Torre
D. C, Va.

Ceraphron basal is Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 127. ♀, ♂. Preocc. by
Thomson, 1858.



1 190 Hy menoptera in America North of Mexico

Ceraphron tertius Dalla Torre, 1898. Cat. Hym., v. 5, p. 528. N. name.

Ceraphron unicolor Ashmead
Wyo., Utah, Calif.

Ceraphron unicolor Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 128. ♀.

Ceraphron whittakeri (Fouts)
B. C, Oreg.

Calliceras whittakeri Fouts, 1927. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 29: 173. ♀, ♂.

Genus NEOCERAPHRON Ashmead

Neoceraphron Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 136.

Type-species: Ceraphron niacroneiiriis Ashmead. Monotypic.
Neocerataphron Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 152. Emend.

Ta.\onomy: Szelenyi, 1938. Folia Ent. Hungarica 3: 109-112. — Hellen, 1966. Fauna Fennica
20: 41. -Masner and Dessart, 1967. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. de Belg., Bui. 43: 18-19.

Neoceraphron macroneurus (Ashmead)
Fla.

Ceraphron macroneurus Ashmead, 1887. Ent. Amer. 3: 97. ♂.

Genus APHANOGMUS Thomson

AphanogwuH Thomson, 1858. Ofvers. Kongl. Vetensk.-Akad., Forh. 15: 287, 305.

Type-species: Aphano(j)iius fu)nipe)niix Thomson. Desig. by Ashmead, 1893.

From the little available information on the biology of members of this genus it appears that
some species are primary parasites of certain Diptera, particularly Cecidomyiidae, and other
species develop as hyperparasites.

Taxonomy: Szelenyi, 1940. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, Ann. (Zool.) 33: 122-136. —Dessart, 1962.

Soc. Roy. d'Ent. de Belg., Bui. et Ann. 98: 294-300. —Dessart, 1963. Soc. Roy. d'Ent. de

Belg., Bui. et Ann. 99: 387-416. -Dessart, 1964. Soc. Roy. d'Ent. de Belg., Bui. et Ann. 100:

259-278. -Dessart, 1965. Soc. Roy. d'Ent. de Belg., Bui. et Ann. 101: 158-178.

Aphanogmus bicolor Ashmead
Ont. (Ottawa).

Aphanogwun bicolor Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 133, 134. ♀.

Aphanogmus canadensis Whittaker
B. C. (Hollyburn).

Apha)togniuN canadeuNis Whittaker, 1930. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 32: 131. ♂.

Aphanogmus dorsalis Whittaker
B. C. (Hollyburn).

Aphanogwus dor^ialis Whittaker, 1930. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 32: 132. ♀.

Aphanogmus floridanus Ashmead
S. C, Fla., Ohio. Host: Arthrocnodax Carolina Felt; Mycodiplonifi
acarivora (Felt).

Aphanogw us floridanus Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 133, 134. ♀, ♂.

Aphanogmus harringtoni Muesebeck
n. name. Ont. (Ottawa). Host: Cecidomyiid gall-maker.

Aphanognius .salicicola Harrington, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 78. ♀, ♂. Preocc. by Ashmead,
1893.

Aphanogmus marylandicus Ashmead
Md. (Oakland).

Aphanognius marylandicus Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 133, 135. ♀.

Aphanogmus niger Ashmead
D. C.

Apha)iogmus niger Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 133. ♂.

Aphanogmus obsoletus Whittaker
B. C. (Hollyburn).

Aphanogmus obsoletus Whittaker, 1930. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 32: 131. ♀.

Aphanogmus pallidipes Ashmead
Va. (Arlington).

Aphanogmus pallidipes Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 133, 135. ♀.

Aphanogmus salicicola
***authority mismatch
(Ashmead). Calif. (Los Angeles).

Ceraphron salicicola Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 124, 128. ♀.

Aphanogmus subapterus Whittaker
B. C. (ChilHwack).

Aphanoghius subapterus Whittaker, 1930. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 30: 130. ♀.

Aphanogmus varipes Ashmead
Kans.

Aphanogmus caripes Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 133, 135. ♀.

Aphanogmus virginiensis Ashmead
Va. (Arlington).

Aphanogmus virginiensis Ashmead, 1893. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 45: 133, 135. ♀.



Superfamily CERAPHRONOIDEA 1191

Genus ECITONETES Brues

EcitoneteH Brues, 1902. Amer. Nat. 36: 370.

Type-species: Ecifoiietes nubaptents Brues. Monotypic.

Ecitonetes subapterus Brues
Te.x. (Austin). Ecology: In colony oi Labidus coeciis (Latr.).
Ecitonetes sithapterus Brues, 1902. Amer. Nat. 36: 370. ♀.

Genus SYNARSIS Foerster

Synarsis Foerster, 1878. Naturh. Ver. Rheinlande, Verh. 35: 57.
Type-species: SiiiiarNis piilla Foerster. Orig. desig.

An undescribed species occurs in Virginia.

Taxonomy: Szelenyi, 1936. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, Ann. (Zool.) 30: 50-57.

Genus HOMALOCERAPHRON Dessart and Masner

HoinalocemphroH Dessart and Masner, 1969. Acta Ent. Bohemoslov. 66: 222.

Type-species: Hoiitaloceraphron ┬╗iacroplith(il)iius Dessart and Masner. Orig. desig.

Host relationships are unknown.

Homaloceraphron macrophthalmus Dessart and Masner
Te.x. (El Paso County).

Honialoceiaplnoii niacroplitlialiiiit.s Dessart and Masner, 1969. Acta Ent. Bohemoslov. 66:
222. ♀.

Homaloceraphron microphthalmus Dessart and Masner
N. C. (Moore County).

Hoiiialocemplivon uncioplitliahHus Dessart and Masner, 1969. Acta Ent. Bohemoslov. 66:
225. ♀.


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