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Page 1981
Top-1+1OriginalDatabase of Hymenoptera in America north of MexicoHighertaxa

Superfamily APOIDEA
Family MEGACHILIDAE

This is one of the largest families of bees and is represented by about an equal number of spe-
cies in each of the six zoogeographic regions. It is morphologically the most uniform and discrete
familial assemblage within the Apoidea. While many of the characteristics of this family are
shared with other families of bees and to a lesser extent with the Sphecoidea, the Megachilidae
also possess many characteristics in common with the Scolioidea.

The family is composed of three subfamilies, the Fideliinae and Lithurginae which are all pol-
len-collecting bees, and the Megachilinae which are predominantly pollen-collecting species, but
which contain several genera that are cleptoparasitic mainly in the nests of other megachilids.
The Fideliinae are found only in Chile and South Africa, but both of the other subfamilies are
nearly cosmopolitan and are well represented in America north of Mexico. Most of the pol-
len-collecting species do not make their own burrows, but appropriate a wide variety of
pre-existing burrows, holes, shells and other cavities or construct their nests either in the open




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attaching them to branches and so forth, or place them under stones, cow chips and so on. As a
consequence of these habits, many species readily accept artificial nesting devices, and this has
not only permitted detailed studies of their biology, but has also made possible the manipulation
and management of several species for use in the pollination of agricultural crops. However,
some species in certain genera (e.g., Megachile) and even some groups of species (e.g.,
Heteranthidium and Trachusa) do construct their own burrows. All of the pollen-collecting
Megachilidae use foreign materials in the construction of the cell walls. These materials include
leaves, plant down, leaf pulp, petals, resin, pebbles, mud, clay, and the like. The larvae spin tough
cocoons before pupation.

Apart from the cleptoparasitic species, many of the megachilids are highly restricted in their
intrafloral relationships and thus oligolecty is a relatively common phenomenon in this family.

Revision: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 5-232, 1 frontis., figs. 1-66,
tables 1-7 (eastern U. S. spp.).

Taxonomy: Rozen, 1973. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2527: 1-14, 22 figs, (immature stages).

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 264-344, figs, (life histories, nests,
associates). — Eickwort, 1975. Evolution 29: 142-150, 1 fig., 2 tables (gregarious nesting,
and evolution of parasitism and sociality among megachilid bees).

Morphology: Pasteels and Pasteels, 1972. Acad. Roy. Belgique, Mem. Classe Sci. 18: 1-28, 3
pis. (cuticular hairs). —Pasteels and Pasteels, 1973. Tissue and Cell 5: 63-82
(morphogenetic fields of hairs on legs). —Pasteels and Pasteels 1974. Tissue and Cell 6:
65-83 (Stereoscan studies of abdominal scopae).

Subfamily LITHURGINAE

Taxonomy: Rozen, 1973. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2527: 1-14, 22 figs, (immature stages).

Genus LITHURGE Latreille

Genus LITHURGE Subgenus LITHURGE Latreille

Lithurge Latreille, 1825. Fam. Nat. Regne Anim., p. 463.

Type-species: Andrena comuta Fabricius. Monotypic.
Lithurgus Berthold, 1827. In Latreille, Nat. Fam. Thierr., p. 467. Emend.

Found in the Old World.

Genus LITHURGE Subgenus LITHURGOPSIS Fox

Lithurgopsis Fox, 1902. Ent. News 13: 138.

Type-species: Lithurgus apicalis Cresson. Orig. desig.

Revision: Mitchell, 1938. Psyche 45: 146-155. (Nearctic spp.).

Lithurge apicalis
***authority mismatch
apicalis (Cresson). S. Dak., Nebr., Kans., Tex., Wyo., Utah, Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., Nev.,
east. Calif, principally from Transit. Zone. Ecology: Nests have been found in holes of
an old, barkless, cottonwood log in Utah; it also is reported to construct its nests in the
doorways of homes in Arizona. Parasite: Anthrax cintalapa Cole. Pollen: Oligolectic,
stores pollen of Opuntia, but visits other flowers presumably for nectar including
Echinocactus, Encelia californica, Eriogonum, Sphaeralcea.
Lithurgus apicalis Cresson, 1875. In Wheeler, Rpt. Geog. Geol. Expl. and Surv. west of
100th Meridian, v. 5, p. 724. ♀.

Taxonomy: Rozen, 1973. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2527: 6-8, figs. 13-18 (larva).

Biology: Parker and Potter, 1973. Pan-Pacific Ent. 49: 294-299, 19 figs, (nest, larval habits,
parasite).

Lithurge apicalis
***authority mismatch
littoralis (Cockerell). South Tex. (Point Isabel; near Brownsville).

Lithurgus apicalis littoralis Cockerell, 1917. In W. P. Cockerell, N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 25:
191. ♂.




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Lithurge apicalis
***authority mismatch
opuntiae (Cockerell). Colo., N. Mex., Tex., Ariz., Calif.; north. Mexico, principally from
Sonoran Zone. Pollen: Oligolectic, presumably collects pollen from flowers of Opuntia
including 0. echinocarpa, 0. megacarpa, 0. vaseyi, but visits other flowers for nectar.
Lithurgus apicalis var. opuntiae Cockerell, 1902. Ent. News 13: 182.

Lithurge arizonensis (Cockerell)
Ariz.

Lithurgus arizonensis Cockerell, 1937. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 36: 108. ♀.

Lithurge bruesi (Mitchell)
111. to Tex.; Mexico.

Lithurgus bruesi Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 104. ♂.

Lithurge echinocacti (Cockerell)
N. Mex., Ariz.; Mexico (Baja California and Sonora). Ecology: Nests in
rotten wood. Pollen: Presumably oligolectic, visits flowers oi Echinocactus.
Lithurgus echinocacti Cockerell, 1898. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 2: 453. ♀.

Lithurge gibbosus (Smith)
N. C, to Fla., Tex. Pollen: Oligolectic, collects pollen from flowers of

Opuntia, but visits other flowers, presumably for nectar including Cirsium, Helianthus,
Hex, Pontederia, Rudbeckia.
Lithurgus gibbosus Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 147. ♀.
Lithurgus compressus Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 147. ♂.

Subfamily MEGACHILINAE

This is a large group of mostly pollen-collecting species which are present on all the continents
and many of the islands. The subfamily is composed of two tribes, the Anthidiini and the
Megachilini, both of which are well represented by numerous species in America north of Mex-
ico.

Tribe ANTHIDIINI

Although this tribe is present throughout much of the world, it contains fewer species than
the Megachilini and, unlike that tribe, is represented by only a single species in Australia. Like
the Megachilini the pollen-collecting species use a wide variety of foreign materials in construct-
ing their nest cells, but are not known to use mud. While the majority of the Anthidiini are soli-
tary, some of the pollen-collecting species in certain genera (e. g., Heteranthidiian and
Trachusa) live in colonies.

Revision: Michener, 1948. Amer. Mus. Novitates 1381: 1-29 (generic classification).

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 1-113, 229 figs., 41 maps
(Calif, spp.). — Pasteels, 1969. Soc. Roy. Ent. Belgique, Mem. 31: 1-148, 199 figs.
(classification). —Pasteels, 1972. Soc. Roy. Ent. Belgique, Bui. Ann. 108: 72-128, 107 figs,
(classification).

Biology: Custer and Hicks, 1927. Biol. Bui. 52: 258-277 (nesting habits).

Genus TRACHUSA Panzer

Trachusa Panzer, 1804. Faunae Ins. German., pt. 86, nos. 14-15.

Type-species: Apis byssina Panzer. Desig. by Sandhouse, 1943. {=Trachusa
serratulae Panzer).
Diphysis Lepeletier, 1841. Hist. Nat. Ins., Hym., v. 2, p. 307.

Type-species: Apis byssina Panzer. Monotypic. (=Diphysis pyrenaica Lepeletier).
Trachusomimus Popov, 1964. Rev. Ent. URSS 43: 406.

Type-species: Trachusa perdita Cockerell. Orig. desig.

The genus also occurs in the Palaearctic Region.

Revision: Michener, 1941. Pan-Pacific Ent. 17: 119-125. (Nearctic spp.).

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 5: 1041 (larva). —Thorp, 1963. Pan-Pacific
Ent. 39: 56-58 (Key to spp. of Trachusa). —Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 132
(generic status of Trachusomimus Popov). —Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins.
Survey, Bui. 9: 4-6, figs. 1, 129-134, map 1 (Calif spp.).

Trachusa gummifera Thorp
Calif. (Marin and San Francisco Counties).

Trachusa gummifera Thorp, 1963. Pan-Pacific Ent. 39: 56. ♀, ♂.




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Trachusa manni Crawford
South Ariz., north. Mexico. Parasite: Heterostelis manni Cwfd.?

Trachusa manni Crawford, 1917. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 19: 167. ♂.

Trachusa perdita
***authority mismatch
Cockerel!. Calif. Parasite: Heterostelis hurdi Thorp, Nemognatha scutellaris LeC.

Pollen: Presumably polylectic, visits flowers oi Brodiaea lutea, Clai-kia cylindrica, C.
purpurea quadrivuinera, C. speciosa speciosa, Collinsia heterophylla, Convolvulus,
Eriodictyon califomicum, Eriophyllum confertiflorum, Layia platyglossa campestris,
Lotus scoparius, Lupinus nanus, Peiistemon antirrhinoides, P. heterophyllus. Salvia
columbariae.
Trachusa perdita Cockerell, 1904. South. Cahf. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 159. ♂.

Biology: Michener, 1941. Pan-Pacific Ent. 17: 123 (nest). —Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour.
39: 132 (parasite). — MacSwain, Raven and Thorp, 1973. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 70: 49
(floral relationships).

Genus HETERANTHIDIUM Cockerell

Heteranthidium Cockerell, 1904, Ent. News 15: 292.

Type-species: Anthidium dorsale Lepeletier. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1926. Amer. Mus. Novitates 218: 1-15 (U. S. spp.). —Mitchell, 1962. N.
C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 23-31, figs. 8-10, table 1 (eastern U. S. spp.). — Snelling,
1966, Los Angeles County Mus. Contrib. Sci. 97: 1-8, 1 fig. (Key to U. S. spp.). — Grigarick
and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 6-10, figs. 111-128, maps 2-5 (Calif, spp.).

Heteranthidium autumnale Snelling
Calif. (Desert Hot Springs); Mexico (Baja California). Pollen: Unknown,
but presumably visits flowers of Chrysothaiunus or Haplopappus.
Heteranthidium autumnale Snelling, 1966. Los Angeles County Mus. Contrib. Sci. 97: 1,
fig. 1. (J, 9.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1975. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 77: 90 (color variation in Baja Calif,
specimen).

Heteranthidium bequaerti Schwarz
South. Calif. (Colorado Desert). Pollen: Oligolege of Dalea spinosa.

Heteranthidium bequaerti Schwarz, 1926. Amer. Mus. Novitates 218: 6. ♀.

Heteranthidium cordaticeps Michener
Tex., N. Mex. Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Helianthus
anyiuus, also possibly Heterotheca subaxillans.
Heteranthidium cordaticeps Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 41. ♀.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1975. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 77: 87-88, fig. 1 (male, geogr. and floral
records).

Heteranthidium crassipes (Cresson)
N. C. to Fla.

Anthidium crassipes Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 112. ♀.

Heteranthidium dorsale (Lepeletier)
N. J., N. C, Ga., Ala. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Strophostyles.
Anthidium dorsale Lepeletier, 1841. Hist. Nat. Ins., Hym., v. 2, p. 384. ♂.
Anthidium harbecki Crawford, 1910. Ent. News 21: 456. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 381. ♂.

Heteranthidium fontemvitae Schwarz
N. C. to Fla. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Chrysopsis,
Kuhnistera.
Heteranthidium fontemvitae Schwarz, 1926. Amer. Mus. Novitates 218: 8. ♂, ♀.

Heteranthidium larreae (Cockerell)
West. Tex. to south. Utah, Nev. and south. Calif. (Sonoran and Mojave
deserts); Mexico. Pollen: Oligolege of Larrea tridentata, but visits other flowers for
nectar including Baileya, Machaeranthera tortifolia. Salvia dorri, Senecio douglasii.
Anthidium larreae Cockerell, 1897. Canad. Ent. 29: 220. ♀, ♂.

Biology: MacSwain, 1946. Pan-Pacific Ent. 22: 159. (nesting habits). — Hurd and Linsley,
1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 34, fig. 14 (intrafloral relationships).

Heteranthidium occidentale (Cresson)
Colo., N. Mex.; Mexico (Puebla).

Anthidium occidentale Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 386. ♀, ♂.

Heteranthidium ridingsii (Cresson)
N. C. to Fla. and Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of C rota laria,
Galactia, Hypericum, Melilotus, Rhus.
Anthidium ridingsii Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: Proc. iii. 9.




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Heteranthidium timberlakei Schwarz
South. Oreg., Calif., west. Nev. Pollen: Polylectic, visits flowers of
Chaenactis douglasii, C. glabriuscula, Cirsium, Clarkia biloba, C. concinna, C.
cylindrica, C. gracilis, Coreopsis lanceolata, Encelia fariyiosa, Helianthus gracilentus.
Salvia mellifera.

Heteranthidium timberlakei Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 409. ♂, ♀.

Heterantkidium subtimberlakei Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 414. ♀.

Taxonomy: Stephen and Torchio, 1961. Pan-Pacific Ent. 37: 41-43 (as zebratum). — Snelling,
1966. Los Angeles County Mus. Contrib. Sci. 97: 5 (synonomy).

Biology: MacSwain, Raven and Thorp, 1973. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 70: 49 (floral
relationships).

Heteranthidium zebratum (Cresson)
Mich, south to Miss., west to S. Dak., Nebr., Colo, and N. Mex. Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers of Gaillardia, Helianthus.
Anthidium zebratum Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 270. ♂.
Protantkidium cockerelli Titus, 1902. Ent. News 13: 170. ♂.

Anthidium (Protanthidium) Chippewaense Graenicher, 1910. Canad. Ent. 42: 157. ♂, ♀.
Heteranthidium zebratum mississippi Michener, 1937. Amer. Midland Nat. 38: 449. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1966. Los Angeles County Mus. Contrib. Sci. 97: 4-5 (synonymy).

Genus PARANTHIDIUM Cockerell and Cockerell
Genus PARANTHIDIUM Subgenus PARANTHIDIUM Cockerell and Cockerell

Anthidium subg. Paranthidium Cockerell and Cockerell, 1901. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.
(7) 7: 50.

Type-species: Paranthidium jugatorium perpictum (Cockerell). Orig. desig.
(=Anthidium perpictum Cockerell).

Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1926. Amer. Mus. Novitates 226: 19-25 (N. Amer. spp.). —Moure, 1965.
Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 67: 29-31 (generic limits).

Paranthidium jugatorium
***authority mismatch
butleri Snelling. Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Erigeron,
Helianthus.
Paranthidium jugatorium butleri Snelling, 1962. Pan-Pacific Ent. 38: 225. ♀, ♂.

Paranthidium jugatorium
***authority mismatch
jugatorium (Say). N. Y., N. J., Ind., Minn., Wis., Mo., Nebr. Parasite: Dasymutilla
asopus bexar (Blake). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers oi Helianthus strumosus.
Megachile jugatoria Say, 1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped., v. 2, p. 352. ♀.
Stelis obesa Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 398. ♂.

Biology: Michener, 1975. Kansas Ent. Soc, Jour. 48: 194-200 (nest, parasite).

Paranthidium jugatorium
***authority mismatch
lepidum (Cresson). Ky. and Va., south to Ga. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Helenium, Helianthus, Rudbeckia, Silphium.
Anthidium lepidum Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 115. ♂.

Paranthidium jugatorium
***authority mismatch
perpictum (Cockerell). Colo., N. Mex., Ariz.

Anthidium perpictum Cockerell, 1898. Denison Univ. Sci. Labs., Bui. 11: 63. ♀.
Anthidium (Dianthidium) perpictum coloradense Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14:
32. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1898. N. Mex. Univ., Bui. 1: 63. 9. —Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag.
Nat. Hist. (7) 5: 413. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Banks, 1902. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 10: 213 (nesting habits).

Genus PARANTHIDIUM Subgenus MECANTHIDIUM Michener

Paranthidium subg. Mecanthidium Michener, 1942. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 50: 278.

Type-species: Paranthidium (Mecanthidium) sonorum Michener. Orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Moure, 1965. Ent. Soc Wash., Proc. 67: 30 (systematic position).

Paranthidium sonorum Michener
Ariz., northern Mexico.

Paranthidium (Mecanthidium) sonorum Michener, 1942. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 50: 278. ♂.

9.




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Genus ADANTHIDIUM Moure

Adanthidium Moure, 1965. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 67: 29.

Type-species: Antkidium texanum Cresson. Orig. desig.

Adanthidium arizonicum (Rohwer)
Ariz.

Dianthidium arizonicum Rohwer, 1916. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 18: 192. ♂.

Biology: Middleton, 1916. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 18: 193 (nest).

Adanthidium texanum (Cresson)
Kans., Ariz., Tex.

Anthidium texanum Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 113. ♂.

Biology: Melander, 1902. Biol. Bui. 3: 27 (nest).

Genus ANTHIDIUM Fabricius
Genus ANTHIDIUM Subgenus ANTHIDIUM Fabricius

Anthidium Fabricius, 1804. Systema piezatorum, p. 364.

Type-species: Apis manicata Linnaeus. Desig. by Latreille, 1810.

Taxonomy: Swenk, 1913. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 9-18 (Nebr. spp.). — Cockerell, 1925. Calif.
Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 345-361 (western U. S. spp.). -Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus.
Novitates 252: 1-22; 253: 1-17 (N. Amer. spp.). -Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech.
Bui. 152: 9-13, figs. 1, 3, table 1 (eastern U. S. spp.). — Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif.
Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 10-35, figs. 3, 7-100, 214, 217-220, maps 6-24 (Calif, spp.).

Biology: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 11 (summary of literature).

Anthidium atripes Cresson
Tex., Colo., Nev., and Calif. Pollen: Apparently narrowly polylectic, visits

flowers of Astragalus including A. douglasii var. parishii, Lotus including L. strigosus
var. hirtellus.
Anthidium emarginatum var. atripes Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 205. ♂.
Anthidiuyn polingae Schwarz, 1931. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 315. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 388. 9. —Schwarz, 1937. N. Y. Ent. Soc,
Jour. 45: 377.

Anthidium banningense Cockerell
Wash., Utah, Oreg., Calif. Ecology: Nests in ground and uses
down-like nesting materials from Artemisia and Cirsium. Parasite: Chrysis
florissanticola Roh. Pollen: Apparently oligolectic on Phacelia including P. heterophylla,
P. imbricata, P. leucophylla, P. ramosissima, but also visits other flowers presumably
for nectar including Chaenactis glabriuscula, Clarkia am.oena, Cryptantha, Lotus
davidsonii, Medicago, Melilotus, Oenothera, Physocarpus, Trifolium wormskioldii.

Anthidium banningense Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. Proc 3: 58. ♂.

Anthidium plumarium Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc (4) 14: 356. ♂.

Anthidi%im longispinum Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 253: 6. ♀.

Biology: Jaycox, 1967. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 40: 565-570 (territoriality, pollen source).

Anthidium clypeodentatum Swenk
Man. to B. C, Nebr., Colo., Calif. Pollen: Apparently narrowly

polylectic, presumably obtains pollen from Leguminosae including Astragalus douglasii
var. parishii, Lotus davidsonii, L. oblongiflorus, Lupinus, but also visits other flowers
for nectar including Ceanothus, Cryptantha intermedia, Phacelia frigida.
Anthidium clypeodentatum Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 12. ♀.
Anthidium incurvatum Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 22. ♂.
Anthidium emarginatum bilineatum Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 252: 4. ♂.
Anthidium clypeodentatum var. lutzi Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 380. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1928. Canad. Ent. 60: 215. —Schwarz, 1937. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 45:
380 {lutzi). —Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 15-16, figs. 16-18, 68,
70, 91, map 8 (synonymy).
cockerelii Schwarz. West. Tex. to south. Nev. and south. Calif.; Mexico (Baja California).
Pollen: Polylectic, visits flowers oi Abronia villosa, Cercidium floridum, Chaenactis
carphoclinia, Dalea califomica, D. emoryi, Encelia, Eschscholzia darwinensis, Geraea




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canescens, Larrea tridentata, Lupinus, Malacothrix, Palafoxia linearis, Phacelia
crenulata, P. distans, Trifolium, Oenothera clavaeformis var. auriantiaca.
Anthidium cockereUi Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 386. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1937. Amer. Mus. Novitates 948: 6. ♀.

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 35 (floral relationship with

Larrea).
coUectum Huard. Calif, (including Channel Islands); Mexico (Baja California). Ecology: Nests
in abandoned burrows in the ground, and uses down from the leaves and along the stem
of Artemisia tridentata. Parasite: Chrysis cognata Bohart, C. coloradica Bohart, C.
tripartita Aaron, Dioxys pomonae CklL, D. productus cismoyitanicus Hurd,
Monodontomerus montivagus Ashm., Sphaeropthalma blakei (Fox), S. orestes (Fox), S.
unicolor (Cress.). Pollen: Polylectic, especially on Lotus, Phacelia, Cryptantha, but visits
a wide variety of flowers presumably for nectar and or pollen including Amsinckia
intermedia. Astragalus tener, Chaenactis glabriuscula, Cryptantha intermedia,
Dudleya, Encelia fannosa, Eriastnini piuriflorum, Erodium botrys, Gilia, Lotus
argyrophyllus, L. comiculatus, L. davidsonii, L. glaber, L. hamatus, L. scoparius, L.
strigosus var. hirteUus, L. subpinnatus, Lupinus bicolor, L. densiflorus, L. nanus,
Melilotus, Mimulus fremontii, Mirabilis laevis, Nemophila, Oenothera, Phacelia
cicutaria, P. distans, P. hispida, P. imbricata, P. ramosissima, P. tanacetifolia,
Pholisma racemosa, Platystemon califomicus, Salix, Salvia columbariae, Sambucus,
Trichostema lanatum, T. parishii, Viguiera laciniata, V. multiflora.

Anthidium compactum Provancher, 1896. Nat. Canad. 23: 9. ♂. Preocc.

Anthidium collectum Huard, 1896. Nat. Canad. 23: 124. N. name.

Anthidiimi angelarum Titus, 1906. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 7: 164. ♀.

Anthidiiim transversum Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 19. ♀.

Anthidium puncticaiidum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 360. ♂.

Anthidium collectum bilderbacki Cockerell, 1938. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., Trans. 9: 38.

9.
Anthidium catalinense Cockerell, 1939. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 23: 433. ♂, ♀.
Anthidium clemeyitiiium Cockerell, 1939. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 38: 138. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 57, 73. —Titus, 1906. Ent. Soc.
Wash., Proc. 7: 163. —Cockerell, 1941. Sixth Pacific Sci. Cong., Proc, v. 4, p. 289
{clementinum). — Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 16-19, figs. 19-21,
83, map 10 (synonymy).

Biology: Hicks, 1929. Canad. Ent. 61: 84 (nesting habits, copulation, nest construction,

sleeping sites). -Hurd, 1958. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 14: 285, 292-293 (parasites).

—Ferguson, 1962. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 27: 6-22 (parasites, nest).

Anthidium dammersi Cockerell
Calif. (Colorado and Mojave deserts), Nev. Pollen: Unknown, but visits

flowers of Astragalus lentiginosus war. fremontii, Dalea freynontii, D.f. var. saundersii,
Phacelia distaiis.

Anthidium damniersi Cockerell, 1937. Amer. Mus. Novitates 948: 6. ♂, ♀.

Anthidium edwardsii Cresson
Wash., Oreg., Calif., Idaho, Utah. Ecology: Nests in dead bamboo. Parasite:
Tricrania stansburyi Hald. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including
Achillea millaefolium, Adenostegia pilosa. Astragalus, Bigelovia, Calochortus luteus,
Cirsium, Clarkia speciosa, Cleomella obtusifolia, Cordylanthus pilosa, C. tenuis, Cressa
cretica, Eriogonum gracile, Eriophyllum, Frankenia grandiflora, Heliotropium
curassavicum, Heynizonia, Lathyrus splendens, Lotus americanus, L. purshianus, L.
scoparius, Marrubium vulgare, Medicago saliva, Melilotus, Monardella lanceolata,
Navarretia heterodoxa, Penstemon heterophyllus, Phacelia dista^is, P. ramosissima,
Solidago califomica, Stephanomeria exigua, Trichostema lanceolatum, T. laxum,
Trifolium obtusifolium, T. repens, T. variegatum. Verbena califomica, V. lasiostachys,
Wislizenia refract a.

Anthidium edwardsii Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 112. ♂.

Anthidium 3-cuspidum Provancher, 1896. Nat. Canad., 23: 10. ♂.

Anthidium tricuspidum Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 57. Emend.

Ajithidium hesperium Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 18. ♀.




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Anthidium depressum Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 253: 4. ♂.

Taxonomy: Titus 1906. Ent. Soc. Wash. Proc. 7: 163. — Grigarick and Stange. 1968. Calif. Ins.

Survey, Bui. 9: 19-21, figs. 3, 49-51, 79, map. 12 (synonymy).

Anthidium emarginatum (Say)
B. C. to Calif., east to Kans., Nebr. and N. Mex. Ecology: Uses down from
stems of Cirsium imdatum for nest construction in Colo. Parasite: Lencospis affinis
Say, Monodontomerus montivagus Ashm., Nemognatha ditbia LeC, N. Intea LeC,
Physocephala texana (Will). Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Areiiaria,
Astragalus bolanderi, Clarkia pulchella, Cryptantha intermedia, Dalea fremontii,
Erigeron foliosus var. stenophyllus, Eriodictyon, Hackelia jessicae, Lotus argyraeus
miilticaulis, L. scoparius, Lupinus lyallii, L. superbus, Penstemon, Phacelia califomica,
P. superbus, P.frigida, P. heterophylla, P. ramosissima, Symphoricarpos.

Megachile emarginata Say, 1824. hi Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped., v. 2, p. 352. ♀.

Anthidium atrifrons Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 387. ♀.

Anthidium atriventre Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: Proc. iii. 9.

Anthidium saxorum Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 57. ♂.

Anthidium collectum var. ultrapictum Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 73.
(J.

Anthidium titusi Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 58. ♂.

Anthidium bemardinum var. aridum Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 58.
6.

Anthidium astragali Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 16. ♂, ♀.

Anthidium fresnoense Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 347. ♀.

Anthidium angulatum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 357. ♂.

Anthidium hamatum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 358. ♂.

Anthidium spinosum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 359. ♂.

Anthidiu7n lucidum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 361. ♂.

Anthidium rhodophorum Cockerell, 1925. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 16: 623. ♀.

Anthidium sculle^ii Schwarz, 1930. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 38: 10. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 374. 9, S. —Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif.
Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 72. 6 (saxoi-u7n). —Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 73.
6 (titusi). —Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 76. —Schwarz, 1928. N. Y.
Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 372 (bemardinum var. aridum). —Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif.
Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 21-22, figs. 34-36, 87, 95, map 13 (synonymy).

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 47 (collection of nest material).

Anthidium jocosum Cresson
Mont., Colo., Calif.; Mexico (Baja California and Sonora). Pollen: Apparently
polylectic, visits flowers of Ceanothus, Chorizanthe staticoides, Cryptantha intermedia,
Eriastrum plurifolium, Ericameria monactis, Eriodictyon, Eriogonum fasciculatum, E.
f. polifolium, E. inflatum, Gutierrezia califomica, Haplopappus cooperi, Hemizonia,
Larrea tridentata, Lasthenia, Lotus scoparius, Marrubium vulgare, Oenothera,
Penstemon, Phacelia ramosissima. Salvia carduacea, S. pachyphylla, Trifolinm repens.

Anthidium jocosuyn Cresson, 1878 Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 111. ♂.

Anthidium xanthognathum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 347. ♀.

Anthidium fontis Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 348.
Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 277: 5. ♀.

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool..l93: 35 (floral relationships).

Anthidium maculifrons Smith
111., Tenn. and Va., south to Fla., west to Ariz.; Mexico. Pollen: Unknown,
but visits flowers of Afzelia, Asclepias, Bidens, Coreopsis, Cracca, Crotalaria, Galactia,
Galax, Phaseolus, Psoralea.
Anthidium maculifrons Smith, 1854. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 214. ♀.
Anthidium cognatum Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 109. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Hungerford and Williams, 1912. Ent. News 23: 256.

Anthidium maculosum Cresson
S. Dak., Colo., and Tex., west to Oreg. and Calif.; Mexico. Ecology: Nests
in elderberry stems. Parasite: Chrysis tripartita Aaron, Dioxys aurifuscus (Titus),
Leucospis affinis Say. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Antirrhi7ium,




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Arctostaphylos, Aster, Astragalus douglasii var. parisliii, Chrysopsis villosa, Cirsium
vulgare, Cordylanthus nevinii, Corethrogyne filaginifolia, Eriodictyon trichocalyx,
Grindelia camporum, Haplopappus linearifolius, Helianthus, Hulsea callicarpha, Lotus
argophylhis, L. cortiiculatus, L. davidsonii, L. humistratus, L. nevade7isis, L. scoparius,
L. strigosus var. hirteUns, Phacelia ramosisshna, Senecio ionophyllus, Solidago
califomica, Stachys albe^is, S. bullata, S. pycnantha, Triclwstema laxum, Verbena
hastata, V. lasiostachys.

Anthidium maculatuvi Smith, 1854. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 216. ♂. Preocc.

Anthidium maculosum Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 110. ♀.

Anthidiuvi lupinellmn Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 58. ♂.

Anthidium america^mm Friese, 1911. Das Tierreich, v. 28, p. 395. N. name.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 5: 412. 6. —Cockerell, 1905. Amer.
Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 336. — Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 23-25,
figs. 7, 9, 71, map 15.

Biology: Parker and Bohart, 1966. Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 95 (nest, parasite). — Krombein, 1967.
Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 269-272, pi. 17, figs. 79, 80 (nest, supersedure, nest
architecture, life history). —Horning, 1971. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 73: 43 (nest, parasite).

Anthidium manicatum Linnaeus
N. Y. (Ludlowville); Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Canary Is.; Europe.

Ecology: Nests readily in a wide variety of movable objects including trap-nests.

Adventive from Europe. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers for nectar

and pollen in Europe and South America, but so far has only been taken at the flowers

of Caryopteris clandonensis in N. Y.
Apis manicata Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, p. 577.
Apis uncata Schrank 1802. Fauna Boica 2(2): 379.

Taxonomy: Moure and Urban, 1964. II Congr. Latino-Amer. Zool., An. 1: 96-102, figs. 1-5 (S.
Amer. distr.). — Jaycox, 1967. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 40: 124-126 (N. Amer. distr.).

Biology: Green, 1921. Ent. Soc. London, Proc, p. Ixxii-lxxiii (territoriality). —Ward, 1928.

Entomologist 61: 267-272 (territoriality). —Haas, 1960. Ztschr. Tierpsychol. 17: 402-416

(territoriahty). — Pechuman, 1967. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 75: 68-73 (behavior).

Anthidium montivagum Cresson
Colo.

Anthiditim montivagum Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 110. ♀, ♂.

Anthidium mormonum Cresson
B. C, Idaho, Mont, and Nebr., south to Calif., Ariz, and N. Mex.; Mexico
(Baja California). Ecology: Nests in deserted beetle burrows in old yucca floral scapes
and oak stumps, uses down gathered from hairy leaves and stems of Lepidospartum
squaviatuyn for nest construction. Parasite: Chelynia leucotricha CklL? Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Astragalus, Ceanothiis parviflorus,
Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Cryptantha intermedia, Eriodictyon, Eriogonum
fasciculatum, Grindelia, Lotus andersoni, L. argophyllus, L. davidsonii, L. nevadensis,
L. oblongifolius, L. scopaHus, L. strigosus var. hirtellus, Lupiyius lobbii, Penstemo7i
spectabilis, Phacelia ciliata, P. heterophylla, P. imbricata, P. pringeli, P. ramosissima,
Rubus leucodertnis, Stenotopsis linearifolius, Trifolium repeals.

Anthidium monnonum Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 110. ♂.

Anthidium blanditum Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 206. ♀.

Anthidium pondreum Titus, 1902. Ent. News 13: 169. ♂.

Anthidium pecosense Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 58. ♂.

Anthidium bemardinum var. wilsoni Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 58.
6.

Anthidium bemardinum var. fragariellum Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., BuL 3:
58. ♂.

Anthidium bla^iditum praedentatum Cockerell, 1907. Entomologist 40: 99. ♀.

Anthidium poudreumC.) Cockerell, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 40: 248. ♂ (♀ misdet.).

Anthidium ivallisi Cockerell, 1913. Canad. Ent. 45: 13. ♀.

Anthidium nebrascense Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 14. ♂, ♀.

Anthidium praedentatum trianguliferum Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 18. ♀.

Anthidium flavicaudum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 359. ♂.

Anthidium wyomingense Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 252: 20. ♀.




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Anthidium mormonum hicksi Schwarz, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 743: 4. ♀.
Anthidium wallisi var. wallowana Schwarz, 1940. Amer. Mus. Novitates 1058: 5. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 74. 6 ipecosejise). — Cockerell,
1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 75, 76. cJ, 9 ? -Cockerell, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
Proc. 40: 248. 6, 9 (pecosense). —Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 252: 7
{nebrasceiise}. —Schwarz, 1928. Canad. Ent. 60: 213 Oiebrascense). —Schwarz, 1930. N. Y.
Ent. Soc, Jour. 38: 9 (nebrascense). —Schwarz, 1940. Amer. Mus. Novitates 1058: 6
{yiebrascense). — Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 25-27, figs 43-45,
80, 92, map 16 (synonymy).

Biology: Hicks, 1929. Ent. News 40: 105 (nesting habits).

Anthidium pallidiclypeum Jaycox
Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Ceanothus, Collinsia
bicolor, Delphinium parryi var. seditiossum, Lotus scoparius, Trifolium variegatuni.
Anthidium pallidiclypeum Jaycox, 1963. Pan-Pacific Ent. 39: 267, 5 figs. 6,9.

Anthidium palliventre Cresson
Utah, B. C, Oreg., Calif. Ecology: Excavates nest in sand. Pollen:

Unknown, but visits flowers o{ Abronia maritima, Cakile edentula, Dudleya, Horkelia,
Lathyrus littoralis, Lotun eriophorus, L. heermannii, Phacelia distans, P. ramosissima.
Anthidium palliventre Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 114. ♀.
Anthidium pallidiventre Dalla Torre, 1896. Cat. Hym., v. 10, p. 468. Emend.
Anthidium califomicum Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 206. ♂.
Anthidium palliventre vanduzeei Cockerell 1937. Pan-Pacific Ent. 13: 150. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 28-29, figs. 28-30, 85, map
18 (synonymy).

Biology: Hicks, 1928. Pan-Pacific Ent. 5: 51 (nest excavation).

Anthidium palmarum Cockerell
West. Tex to south. Calif, and Nev.; Mexico (Baja California). Ecology:
Found in burrow of dead floral scape of Yucca whipplei. Pollen: Possibly oligolectic on
Phacelia including P. affinis, P. cicutaria, P. ciliata, P. crenulata, P. distans, P. hispida,
P. ramosissima, but visits other flowers including Acamptopappus sphaerocephaius,
Amsinckia, Aster tortifolius. Astragalus, Bebbia juncea, Dalea schottii, Encelia
virginiensis actoni, Lotus argophylius, Lotus scoparius, Oenothera, Senecio douglasii,
Sphaeralcea, Steyiotopsis linearif alius.
Anthidium palmarum Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 59. ♂.
Anthidium palmarum micheneri Schwarz, 1957. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 30: 132. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1962. Pan-Pacific Ent. 38: 226-227 (distribution and floral records,

Anthidium palmarum
***authority mismatch
micheneri). —Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 29-30, figs.

64-66, 69, 74, map 19 (synonymy).

Anthidium paroselae Cockerell
Tex. to south. Calif.; Mexico (Sonora). Ecology: Nests in hard sand; two
flight periods occur, one in the spring and one in the autumn. Parasite: Dioxys
productus subruber (Ckll.)? Pollen: Polylectic, visits flowers of Baileya multiradiata,
Bebbia juncea, Cretan californicus, Cryptantha barbigera, Dalea scoparia, Helianthus
petiolaris var. canescens, Larrea tridentata, Malacothrix, Melilotus, Palafoxia linearis,
Pulchea sericea, Prosopis.

Anthidium paroselae Cockerell, 1898. Denison Univ. Sci. Labs., Bui. 11: 62. ♀.

Anthidium parosetae(\) Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 32: 302.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1898. N. Mex. Univ., Bui. 1: 62. 9. —Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag.
Nat. Hist. (7) 5: 412. 9, cJ. —Schwarz, 1929 (1928). N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 384. ♀, ♂.
—Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 30, figs. 10-12, 73, 100, map. 20.

Biology: Newberry, 1900. Psyche 9: 94 (nest, parasite). — Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn.
Contrib. Zool. 193: 35 (floral relationships).
piacitum Cresson. Idaho and Wyo., south to Calif., Ariz, and N. Mex. Pollen: Apparently

polylectic, although current data suggests a predilection for the flowers of Cordylanthus
including C.filifolius, C. 7ievinii, C. rigidus brevibracteatus, but also visits flowers of
Chrysopsis villosa, Cryptantha intermedia, Eriodictyon trichocalyx, Eriogonum
subscaposmn, Gutierrezia califomica, Monardella, Solidago confinis.
Anthidium piacitum Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 206. ♀.
Anthidium bemardinum Cockerell, 1904. South. CaHf. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 58. ♂.




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Anthidium hesperium dentipygum Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 19. ♀.
Anthidium permaculatum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 349. ♀.
Anthidium bervardiyiuvi niesaverdense Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 252: 15. ♂.

9.
Anthidium niveumtarsum Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 252: 18. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 74. 6. -Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent.

Soc, Jour. 36: 378. 9, 6 (permaculatum). —Schwarz, 1937. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 45: 382.

— Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 30-32, figs. 46-48, 78, 93, map 21

(synonymy).

Anthidium porterae Cockerell
B. C, Mont., Wyo., Nebr., Colo., Ariz., N. Mex., Tex. Parasite: Chrysis
lauta Cress. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Asclepias, Erigeron, Penstemon
coloradensis, P. occidentata, Petalostemo7i, Phacelia distans, Psilostrophe.

Anthidium porterae Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 5: 411. ♂, ♀.

Anthidium jwrterae var. amahile Cockerell, 1904. Entomologist 37: 7. ♂.

Anthidium porterae personulatum Cockerell, 1907. Canad. Ent. 39: 135. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 247. —Custer and Hicks, 1927. Biol. Bui. 52:
258-267 (nesting habits). —Custer, 1928. Ent. News 39: 123 (nesting habits).

Anthidium psoraleae Robertson
Colo, and N. Dak., east to 111. and Mich.; although it has been

questionably listed from B. C, Calif, and Ariz., there are no recent records west of Colo.
Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers oi Astragalus, Lobelia, Psoralea, Trifolium,
Verbena.
Anthidium psoraleae Robertson, 1902. Canad. Ent. 34: 322. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1928. Canad. Ent. 60: 214. —Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech.
Bui. 152: 11-13, fig. 3 (redescription).

Anthidium rodecki Schwarz
Colo., Nev. (Washoe Co.).

Anthidium rodecki Schwarz, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 743: 1. ♂, ♀.

Anthidium sonorense Cockerell
Ariz., south. Nev. and south. Calif.; Mexico (Baja California and Sonora).
Pollen: Possibly an oligolege oi Lairea tridentata, but a female has been collected at the
flowers of Prosopis.
Anthidium sonorense Cockerell, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 91. ♂.
Anthidium sonorense productum Cockerell, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 92. ♀.
Anthidium rohweri Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 253: 7. ♂.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 32, figs. 13-15, 72, 90, 99,
map 22 (synonymy).

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 35 (floral relationships).

Anthidium tenuiflorae Cockerell
N. W. T., Alta., Sask., Mont., Wyo., S. Dak., south to Calif., Ariz., N.

Mex., and Nebr. Ecology: A nest was constructed between two rocks. Pollen: Unknown,
but visits flowers of Arenaria kingii. Aster foliaceus. Astragalus, Epilobium
adenocaidum var. parishii, E. califomicum, Gormania obtusata, Horkelia fusca, Lotus
argophyllus, L. davidsonii, Lupinus confertus, L. lyallii lobbii, Penstemon
secundiflorus, Phacelia frigida, P. heterophylla, Potentilla glandulosa, P. gracilis,
Solidago confinis, Streptanthus tortuosus, Trifolium oliganthum.

Anthidium tenuiflorae Cockerell, 1907. Canad. Ent. 39: 135. ♀, ♂.

Anthidium tenuiflorae yukonense Cockerell, 1926. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 18: 622. ♂.
9.

Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 379 (as tenuiflorae yukonense).
—Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 32-33, figs. 31-33, 88, 96, map 23

(synonymy).

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 217, 248 (nest).

Anthidium utahense Swenk
B. C, Mont, and Utah, south to Calif., Nev. and Ariz. Ecology: Nests in
ground in holes and crevices frequently using cavities made by other insects and
animals as well as artificial nest cavities which offer vertical holes at ground level.
Parasite: Dioxys productus (Cress.)? Pollen: Polylectic, stores pollen o{ Phacelia and




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Melilotus, but visits a wide variety of flowers, some of which may also serve as pollen
sources including Antirrhinuvi coulterianum, Artemisia, Aster, Astragalus bolanderi,
Brodiaea laxa, Calycadenia viultiglandulosa, Calyptridium uvibellatiou, Cea)wtlius,
Cliaenactis glabriuscula, Chamaebatia foliolosa, Cirsiuvi vnlgare, Clarkia amoena, C.
cylindrica, C. speciosa speciosa, C. unguiculata, Croton califoniicus, Cryptantha
interviedia, C. muricata, eriastrum piurifolium, Eriodictyon calif ornic ran, Eriogonum
fasciculatum, E.f. polifolium, Grindelia, Hemizonia lobbii, Horkelia bolanderi, H. b.
var. clevelandii, H. b. var. parryi, Lotus argophyllus, L. davidsonii, L. hamatus, L.
humistratus, L. nevadensis, L. nuttallianus, L. purshianus, L. scoparius, L. strigosus
var. kirtelius, Lupinus bicolor, L. nanus, Melilotus alba, Oenothera, Penstemon,
Phacelia raniosissima.

Anthidium utahense Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 23. ♂, ♀.

Anthidium sagittipictum Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 20. ♀.

Anthidiian divisum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 350. ♀.

Anthidium divisum nanulum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 350. ♀.

Anthidium divisum omatifrons Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 350. ♀.

Anthidium brachyunim Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 357. ♂.

Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1930. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 38: 10 {divisum). — Grigarick and Stange,
1968. Calif. Ins. Surv., Bui. 9: 33-35, figs. 31-33, 88, 96, map 23 (synonymy).

Biology: Jaycox, 1966. Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 18-20 (nest, parasite). — Jaycox, 1967. Kans. Ent.
Soc, Jour. 40: 569 (interspecific relationships).

Genus CALLANTHIDIUM Cockerell

Callanthidium Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 365.
Type-species: Anthidium illustre Cresson. Orig. desig.

Callanthidium formosum (Cresson)
Mont., Colo., Nev., Oreg., Calif., Ariz. (Oak Creek Canyon). Pollen:

Unknown, but visits flowers oi Astragalus, Castilleia, Clarkia cylindrica, Lotus

argophyllus, Monardella linoides, Medicago sativa, Phacelia.
Anthidium formosum Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 112. ♂.
Anthidium conspicuum Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 207. ♀.
Anthidium illustre var. consonum Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 207. ♀.
Dianthidium balli Titus, 1902. Ent. News 13: 170. ♀.
Callanthidium fonnosum pratense Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 366. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1909. Ent. News 20: 262. —Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins.

Survey, Bui. 9: 36, figs. 101-105, map 25 (geogr. and floral records).

Callanthidium illustre (Cresson)
Utah, Oreg., Calif., Nev., Ariz., N. Mex.; Mexico (Baja Cahfornia). Ecology:
Nests in dead, floral scape of Yucca whipplei and in stump of oak. Parasite: Dioxys
aurifuscus (Titus)?, Nemognatha scutellaris LeC, Sphaeropthalma unicolor (Cress.).
Pollen: Polylectic, stores pollen oi Lotxis scoparius in southern Calif., visits a wide
variety of flowers including Artemisia califomica. Astragalus douglasii, Calochortus,
Cirsium, Castilleia plagiotoma, Clarkia, Collinsia, Cordylanthus nevinii, Cryptantha
intermedia, Eriodictyon crassifolium, E. trichocalyx, E. t. var. lanatum, Helianthus,
Lathyrus odoratus, Lotus argophyllus, L. oblongifolius, L. scoparius, Lupinus albifrons,
Malacothamnus arcuatus, Medicago sativa, Penstemon, Phacelia distans, P.
grandiflora, P. heterophylla, P. imbricata, P. ramosissima, Turricula parryi.

Anthidium illustre Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 206. ♀.

Anthidium serranum Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 24. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1909. Ent. News 20: 262. 6. —Schwarz, 1940. Amer. Mus. Novitates
1058: 3. -Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 36-38, figs. 4, 106-110, map
26 (geogr. and floral records).

Biology: Johnson, 1904. Ent. News 15: 284 (nest). —Hicks, 1929. Canad. Ent. 61: 1-8 (nest,
parasite). —Parker and Bohart, 1966. Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 96 (nest).

Genus DIANTHIDIUM Cockerell

Anthidium subg. Dianthidium Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 5: 412.




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Type-species: Dianthidimn sayi Cockerell. Orig. desig. (=Anthidium curvatum
Cockerell).

Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1926. Amer. Mus. Novitates 226: 1-15 (N. Amer. spp.). — Timberlake,
1943. N. Y. Ent. See, Jour. 51: 71-109 (racial differentiation of Nearctic spp.).
—Timberlake, 1948 N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 56: 149-153 (additions and corrections).
—Timberlake, 1949. Pan-Pacific Ent. 25: 129-132 (Baja Calif, spp.). -Mitchell, 1962. N. C.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 15-18, figs. 1, 5, table 1 (eastern U. S. spp.). — Grigarick and
Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 38-58, figs. 5, 138-203, 221-224, maps 27-39 (Calif,
spp.).

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1950. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 58: 247-250 (parasites and inquilines).
—Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 39 (summary of literature).
—Clement, 1976. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 34: 9-10 (summary of literature).

Dianthidium concinnum (Cresson)
Kans., Colo., Tex., Ariz. Ecology: Nests have been reported from
underside of stone and in dead branch of Chinese elm.
Anthidiuvi concinnum Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 270. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Hungerford and Williams, 1912. Ent. News 23: 256 (nest). -Schwarz, 1928. N. Y.
Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 408-409 (nest). —Fischer, 1951. Kans. Ent. Soc. Jour. 24: 46, figs. 1, 2
(nest).

Dianthidium cressonii (Dalla Torre)
Utah, Colo., Nev., Ariz., N. Mex.

Anthidium venustu7)i Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 113. ♀. Preocc.
Anthidiuvi cressonii Dalla Torre, 1896. Cat. Hym., v. 10, p. 458. N. name.

Dianthidium curvatum
***authority mismatch
curvatum (Smith). N. C. to Fla., west to Mo. and Ark. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers oi Aster, Chrysopsis, Helenium, Koellia, Psoralen.
Anthidium curvatum Smith, 1854. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 215. ♀.

Dianthidium curvatum
***authority mismatch
sayi Cockerell. Alta., Idaho, Utah, Colo, and Kans., south to east. Calif., Ariz, and
Tex. Ecology: Nests in aggregations in the soil, uses resin from stems and leaves of
Helianthus petiolaris for nest construction. Parasite: Dasymutilla asopus bexar (Blake),
Eusapyga rubripes Cress., Monodontonierus montivagus Ashm., Rhydinofoenus
pattersonae Melander and Brues, Sphaeropthalma uro (Blake), Villa (Anthrax) sp.
Megachile interrnpta Say, 1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped., v. 2, p. 350. ♂, ♀.

Preocc.
Dianthidimn Sayi Cockerell, 1907. Canad. Ent. 39: 136. N. name.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci., Bui. 35: 1045, figs. 130-133 (larva). -Grigarick
and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Surv., Bui. 9: 41-42, figs. 171-173, 178, 197, map 27 (tax.
characters, geogr. records).

Biology: Hungerford and Williams, 1912. Ent. News 23: 256 (nest, as curvatuvi). —Hicks,
1926. Amer. Nat. 9: 199 (nest). —Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 249 (nest, parasite).
—Custer and Hicks, 1927. Biol. Bui. 52: 268 (nest) -Custer, 1928. Ent. News 39: 123
(nest). — Mickel, 1928. U. S. Natl. Mus., Bui. 143: 61 (parasite). —Fischer, 1951. Kans. Ent.
Soc, Jour. 24: 47-49 (nest).

Dianthidium curvatum
***authority mismatch
xerophilum Cockerell. N. Mex., Ariz. (Apache Pass).

Dianthidium Sayi xerophilum Cockerell, 1907. Canad. Ent. 39: 136. ♀.

Dianthidium desertorum Timberlake
South. Calif. (Colorado Desert). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Hyptis evioryi.
Dianthidium desertorum Timberlake. 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 84. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 42, figs. 168-170, 184, 196,
map 28 (tax. characters, geogr. and floral records).

Dianthidium discors Timberlake
West Tex., Ariz.

Dianthidium discors Timberlake, 1948. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 56: 149. ♀.

Dianthidium dubium
***authority mismatch
dilectum Timberlake. Calif. (Central Coast and Peninsular ranges). Ecology: Nests

made of gravel and resin have been found attached to a leaf and on exposed clay shales.
Parasite: Amobia floridensis (Twn.), Chrysis coerulans Fabr., Sapyga nevadica Cress.,
Toxophora pellucida Coq. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Achillea




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millefolium, Calockortus weedii, Chenopodium, Cirsium vulgare. Convolvulus,
Cordylanthus pilosus, Corethrogyne, Dicentra, Encelia califomica, Erigeron,
Eriodictyon trichocalyx, E. t. var. lanatum, E. parryi, Eriogonum elegans, E.
fasciculatum, Helianthus gracilentus, Hesperochiron califomicum, Lepidium
virginicum, Lotus aynericanus, L. hninistratus, L. scoparius, Monardella villosa,
Penstemon, Phacelia ramosissima, Stachys pycnantha, Stephanomeria cichoriacea,
Trichostema parishii, Turricula parryi, Verbena lasiostacliys, Viguiera multiflora.
Dianthidium dubium dilecium Timberlake, 1948. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 56: 152. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 42-43, map 2 (tax.
characters, geogr. and floral records).

Biology: Kurd and Linsley, 1950. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 58: 247, 248 (nest, parasite).

Dianthidium dubium
***authority mismatch
dubium Schwarz. South. Oreg. and north. Calif. (Coast Range, north of San Francisco;
Cascade Range; and west, slope of Sierra Nevada Mts.). Ecology: Nests are made of
resin and gravel attached to vegetation or rocks. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits
flowers of Bigelovia, Chamaebatia foliolosa, Clarkia biloba, C. cylindrica, C.
dudleyana, C. unguiculata, Collinsia tinctoria, Eriodictyon, Eriogonum latifolium
nudum, Gayophytum nuttallii, Lessingia leptoclada, Lotus americanus, L. nevadensis,
L. purshianus, Monardella lanceolata, Marrubium vulgare, Penstemon spectabilis,
Stachys ajugoides, Stephanomeria virgata, Trichostema lanceolatum, T. laxum,
Trifolium, Vicia.
Dianthidium dubium Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 405. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 42, 43-44, figs. 5, 138-140,
185, 195, map 29 (tax. characters, geogr. and floral records).

Dianthidium dubium
***authority mismatch
mccrackenae Timberlake. Calif, (east slope. Sierra Nevada Mts.). Pollen: Unknown,
but visits flowers of E nostrum densifolium.
Dianthidium consiynile ynccrackenae Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 104. ♀.

S.
Dianthidium plenum convictorum Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 108. ♀.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 44-45, map 29 (tax.
characters, geogr. and floral records).

Dianthidium floridiense Schwarz
Fla. Ecology: Nests in borings. Pollen: Unknown but visits flowers of
Bidens, Sabal.
Dianthidium floridiense Schwarz, 1926. Amer. Mus. Novitates 226: 5. ♂, ♀.
Dianthidium floridenseC.) Michener, 1951. In Muesebeck, Krombein and Townes, U. S.
Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 1143.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 16-17 (redescription).

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 272-273 (nest architecture, life
history).

Dianthidium heterulkei
***authority mismatch
fraternum Timberlake. Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., Nev. Parasite: Anthrax irroratus Say.
Dianthidium fraternum fratemum Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 92. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 273-274 (nest architecture, life

history, parasite).

Dianthidium heterulkei
***authority mismatch
heterulkei Schwarz. Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.), Oreg., Nev., Utah, Wyo. Ecology:
Constructs nests in natural depressions within volcanic outcroppings and possibly uses
lodgepole pine as source of resin. Parasite: Monodontomerus dementi Grissell. Pollen:
Polylectic, is known to collect pollen from flowers of Eriophyllum integrifolium,
Trifolium longipes, but also visits flowers of Aster, Chaenactis glabriuscula lanosa,
Chrysothamnus, Haplopappus suffruticosa, Solidago.

Dianthidium heterulkei Schwarz, 1940. Amer. Mus. Novitates 1058: 6. ♂, ♀.

Dianthidium heterulkei var. cornucopiana Schwarz, 1940. Amer. Mus. Novitates 1058: 8. ♂.

Dianthidium fratemum hirtulum Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 94. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 45-46, figs. 159-161, 181,
194, map 30 (geogr. and floral records). —Clement, 1976. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 34: 16-18,
fig. 2 (larva).




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Biology: Clement, 1976. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 34: 9-22, 2 figs, (nest site, nest architecture, life
history, mating, floral relationships, parasite).

Dianthidium implicatum Timberlake
Tex. to south. Calif, and Nev.; Mexico (Chihuahua). Ecology: A pebble
and resin nest attached to a twig of Dalea. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Cevallia, Gutierrezia microcephala.
Dianthidium implicatum Timberlake, 1948. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 56: 150. ♀.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1964. Pan-Pacific Ent. 40: 152. (male). — Grigarick and
Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 46, figs. 150-152, 174, 190, map 31 (geogr. and floral
record).

Dianthidium marshi Grigarick and Stange
Calif., Ariz. (Santa Catalina Mts.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Bebbia, Eriastrum densifoliuui.
Dianthidium marshi Grigarick and Stange, 1964. Pan-Pacific Ent. 40: 149, figs. 1, 2, 3, 10,
11. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 46-47, figs. 147-149,
186-187, 201, map 32 (geogr. and floral records).

Dianthidium parkeri Grigarick and Stange
Ariz., Tex.; Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa, Durango). Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers of Verbesina encelioides.
Dianthidium parkeri Grigarick and Stange, 1964. Pan-Pacific Ent. 40: 150, figs. 4, 5, 6, 12.
S, 9.

Dianthidium parvum
***authority mismatch
parvum (Cresson). N. Mex., west to Colo., Utah, Nev. and Calif.; Mexico. Pollen:

Unknown, but visits flowers of Chrysothavinus, Grindelia serrulata, Hyptis emoryi,
Palafoxia linearis, Senecio douglasii.
Anthidium parvum Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 114. ♀, ♂.
Dianthidium profugum Cockerell, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 90. ♀.
Dianthidium parvuyn heteropoda Schwarz, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 743: 4. ♀.
Dianthidium parvum basingeri Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 97. ♂.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 47-48, figs. 153-155, 183,
188, 190, map 33 (synonymy, geogr. and floral records).

Dianthidium parvum
***authority mismatch
schwarzi Timberlake. South. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Asclepias
erosa, Chrysothamnus nauseosus mohavensis, Corethrogyne bemardina, Croton
califomicus, Encelia califomica, Erigeron foliosus var. stenophyllus, Eriogonum
fasciculatum polifolium, E. gracile, Grindelia, Gutierrezia califomica, G. microcephala,
G. sarothrae, Heterotheca grandiflora, Lepidospartum squamatum, Lotus scoparius,
Senecio douglasii, Stephanomeria exigua.
Dianthidium parvum schwarzi Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 96. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 48, map 33 (geogr. and
floral records).

Dianthidium platyurum
***authority mismatch
mohavense Timberlake. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Erigeron,
Eriogonum fasciculatum.
Dianthidium platyurum mohavense Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 87. ♀.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 49, map 34 (geogr. and

floral records).

Dianthidium platyurum
***authority mismatch
platyurum Cockerell. Tex., Ariz., west. Nev., Calif.; Mexico (Baja California).
Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Bebbia juncea, Encelia califomica, Erigeron
foliosus var. stenophyllus, Eriastrum densifolium, E. plurifolium, E. virgatum,
Eriogonum, Gutierrezia califomica, G. sarothrae, Heterotheca grandiflora, Lotus
scoparius, Malacothrix, Phacelia ramosissima, Senecio douglasii, Stephanomeria
exigua, S. virgata.

Dianthidium platyurum Cockerell, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 90. ♂, ♀.

Dianthidium pamum baculifrons Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 365. ♀.

Dianthidium ulkei riparii Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 400. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 49-50, figs. 165-167, 180,
200, map 34 (geogr. and floral records).




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Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 274-275 (nest architecture, life
history).

Dianthidium plenum Timberlake
Oreg., Calif, and west. Nev. Ecology: A resin and gravel nest attached in
crotch of apple tree. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Chaenactis glabriuscula
lanosa, Monardella lanceolata, Phacelia.
Dianthidium plenum plemmi Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 106. ♂, ♀.
Dianthidium plenum williamsi Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 107. ♂.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 50-51, figs. 144-146, 175,

193, 225, map 35 (synonymy, geogr. and floral records).

Dianthidium pudicum
***authority mismatch
consimile (Ashmead). Ariz., Calif.; Mexico (Baja California). Ecology: Constructs
nest of resin and large grains of sand or gravel, either in the crotches of terminal
branches of shrubs or in depressions or angles of stones or boulders lying on the
ground. Parasite: Eusapyga verticalis Cress., Leucospis affinis Say, Microdontomerus
anthidii (Ashm.), Monodontomerus montivagus Ashm., Sapyga minor Roberts. Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers of Cirsiuin vulgare, Corethrogyne, Cryptantha intermedia,
Encelia californica, Eriastruyn densifolium, E. plurifolinm, Eriodictyon crassifolium,
E. trichocalyx var. Ianatu7n, Eriogonum fasciculatH})i, E. inflatum, E. latifolium
nudum, Grindelia camporum, G. robusta, G. stricta procumbens, Gutierrezia
californica, G. microcephala, G. sarothrae, Haplopappus, Krameria grayi, Lonicera
hispidula var. vacillans, Lotus glaber, L. scoparius, Melilotus indica, Monardella
villosa, Phacelia distans, P. ramosissima, Salvia, Stacliys pycnantlia, Stephanomeria
cichoriacea, S. exigua, Trichostema lanceolatum. Predator: Trichodes ornatus ornatus
Say, T. 0. tenellus LeC.

Anthidium consimile Ashmead, 1896. Ent. News 7: 25 "9" = i.

Dianthidium provancheri Titus, 1906. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 7: 164. ♂.

Dianthidium plenum australe Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 108. ♀.

Dianthidium macswaini Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 109. ♀.

Dianthidium pudicum peninsulare Timberlake, 1949. Pan-Pacific Ent. 25: 130. ♂.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 51-52, map 36 (synonymy,
geogr. and floral records).

Biology: Davidson, 1896. Ent. News 7: 22 (nest, parasites). —Hicks, 1934. Colo. Univ. Studies
21: 265 (nest, parasites). — Linsley and MacSwain, 1942. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 589
(parasite). — Hurd and Linsley, 1950. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 58: 248, 249 (parasites). —Grigarick
and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 52 (summary of literature).

Dianthidium pudicum
***authority mismatch
pudicum (Cresson). B. C. and Alta., south to Ariz, and Calif. Ecology: Constructs
nest of resin and gravel either in crotches of small trees or shrubs or on underside of
rocks. Parasite: Eusapyga proximo (Cress.), E. rubripes (Cress.), Monodontomerus
montivagus Ashm., Sapyga sp., Zonitis sp. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Aster,
Chae7iactis glabriuscula lanosa, Chrysothainnus, Cirsium vulgare, Cleome lutea,
Eriasti'um densifoliu7n, Gormania obtusata, Medicago sativa, Oenothera clavaeformis
cmciformis, Streptayithus tortuosus, Symphoricarpos.
Anthidium pudicum Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 208. ♂.
Anthidium pudeiis Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 208. ♀.
Diajithidium pudicum decorum Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 100. ♀, ♂.
Dianthidium pudicum inyoense Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 101. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Surv., Bui. 9: 53-54, figs. 141-143, 176, 191,
map 36 (synonymy, geogr. and floral records).

Biology: Hicks, 1927. Psyche 34: 193. (nest, parasites). —Hicks, 1931. Canad. Ent. 63: 173
(nest). —Hicks, 1934. Colo. Univ. Studies 21: 268 (nest, parasites). —Roberts, 1933. Kans.
Ent. Soc, Jour. 61: 91 (parasite). —Hurd and Linsley, 1950. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 58: 248
(parasites, as pudicum decorum). —Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9:
53 (summary of literature). —Clement and Rust, 1974. Pan-Pacific Ent. 50: 87-89, 1 fig.
(nest).

Dianthidium simile (Cresson)
Minn, to Ont. and Maine, south to Ga. Ecology: Reared from partly rotted
log. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Aster, Clethra.
Anthidium simile Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc 2: 378. ♀, ♂.




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Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 17-18, fig. 5 (redescript.).

Biology: Fischer, 1951. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 24: 46-47 (nest).

Dianthidium singulare (Cresson)
Calif., Nev. Ecology: Constructs nest of resin and pebbles on side or face
of rocks. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Chaenactis glabriuscnla lanosa,
Chrysanthe┬╗ium, Chrysotliamnus, Cirsimn califomicum, Erysimum asperum, Lupinus
parishii, Perideridia, Solidago califomica, Viguiera multiradiata.

Anthidium singulare Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 207. ♀.

Dianthidiuvi singulare var. perluteum Cockerell and Cockerell, 1904. In Cockerell, South.
Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 23. ♀.

Dianthidium singulare melanognathum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 363.
9.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci. Proc. (4) 14: 363. S, 9 (singulare perluteum).
— Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 54, figs. 135-137, 177, 202-203, map
37 (synonymy, geogr. and floral records).

Biology: Michener, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 23-24 (nest). — Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent.

Soc, Jour. 51: 75 (nest). —Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 54

(summary of literature).
subparvutn Swenk. B. C, Idaho and Mont, south to Calif., Nev., Utah and Wyo. Pollen:

Possibly oligolege of Compositae, visits flowers of Aster alpigenus, A. andersonii, A.
canescens, A.foliaceus, Chaenactis glabriuscula, Chaetopappa aurea, Chenopodium,
Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Clematis pauciflora, Corethrogyne bemardina, Erigeron
divergens, Erigeron foliosus, E.f. var. stenophyllus, Eriogonum fasciculatum,
Grindelia, Gutierrezia califomica, G. sarothrae, Haplopappns suffruticosus, Linum,
Lotus strigosus var. hirtellus, Machaeranthera tephrodes, Phacelia, Ranunculus,
Senecio douglasii, Solidago.

Dianthidium subparvum Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 30. ♀, ♂.

Dianthidium semiparvum Schwarz, 1926. Amer. Mus. Novitates 226: 12. ♂.

Dianthidium semiparvum gallatinae Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 277: 6. ♂, ♀.

Dianthidium parvum var. swenki Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 402. 6 (9
misdet.).

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 54-56, figs. 156-158, 182,

189, 192, map 38 (synonymy, geogr. and floral records).

Dianthidium subrufulum Timberlake
Mo., Ark., Tex.

Dianthidium subrufulum Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 78. ♂, ♀.

Dianthidium ulkei
***authority mismatch
cooleyi Schwarz. Mont.

Dianthidium ulkei cooleyi Schwarz, 1927. Amer. Mus. Novitates 277: 7. ♀.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 58 (taxonomic status).

Dianthidium ulkei
***authority mismatch
perterritum Cockerell. Nebr., N. Mex., Ariz. Ecology: Nests in borings, constructs nest
using resin and pebbles. Parasite: Neynognatha nigripennis LeC.
Dianthidium ulkei perterritum Cockerell, 1913. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 11: 191. ♀.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 275-276, pi. 17, fig. 81 (nest
architecture, supersedure, life history, parasite).

Dianthidium ulkei
***authority mismatch
ulkei (Cresson). B. C, Idaho, Mont, and S. Dak. south to Calif., Nev., Utah, N. Mex. and
Nebr. Ecology: Nests in abandoned nests of other aculeates, cavities or short tunnels in
the ground, and trap nests. Parasite: Eusapyga verticalis (Cress.). Pollen: Possibly an
oligolege of Compositae, but visits a wide variety of flowers including Achillea
millefolium, Aster adscendens, A. canescens, Calycadenia multiglandulosa, Centaurea,
Chaetopappa aurea, Chrysopsis fastigiata, C. villosa, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, C.
viscidiflorus, C. v. typicus, Cleomella serrulata, Cordylanthus filifolius, Encelia
califomica, Eriastrum densifolium, Erigeron divergens, E. foliosus var. stenophyllus,
Eriodictyon, Eriogonum fasciculatum, E. subscaposum, E. vimineum, Gilia capitata,
Grindelia camporum, G. serrulata, Haplopappns arborescens, H. bloomeri, Helenium
bigelovii, Helianthus petiolaris, Heterotheca grandiflora, Lessingia leptoclada, Lotus
davidsonii, L. scoparius, Machaeranthera tephrodes, Medicago sativa, Melilotus alba,




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Monardella laceolata, Ranimculus, Senecio douglasii, S. ionophyllus, Solidago
califoniica, Stephanonieria califomica, S. cichoracea, S. virgata, Vicia cracca, Viguiera
mitltiflora.

Anthidiion iilkei Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 115. ♀.

Antliidiit7n davidsoni Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 5. ♂.

Dianthidium nlkei redudum Timberlake, 1943. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 51: 82. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 56-58, figs., 162-164, 179,
198, map 39 (synonymy, geogr. and floral records).

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 250 (nest). —Hicks, 1933. Ent. News 44: 75
(nest). —Parker and Bohart, 1966. Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 96. —Grigarick and Stange, 1968.
Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 58 (summary of literature).

Genus ANTHIDIELLUM Cockerell

Anthidium subg. Anthidiellmn Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 3.

Type-species: Anthidiuin strigatinn Panzer. Orig. desig.
Antliidiutn subg. Ceri-mitliidiiiDi Friese, 1923. Die Europ. Bienen, p. 304.

Type-species: Anthidiitm strigatitm Panzer. Desig. by Cockerell, 1925.
Cerianthidium Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 361. Emend.

Revision: Schwarz, 1926. Amer. Mus. Novitates 226: 15-19 (N. Amer. spp.)

Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 369-418, 23 figs, (status of spp. and

subspp.). —Schwarz, 1957. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 30: 137 (key to spp. of notatum complex).

— Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 18-23, figs. 1, 6-7, table 1 (eastern U.

S. spp.). -Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 58-62, figs. 204-211, maps

40-41 (Calif, spp.).

Anthidiellum ehrhorni (Cockerell)
Ariz., Nev., Calif.; Mexico (Baja California). Ecology: Constructs a single
celled nest of resin attached to twigs or flat pieces of wood. Pollen: Apparently
polylectic, visits flowers of Asclepias, Baileya, Chaenactis fremontii, Dalea schottii,
Encelia, Eriogonioii i)iflatHm, Geraea canescens, Larrea tridentata, Lotus scoparius,
Phacelia distans, P. rantosissima, Pluchea sericea, Prosopis, Stephanonieria virgata,
Trixis califoniica.

Anfhidiiini {DianthidiiDn) ehrhoiiii Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 5: 414. ♂.

Taxonomy: Schwarz, 1929 (1928). N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 392. 9. — Michener, 1953. Kans.
Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1045, figs. 119, 123, 124, 127 (larva). —Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif.
Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 59-60, figs. 208-211, map 40 (geogr. and floral records).

Biology: Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 397 (nest). —Grigarick and Stange, 1968.
CaHf. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 60, fig. 227 (nest). — Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib.
Zool. 193: 35-36 (floral relationships).

Anthidiellum notatum
***authority mismatch
boreale (Robertson). 111., Nebr. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Verbena
stricta.
Dianthidium boreale Robertson, 1902. Canad. Ent. 34: 323. ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 20-21 (redescription).

Anthidiellum notatum
***authority mismatch
gilense (Cockerell). Colo., Ariz., N. Mex., Tex.

Anfludiitm gilense Cockerell, 1897. Canad. Ent. 29: 222. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 5: 413. ♂.

Anthidiellum notatum
***authority mismatch
notatum (Latreille). Mass. to 111., south to Fla. and Miss. Pollen: Apparently
polylectic, visits flowers oi Afzelia, Baptisia, Clirysopsis, Desniodiitrn, Erigeron,
Eiipatoyiiini, Golactia, Helianfhus, Melilotns, Monarda, Pliaseolus, Psoralen, Solidago,
Trifoliiim.
Anthidium notatum Latreille, 1809. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ann. 13: 48, 231. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 376. 9,6. —Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 19-20, fig. 6 (redescript., floral records).




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Anthidiellum notatum
***authority mismatch
robertsoni (Cockerell). B. C, Idaho, Colo., Utah, Oreg., Calif., Nev., Ariz.; Mexico

(Baja California). Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Agastaclie,
Amovpha californica, Aster adscendens, Astragahis, Chrysothamnus, Clarkia biloba, C.
elegans, C. rlioniboidea, Cordi/lanthus pilosus, C. rigidus, Clematis ixiuciflora,
Cryptantha intermedia, Dalea, Eriodiciyon, Eriogonnm jfasciciilatnui, E. latifoliittn
nudum, Grindelia, Gutierrezia californica, Heliotropium curassavicum, Hemizonia
fasciculata, Lippia, Lonicera hispidula var. vacillans, Lotus americanus, L.
argophyllus, L. nevadensis, L. ohlongifolius, L. purshianus, L. scoparius, Marrubium
uulgare, Melilotus alba, Monardella lanceolata, Penstemon, Phacelia distans, P.
ramosissima, Salvia, Solidago californica, Stellaria longipes, Stephanomeria exigua,
Ti'ichostona lanceolatum, Wislizenia refracta.

Dianthidium robertsoni Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 4. ♀, ♂.

Anthidiellum robertsoni race citrinellum Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14-
362. ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1046, figs. 121, 122, 128 (larva).

— Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 9: 60-62, figs. 204-207, 228, map. 41
(geogr. and floral records).

Biology: Leech, 1947. Ent. Soc. Brit. Col., Proc. 44: 39, 2 figs. (nest). — Linsley, 1962. Ent.
Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 159-160, figs. 6-7 (sleep). —Grigarick and Stange, 1968. Calif. Ins.
Survey, Bui. 9: 62, fig. 228 (nest, summary of literature).

Anthidiellum notatum
***authority mismatch
rufimaculatum Schwarz. Fla. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers oi Rhus.

Anthidiellum notatum var. rufimaculatum Schwarz, 1926. Amer. Mus. Novitates 226: 15.
S, 9.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 21 (redescription).
Biology: Schwarz, 1928. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 36: 395, pi. 12, figs. lA, IB (nest).

Anthidiellum perplexum (Smith)
N. C. to Fla. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Afzelia, Amorpha,
Bidens, Chrysopsis, Desmodiunt, Erigeron, Hypericum, Ilex, Kuhnistera, Linaria,
Monarda, Ocimum, Polygonum, Psoralea, Ptilimnium, Rhus, Solidago.
Anthidium perplexum Smith, 1854. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 214. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 377. ♀, ♂.

Genus HETEROSTELIS Timberlake

Stelis subg. Heterostelis Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 125.
Type-species: Stelis anfhidioides Timberlake. Orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 33-35, fig. 11, table 2 (eastern
U. S. spp.). -Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 131-146, 16 figs. (N. Amer. spp.).
— Pasteels, 1968. Nat. Canad. 95: 1057 (tax. status).

Heterostelis anthidioides (Timberlake)
Calif.

Stelis {Heterostelis) anthidioides Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 123. ♀.

Taxonomy: Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 134, 141-142, fig. 8 (tax. characters, geogr.
records).

Heterostelis australis
***authority mismatch
australis (Cresson). N. J. to Fla.

Stelis australis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 92. ♀.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 33. 9 (redescription).
—Thorp, 1966 Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 136, figs. (tax. characters of male and female,
geogr. and floral records).

Heterostelis australis
***authority mismatch
floridensis Mitchell. Fla.

Heterostelis australis floridensis Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 33,
fig. 11. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 136-137 (tax. characters).

Heterostelis grossa Mitchell
Fla. (Gainesville), Ala. (Ft. Morgan).

Heterostelis grossa Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 35. ♀.




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Taxonomy: Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 134, 137-138, fig. 5 (tax. characters, geogr.
record).

Heterostelis hurdi Thorp
Calif. Host: Trachusa perdita Ckll.

Hetewsteiis hurdi Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 142, figs. 3, 9, 11, 13-16. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 143-144, figs. 14-16 (cocoon, larva, pupa).

Biology: Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 132, 145 (nest, parasite).

Heterostelis manni (Crawford)
Ariz. Host: Trachusa manni Cwfd.?

Stelis manni Crawford, 1917. Ent. Soc Wash., Proc 19: 168. ♀.

Taxonomy: Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 134, 140-141, fig. 7 (tax. characters).

Heterostelis texana Thorp
Tex. (Austin).

Heterostelis texana Thorp, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 135, figs 2, 6, 12. ♂.

Genus STELIS Panzer

Insofar as known the species of this genus are cleptoparasites, chiefly in the nests of pol-
len-collecting bees of the tribe Megachilini (Ashnieadiella, Chalicodoma, Heriades, Hoplitis,
Osmia, Proteriades and Robertsonella). However, one of our species has been reared from a
nest of the genus Anthidium and some extralimital species o{ Stelis have been shown to be clep-
toparasites in the nests oi Ceratina and Euglossa.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1898. Entomologist 31: 166-167 (U. S. spp.). —Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 35-47 figs. 12-14, table 2 (eastern U. S. spp.). — Rozen, 1966. N.
Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 74: 84-91, 18 figs, (immature stages). — Pasteels, 1968. Nat. Canad. 95:
1055-1063 (tax. status, affinities and origin).

Genus STELIS Subgenus STELIS Panzer

Stelis Panzer, 1806. Krit. Rev. Insektenf. Deutschlands, v. 2, p. 246.

Type-species: Apis punctulatissi^iia Kirby. Monotypic {=Apis aterrivia Panzer).
Gyrodroma Klug, 1807. Mag. Insektenk. 6: 198.

Type-species: Apis punctulatissima Kirby. Monotypic. (=Apis aterrivia Panzer).
Gymnus Spinola, 1808. Insectorum Liguriae, v. 2, p. 9.

Type-species: Apis punctulatissima Kirby. Monotypic (=Apis aterrima Panzer).
Ceraplastes Gistel, 1848. Naturgesch. Thierr. f. hoh. Schul., p. x. Proposed unnecessarily to
replace Stelis.

This subgenus does not occur in North America.

Genus STELIS Subgenus PROTOSTELIS Friese

Stelis subg. Protostelis Friese, 1895. Die Bienen Europas v. 1, p. 25.
Type-species: Stelis freygessneri Friese. Desig. by Popov, 1938.

Stelis arizonensis Swenk
Ariz.

Stelis (Microstelis) arizonensis Swenk, 1915. Nebr. Univ., Studies 15: 189. ♀, ♂.

Stelis costalis
***authority mismatch
costalis Cresson. Va. and Ky., south to Fla. and Tex.

Stelis costalis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 274. ♀, ♂.
Stelis louisae Cockerell, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 40: 247. ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 37-38, figs 12-13
(redescription).

Stelis costalis
***authority mismatch
floridana Graenicher. Fla. Host: A resin-using anthidiine bee or a species of
Chalicodoma subg. Chelostomoides.
Stelis floridana Graenicher, 1928. Ent. News 39: 282. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 38-39 (redescription).

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 481-482 (cocoon, host).

Stelis laticincta Cresson
Calif.

Stelis laticincta Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 92. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 3. ♂.




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Stelis perpulchra Crawford
Ariz., Calif., Mexico (Baja California).

Stelis perpulchra Crawford, 1916. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 4: 107. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 89. ♀, ♂.

Stelis rudbeckiarum Cockerell
N. Mex., Ariz.

Stelis rudbeckiarum Cockerell, 1904. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 3: 3. ♂.
Stelis rudbeckianaV.) Snow, 1906. Kans. Acad. Sci., Trans. 20: 138.

Genus STELIS Subgenus MICROSTELIS Robertson

Microstelis Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 170.
Type-species: Stelis lateralis Cresson. Orig. desig.

Stelis coarctatus Crawford
Kans., Nev. (Elko County). Host: Proteriades shoshone Parker.
Stelis coarctatus Crawford, 1916. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 4: 105. ♀.

Biology: Parker, 1976. Pan-Pacific Ent. 52: 78 (host).

Stelis crassiceps Cockerell
Colo. Host: Hoplitis producta (Cress.).

Stelis crassiceps Cockerell, 1926. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 18: 625. ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 246 (host).

Stelis lateralis Cresson
Maine and Ont. to N. Dak., south to Ga. and Tex. Host: Hoplitis cylindrica
(Cress.), H. pilosifrons (Cress.), H. producta (Cress.). Predator: Philanthus pulcher
Dalla Torre.
Stelis lateralis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 410. ♀.

Taxonomy: Robertson, 1898. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 8: 48. 6, 9. — Michener, 1953, Kans.
Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1048, figs. 114-116, 118 (larva). -Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Tech. Bui. 152: 42-43, fig. 14 (redescription). -Rozen, 1966. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 74: 86-89,
figs. 9-10 (larva).

Biology: Graenicher, 1905. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 3: 153 (as sexmaculatus). — Swenk,
1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies, 14: 5 (host). -Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 217 (life
history, host). -Rau, 1928. Psyche 35: 100 (life history, host). —Michener, 1955. Kans. Ent.
Soc, Jour. 28: 83-86 (life history, host).
maculata (Provancher). B. C.

Heriades maculatum Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada, Hym., p. 323. ♀.

Taxonomy: Titus, 1906. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 7: 162 (tax. characters).

Stelis plena (Provancher)
Ont. (Ottawa).

Heriades plenum Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada, Hym., p. 425. ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 43 (status).

Stelis sexmaculata Ashmead
Calif., Nev., ?Mo., ?Colo. Host: Hoplitis brachyodonta (Ckll.), H. colei
(Cwfd.), H. grinnelli Ckll., H. hypocrita (Ckll.), H. producta gracilis (Mich.), H. producta
producta (Cress.), Ostuia glauca (Fowler). Parasite: Epistenia sp., Leucospis affinis Say,
Microdontomerus anthidii (Ashm.).
Stelis 6-maculata Ashmead, 1896. Ent. News 7: 218. ♀.
Stelis sexniaculata Cockerell, 1898. Entomologist 31: 167. Emend.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 732: 6. 6. —Rust and Clement, 1972.
Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 45: 526 (cocoon, host).

Biology: Davidson, 1896. Ent. News 7: 218 (host). —Davidson, 1897 South. Calif. Acad. Sci.,
Proc. 1: 4 (life history, hosts). —Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 217 (life history,
hosts). —Rau, 1928. Psyche 35: 100 (Colo, and Mo. records may refer to lateralis).
—Parker and Bohart, 1966. Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 98 (parasites).

Stelis vernalis Mitchell
Pa., N. C, Mich., Minn. Host: Heriades cariuata Cress.

Stelis (Microstelis) venialis Mitchell, 1962. N C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 43. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Matthews, 1965. Amer. Ent. Inst., Contrib. 1: 24-25 (behavior, host).

Genus STELIS Subgenus PAVOSTELIS Sladen

Stelis subg. Pavostelis Sladen. 1916. Canad. Ent. 48: 313.




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Type-species: Stelis montana Cresson. Monotypic.

Stelis anthracina Timberlake
Calif.

Stelis (Pavostelis) anthracina Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 125. ♂.

Stelis ater Mitchell
Fla.

Stelis (Pavostelis) ater Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 39. ♀.

Stelis callura Cockerell
Colo., Utah.

Stelis callura Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 212. ♂.

Stelis carnifex Cockerell
Nev., Calif.

Stelis carnifex Cockerell, 1911. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 8: 769. ♀.

Stelis diversicolor Crawford
Tex. to Tenn. and N. C.

Stelis diversicolor Crawford, 1916. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 4: 106. ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 39-40, fig. 14 (redescription).

Stelis fremonti Cockerell
Oreg.

Stelis fremonti Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 213. ♀.

Stelis montana Cresson
Alta., B. C, Wyo., Oreg., Colo., Utah, Ariz., Calif. Host: Osmia montana
Cress., 0. texana Cress.
Stelis montana Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 39. ♀.

Biology: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 80 (host).

Stelis seneciophila Cockerell
Colo.

Stelis seneciophila Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 2: 329. ♀.

Genus STELIS Subgenus CHELYNIA Provancher

Chelynia Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada, Hym., p. 322.
Type-species: Chelynia labiata Provancher. Monotypic.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1898. Entomologist 31: 166-167. -Cockerell, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 275
(Key to U. S. spp.). -Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 36 (tax. status).

Stelis calliphorina (Cockerell)
Calif.

Chelynia calliphorina Cockerell, 1911. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 8: 769. ♀.

Stelis chlorocyanea (Cockerell)
Calif. Host: Osmia nigrifrons Ckll. Parasite: Dibrachys sp.

Chelynia chlorocyanea Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 208. ♀.

Taxonomy: Rust and Thorp, 1973. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 46: 548-562, 26 figs. 2 tables
(immature stages).

Biology: Rust and Thorp, 1973. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 46: 548-562 (life history, hosts). —Rust,
Thorp and Torchio, 1974. Nat. Hist., Jour. 8: 44 (host).

Stelis cusackae (Cockerell)
Colo.

Chelynia cusackae Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 270. ♀.

Stelis depressa Timberlake
Calif.

Stelis (Chelynia) depressa Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 127. ♀, ♂.

Stelis elegans Cresson
B. C, Colo., Ariz.

Stelis elegans Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 2: 411. ♂ (♀ misdet.).
foederalis Smith. N. B. to Minn., south Ga. and Colo. Host: Hoplitis cylindrica (Cress.), Osm.ia
atriventris Cress.
Stelis foederalis Smith, 1854. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 275. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 45, figs. 12-13 (redescription).

Stelis fragariella (Cockerell)
Calif.

Chelynia fragariella Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 209. ♂.

Stelis franciscana (Cockerell)
Calif.

Chelynia franciscana Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 207. ♀.

Stelis holocyanea (Cockerell)
Calif.

Chelynia holocyanea Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 209. ♀.

Stelis idahoensis Swenk
Idaho.

Stelis (Chelynia) idahoensis Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ., Studies 14: 6. ♀.




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Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 275 (tax. characters).

interrupta Cresson. Nev.

Stelis interrupta Cresson, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 205. ♀.

Stelis labiata (Provancher)
Que. to Wis., south to N. C. and Tex.? Host: Hopliti.s anthocopoides
(Schenck), H. cylindrica (Cress.), H. pilosifrons (Cress.), H. producta (Cress.), H.
simplex (Cress.).
Chelynia labiata Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada, Hym., p. 322. ♀, ♂.
^Stelis (Microstelis) birknianni Cockerell, 1909. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 4: 29. ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 40-42, fig. 13 (redescription,
synonymy).

Biology: Eickwort, 1973. Search, Cornell Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta. 3: 27 (host relationships).

Stelis leucotricha (Cockerell)
Calif. Host: Anthidium nionnonion Cress.

Chelynia leucotricha Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 208. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1929. Ent. News 40: 108. (host).

Stelis linsleyi Timberlake
Calif.

Stelis (Chelynia) linsleyi Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 129. ♀.

meianotricha (Cockerell). Colo.

Chelynia meianotricha Cockerell, 1925. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 16: 626. ♀.

Stelis michiganensis Mitchell
Mich. (Luce Co.).

Stelis michiganensis Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 45. ♀.

Stelis monticola Cresson
B. C, Idaho, Wyo., Colo. Host: Hoplitis fulgida Cress.

Stelis^ monticola Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 94. ♀.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 243 (host).

Stelis nitida Cresson
Canada, N. Y., Wis., N. C.

Stelis/ nitida Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 92. ♀.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 46-47 (redescription).

Stelis nitidula (Cockerell)
Calif.

Chelynia nitidula Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 210. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 274 (tax. characters).

Stelis pavonina (Cockerell)
Wyo., Colo.

Chelynia pavonina Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 339. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1922. Amer. Mus. Novitates 40: 7. ♂, ♀.

Stelis pulchra Crawford
Nebr., Colo.

Stelis pulchra Crawford, 1902. Canad. Ent. 34: 239. ♀.

Stelis semirubra
***authority mismatch
reducta Snelling. Calif. (Tuolumne and Mariposa counties).

Stelis {Chelynia) semirubra reducta Snelling, 1962. Pan-Pacific Ent. 38: 227. ♀, ♂.

Stelis semirubra
***authority mismatch
semirubra Timberlake. Calif.

Stelis (Chelynia) semirubra Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 127. ♀.

Stelis subcaerulea Cresson
Wyo., Nev., Calif.

Stelis/ subcaerulea Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 93. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1911. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 8: 768. ♂, ♀.

Stelis subemarginata Cresson
N. B., Ont., Man., Wis., N. Dak., Wyo., Idaho, Colo. Host: Hoplitis
albifrons (Kirby), H. cylindrica (Cress.), Osmia proximo Cress., 0. si>nillima Sm.
Stelis/ subemarginata Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 93. ♀.

Taxonomy: Swenk, 1915. Nebr. Univ., Studies 15: 191. 6. -Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt.

Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 47 (redescjiption).
Biology: Graenicher, 1935. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 28: 300 (host). — Fye, 1965. Canad. Ent. 97:

865 (hosts).

Stelis subglauca (Cockerell)
Wash.

Chelynia subglauca Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci.,. Proc (4) 14: 210. ♂.




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Genus STELIS Subgenus MELANOSTELIS Ashmead

Melanostelis Ashmead, 1898. Psyche 8: 283.

Type-species: Chelynia riibi Cockerell. Monotypic and orig. desig. (,=Melanosfelis
betheli Ashmead).

Stelis ricardonis (Cockerell)
B. C.

Chelynia ricardonis Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 293. ♀.

Stelis rubi Cockerell
B. C, Alta., Wash., Calif., Colo.

Stelis rubi Cockerell, 1898. Entomologist 31: 167. ♀.
Melanostelis betheli Ashmead, 1898. Psyche 8: 283. ♀.

Taxonomy: Swenk, 1914. Nebr. Univ. Studies 14: 8. ♀, ♂.

Genus STELIS Subgenus STELIDIUM Robertson

Stelicliuvi Robertson, 1902. Canad. Ent. 24: 323.

Type-species: Stelicliuvi trypetinuni Robertson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Stelis ashmeadiellae Timberlake
Calif. Host: Ashnieadiella califoniica (Ashm.).

Stelis (Stelidiuvt) ashmeadiellae Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 133. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 134 (host).

Stelis nyssonoides (Brues)
Tex.

Melanostelis nyssonoides Brues, 1903. Ent. News 14: 84. ♀.

Stelis palmarum Timberlake
Calif.

Stelis (Stelidinvi) palmarum Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 134. ♀.

Stelis permaculata Cockerell
Colo., N. Mex. Host: Heriades carinata Cress.?

Stelis lateralis var. pennaculata Cockerell, 1898. Entomologist 31: 167. ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1927. Ent. News 38: 297 (host).

Stelis robertsoni Timberlake
Calif.

Stelis (Stelidium) robertsoni Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 136. ♀, ♂.

trypetina (Robertson). 111., Ont., Va.

Stelidiuin trypetinuni Robertson, 1902. Canad. Ent. 34: 323. ♀.
Stelis (Stelidium) ontariana Sladen, 1916. Canad. Ent. 48: 312. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1922. Canad. Ent. 54: 143 (tax. characters). —Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 44-45 (redescription).

Genus STELIS Subgenus STELIDINA Timberlake

Stelis subg. Stelidina Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 125.

Type-species: Stelis hemirhoda Linsley. Orig. desig.
Stelidella{\) Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 133.

Revision: Linsley, 1939. Ent. News 50: 255.

Stelis acutiventris Linsley
Calif.

Stelis (Stelidium) acutiventris Linsley, 1939. Ent. News 50: 252. ♀.

Stelis cockerelli (Hicks)
Calif.

Herbstiella cockerelli Hicks, 1933. Amer. Mus. Novitates 616: 1. ♀.

Stelis hemirhoda Linsley
Calif.

Stelis (Stelidium) hemirhoda Linsley, 1939. Ent. News 50: 250. ♀, ♂.

Stelis micheneri Linsley
Calif.

Stelis (Stelidium) micheneri Linsley, 1939. Ent. News 50: 253. ♀, ♂.

Stelis nigriventris Timberlake
Calif.

Stelis (Stelidina) nigriventris Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 132. ♀.

Stelis trichopyga Timberlake
Calif.

Stelis (Stelidina) trichopyga Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 130. ♀.




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Unplaced Taxon of Stelis

The following species can neither be recognized as to subgenus nor associated with any of the
described species of Stelis in North America, but is a member of the genus Stelis.

Andrena yiignta Fabricius, 1775. Systema Ent., p. 377. "Habitat in America."

NoMEN Nudum in Stelis Panzer

Stelis foxi Smith, 1910 (1909). N. J. State Mus., Ann. Rpt., p. 695.

Genus DIOXYS Lepeletier and Serville

Dioxys Lepeletier and Serville, 1825. Encycl. Meth., Diet. Ins., v. 10, p. 109.

Type-species: Tmchnsa cincta Jurine. Monotypic.
Paradioxys Mocsary, 1894. Termes. Fuzetek, v. 17, p. 35.

Type-species: Dioxys pannonica Mocsary. Monotypic.
Hoplopasites Ashmead, 1898. Psyche 8: 284.

Type-species: Philerevius? productus Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Chrysopheon Titus, 1901. Canad. Ent. 33: 256.

Type-species: Chrysopheon aurifuscus Titus. Monotypic.

Revision: Kurd, 1958. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 14: 275-302, 28 figs., 4 maps. (Nearctic spp.).

Ta.xonomy: Cockerell, 1928. Colo. Univ., Studies 16: 111 (synopsis). — Rozen, 1967. N. Y. Ent.
Soc, Jour. 75: 236-248, 31 figs, (immature stages).

Biology: Hurd, 1958. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 14: 276 (floral and host relationships).

Dioxys aurifuscus (Titus)
Colo., Idaho, CaHf., Oreg. Host: Anthidium maculosum Cress.?,
Callanthidium illnstre Cress.
Chrysopheon aurifuscus Titus, 1901. Canad. Ent. 33: 256. ♀.
Dioxys fulvohirta Ducke, 1909. Rev. de Ent. 27: 44. ♀.

Taxonomy: Horning, 1966. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 68: 157 (geogr. records).

Biology: Cockerell, 1909. Canad. Ent. 41: 834 (host). -Hicks, 1929. Canad. Ent. 61: 8 (host).
—Horning, 1971. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 73: 43 (host).

Dioxys pacificus
***authority mismatch
melanogaster Hurd. South. Calif. (San Bernardino, San Gabriel and San Jacinto
Mts.).
Dioxys pacificus melanogaster Hurd, 1958. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 14: 296. ♀, ♂.

Dioxys pacificus
***authority mismatch
pacificus Cockerell. Calif, (except mts. of southern Calif.), Oreg., Nev., Utah, Wye.

Dioxys pacificus Cockerell, 1916. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 17: 286. ♀.

Dioxys pomonae
***authority mismatch
pomonae Cockerell. Idaho, Utah, Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., Oreg. and Calif, (except
Sonoran Desert). Host: Anthidium collectum Huard, Chalicodoma subexilis (Ckll.),
Osrnia nifoata Ckll., 0. nigrobarbata Ckll.
Dioxys pomonae Cockerell, 1910. Canad. Ent. 42: 169. ♂.
Dioxys phaceliae Cockerell, 1911. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 37: 235. ♀.
Dioxys catalinensis Cockerell, 1938. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (11) 2: 148. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1916. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 17: 285. 9. — Gittins, 1959. Brooklyn
Ent. Soc, Bui. 54: 135 (geogr. records). —Horning, 1966. Ent. Soc. Wash., ProC. 68: 157
(floral and geogr. records). —Rozen, 1967. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 75: 236-248, 31 figs,
(immature stages).
Biology: Rozen and Favreau, 1967. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 75: 197-203, 7 figs. (Hfe history,
host).

Dioxys pomonae
***authority mismatch
timberlakei Hurd. Southern Calif., deserts.

Dioxys pomonae timberlakei Hurd, 1958. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 14: 285. ♀, ♂.

Dioxys productus
***authority mismatch
cismontanicus Hurd. Pacific slope of Calif.; Mexico (Baja California). Host:
Anthidiuiu collectum Huard.
Dioxys productus cismontanicus Hurd, 1958. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 14: 290. ♀, ♂.

Dioxys productus
***authority mismatch
productus (Cresson). Great Basin of Calif., Nev., Wash., Oreg., Utah. Host:
Anthidium utahense Swenk.
Pkileremus/ productus Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 203. ♀.




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Taxonomy: Ducke, 1909. Rev. de Ent. 27: 44 (tax. characters). —Horning, 1966. Ent. Soc.
Wash., Proc. 68: 157 (geogr. record). -Rozen, 1967. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 75: 2, 36, 238-239,
240, 242, figs. 9-15 (larva, as productiis productus?).

Biology: Jaycox, 1966. Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 18-20 (habits, host).

Dioxys productus
***authority mismatch
subruber (Cockerell). Calif, deserts, Ariz., N. Mex., western Tex. Host: Anthidium.
paroselae Ckll.?
Philereynus productus var. subruber Cockerell, 1898. N. Mex. Univ., Bui. 1: 60. ♀.
Dioxys martii Cockerell, 1902. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 9: 233. 9 (= male).

Biology: Newberry, 1900. Psyche 9: 94 (host).

Dioxys rohweri Cockerell
Colo. (Troublesome).

Dioxys rohweri Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 2: 329. ♂.

Tribe MEGACHILINI

The tribe Megachilini, which contains the well known leaf-cutter and mason bees, is
represented by numerous species throughout much of the world. Although some of these bees
are cleptoparasites, mainly in the nests of other Megachilini, most members of this tribe are pol-
len-collecting bees, and like the Anthidiini make use of a wide variety of foreign materials for
the construction of the cells in their nests. However, unlike the Anthidiini some of these bees
utilize mud for cell construction, but none is known to use plant down for this purpose. Some of
the species live in colonies (e.g., certain Chalicodoma and Osmia) which are communal and even
possibly quasisocial, but the majority of the species are solitary. Most of the species appropriate
a wide variety of pre-existing holes and cavities of all sorts in which to make their nests, but
some of them do excavate their own tunnels in the ground. In some classifications the tribe
Megachilini is divided into two subtribes, the Osmiini (arolium present) and the Megachilini
(arolium absent).

Taxonomy: Michener, 1941. Amer. Midland Nat. 26: 147-167 (partial generic revision).
— Michener, 1944. Amer. Nat. 78: 257-266, 1 fig. (distribution of osmiine bees of the N.
Amer. deserts). — Hurd and Michener, 1955. Calif. Ins. Survey Bui. 3: 1-248, 141 figs., 112
maps (Calif, spp. except of Osmia, Megachile, and Coelioxys). —Michener and Sokal, 1957.
Evolution 11: 130-162, 15 figs., 4 tables (genera of Hoplitis complex). —Sokal and
Michener, 1958. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 38: 1409-1438 (statistical evaluation of systematic
relationships in the Hoplitis complex). —Michener, 1962. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 70: 17-29
(classification of bees commonly placed in the genus Megachile). —Mitchell, 1962. N. C.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 48-232, figs. 1, 15-66, tables 3-7 (eastern U. S. spp.).
—Rubin, 1966. Syst. Zool. 15: 169-182, 3 tables (homogeneous groups in the Hoplitis
complex). —Michener and Sokal, 1966. Ent. Soc Amer., Ann. 59: 1211-1217, 5 figs,
(phenetic similarities in the Hoplitis complex). —Sokal and Michener, 1967. Linn. Soc.
London, Proc. 178: 59-74 (effects of different numerical techniques on the phenetic
classification of the Hoplitis complex).

Biology: Eickwort, 1975. Evolution 29: 142-150, 1 fig., 2 tables (evolution of parasitism and
sociality in Hoplitis).

Genus HERIADES Spinola

The bees of this genus nest in small holes, such as those made by emerging beetles in old logs,
dead branches, and pine cones. Insofar as known, the species are polylectic and have rather long
seasons of flight.

Revision: Michener, 1938. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 31: 514-531 (Amer. spp.). —Hurd and
Michener, 1955. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 3: 11-24, pis. 3, 12, figs. 7-16, maps 2-7 (Calif, spp.).
—Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 48-52, figs. 1, 15, table 3 (eastern U.
S. spp.).

Genus HERIADES Subgenus HERIADES Spinola

Heriades Spinola, 1808. Insectorum Liguriae, v. 2, p. 7.

Type-species: Apis truncorum Linnaeus. Desig. by Latreille, 1810.
Trypetes Schenck, 1859. Nassau. Ver. f. Naturk. Jahrb. 14: 32. Preocc.




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Type-species: Apis truncorum Linnaeus. Monotypic.
This subgenus is not found in America.

Genus HERIADES Subgenus NEOTRYPETES Robertson

Neotrypetes Robertson, 1918. Ent. News 29: 92.

Type-species: Megachile variolosa Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig. (=Trypetes
productus Robertson).

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 27: 68-69 (rev. key to spp.).

Heriades crucifera Cockerell
N. Mex., Ariz.

Heriades crucifera Cockerell, 1897. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20: 137. ♂.

Heriades leavitti Crawford
N. B. and Maine, south to Fla., west to Tex. and Wyo. Pollen: Polylectic,
visits a wide variety of flowers including Anthemis cotiilla, Bidens, Clirysopsis,
Erigeron, Galax, Helenium, Ilex, Jussiaea, Melilotus officinalis, Oenothera, Polygonum,
Senecio, Solidago, Stokesia.
Heriades leavitti Crawford, 1913. Canad. Ent. 45: 270. ♂.
Heriades crawfordi Graenicher, 1928. Ent. News 39: 281. ♀, ♂.
'^Neotrypetes tmncatus Robertson, 1929. Flowers and Insects, p. 131. 9,6-

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 278-279 (nest architecture, life
history).

Heriades micheneri Timberlake
Ariz.

Heriades (Neotrypetes) micheneri Timberlake, 1947. Pan-Pacific Ent. 23: 26. ♂, ♀.

Heriades micropthalma Michener
Deserts of west. Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., Utah. Pollen: Apparently

polylectic, visits flowers of Melilotus officinalis, Monarda, Petalosfemon, Tetradyniia
canescens.
Heriades micropthalma Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 27: 66, 2 figs. 9, 6 .

Heriades texana Michener
Tex., Ariz.

Heriades texana Michener, 1938. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 31: 517. ♀.

Heriades variolosa
***authority mismatch
purpurascens Cockerell. South. Tex. to Yucatan.

Heriades carinata purpurascens Cockerell, 1931. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 8: 543. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 43.

Heriades variolosa
***authority mismatch
variolosa (Cresson). Ont. and Maine, south to Fla., west to B. C, Wash., Oreg., Utah,
Colo., N. Mex. and Tex; Mexico (northern). Ecology: Nests in twigs of sumac. Pollen:
Polylectic, principally Compositae, but visits a wide variety of flowers including
Amorpha, Apocynum, Asclepias, Aster, Berteroa, Bidens, Blephilia, Brassica,
Ceanothus, Cirsiu7n, Coreopsis, Erigeron philadelphicus, Grindelia, Gutierrezia
sarothrae, Helianthus, Heliopsis helianthoides, Houstonia, Malva silvestris, Melilotus
alba, Mentha cayiadejisis, Monarda, Parthenium, Prunus, Ratibida, Senecio, Solidago
rigida, Thelesperma gracile. Toxicodendron, Trifolium, Vernonia.

Megachile vaiiolosa Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 270. ♀.

Heriades odontophora Schletterer, 1889. Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. System., Geog. u. Biol. Tiere
4: 679. ♀.

Heriades asteris Cockerell, 1897. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20: 135. ♂.

Trypetes barbatus Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 171. 6 (9 misdet).

Try petes productus Robertson, 1905. Canad. Ent. 37: 236. ♂.

Biology: Fischer, 1955. Canad. Ent. 87: 33-36 (nest).

Genus HERIADES Subgenus PHYSOSTETHA Michener

Heriades subg. Physostetha Michener, 1938. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 31: 523.
Type-species: Heriades carinata Cresson. Orig. desig.

Heriades carinata Cresson
N. B. and Que. to Fla., west to B. C, Oreg., Utah, N. Mex., and Tex.

Parasite: Leucospis affinis Say, Melittobia chalyhii Ashm., Sapyga louisi Krombein,
Stelis penuaculata Ckll., S. vemalis Mitchell. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of
flowers including Apocynum, Aronia, Asclepias syriaca, Cichoriu)n iutybus, Cleome




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semdata, Erigeron, Fayopyrum, Helianthus, Hex, Medicago sativa, Melilotus alba, M.

officinalis, Mentha canadensis, Monarda fishilosa, Parthenocissus quinquefolia,

Penstemon, Petalostemon candidus, Polygonum sca7idens, Potentilla, Rhus glabra, R.

typhina, Rubus, Senecio, Solidago, Trifolium, Vicia.
Heriades carinatum Cresson, 1864. Ent. See. Phila., Proc. 2: 383. ♀, ♂.
Heriades glomerans Schletterer, 1889. Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. System., Geog. u. Biol. Tiere 4:

681. ♀.

Biology: Rau, 1922. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 24 (7): 39-40 (nest). —Matthews, 1965. Amer.
Ent. Inst. Contrib. 1: 1-33, 23 figs., 7 tables (nest, life history, immature stages, parasites).
— Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 279-282 (nest architecture, life
history, supersedure).

Heriades cressoni Michener
Nebr. to N. Mex., west to B. C. and Calif. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide
variety of flowers including Achillea lanulosa. Aster adscendens delectabilis, A.
canescens, A. parishii, Calycadenia multiglandulosa, Chrysopsis, Chrysothammis
pumilus, C. viridulus, Chamaenerion angustifolium, Cirsium califomicum, Erigeron
foliosus var. stenophylius, Eriogonum elongatum, E. latifolium var. nudum,
Eriophyllum confertiflorum , Gayophytum ramosissimum, Geranium richardsoni,
Gidierrezia califomica, Haplopappns gracilis, Helenium bigelovii, Heteromeles
arbutifolia, Potentilla gracilis, P. glandidosa, Senecio ionophyllus, Solidago califomica,
S. confinis, S. petradoria.
Heriades (Physostetha) cressoni Michener, 1938. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 31: 529. ♀, ♂.

Heriades gracilior Cockerell
Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., Nev. and south. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Convolvulus ari'eyisis, Opnntia.
Heriades gracilior Cockerell, 1897. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20: 138. ♂, ♀.

Heriades occidentalis Michener
Oreg., Calif. Ecology: Nests in abandoned beetle burrows in cones of
Pinus attenuata. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including
Adenostoma fasciculatum, Angelica tomentosa, Asclepias fascicularis, Baccharis
douglasii, Cirsiuyn vulgaris, Cordylanthus, Cryptantha intermedia, Eriogonum
fasciculatum, Eriogonum latifolium var. nudum, Eriodictyon trichocalyx, Eriophyllum
lanatum, Eryngium aristatulum, Gnaphalium thermale, Haplopappus squarrosus,
Helianthnm scoparius, Helianthus gracilentus, Hemizonia paniculata, Heteromeles
arbutifolia, Lonicera interrupta, Lotus, Nolina parryi, Opuntia occidentalis, Phacelia
imbricata, Rhus integrifolia, Sidalcea malvaeflora, Solidago califomica, S. occidentalis,
Stephanomeria, Swertia parryi, Tetradymia canesceyis. Verbena lasiostachys.
Heriades (Physostetha) occidentalis Michener, 1938. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 31: 525. ♀, ♂.

Heriades timberlakei Michener
Ariz., Nev., N. Mex., Colo. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Euphorbia albomarginata.
Heriades (Physostetha) timberlakei Michener, 1938. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 31: 527. ♂, ♀.

Genus PROCHELOSTOMA Robertson

Prochelostoma Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 167.

Type-species: Heriades philadelphi Robertson. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Revision: Michener, 1938. Ent. News 69: 131.

Prochelostoma philadelphi (Robertson)
N. Y. to Ga., west to Mich., 111., Kans. and Miss. Ecology: Nests in

deserted anobiid borings and trap-nests. Parasite: Melittobia chalybii Ashm., Pyemotes
ventricosus (Newport). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Capsella, Crataegus,
Ellisia, Geranium, Hydrophyllum, Hex, Philadelphicus, Rubus. Predator: Trogoderma
omatutn Say.
Heriades philadelphi Robertson, 1891. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 18: 64. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1959. Ent. News 70: 135-136 (nest, mating). —Krombein, 1967.
Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 276-278, pi. 17, fig. 86 (nest architecture, life history,
supersedure, parasites).

Genus CHELOSTOMA Latreille

Chelostoma Latreille, 1809. Gen. Crust. Ins., v. 4, p. 16.




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Type-species: Apis florisomnis Linnaeus. Monotypic. {=Apis maxillosa Linnaeus).
Gyrodroma Thomson, 1872. Hym. Scand., v. 2, p. 259. Preocc.

Type-species: Heriades nigricoimis Nylander. Desig. by Cockerell, 1925.

Nearctic species of this genus visit flowers of Hydrophyilaceae, especially the genera
Phacelia and Eriodictyon, and possibly collect pollen exclusively from these flowers.

Revision: Michener, 1938. Pan-Pacific Ent. 14: 36-45.

Chelostoma bernardinum Michener
South. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers oi Nemophila
integrifolia, N. vienziesii, N. spatulata, Phacelia davidsonii.
Chelostoma bernardinum Michener, 1938. Pan-Pacific Ent. 14: 40. ♀, ♂.

Chelostoma californicum Cresson
Calif.; Mexico (Baja California). Pollen: Apparently oligolectic on
flowers of Phacelia including P. ciliata, P. davidsonii, P. distans, P. hispida, P.
imbricata, P. platyloba, P. ramosissima, but visits other flowers presumably for nectar
including Cryptantha inter)nedia, C.flaccida, Eriodictyon californicum, E. trichocaiyx,
Hesperochiro)i califoriiicuni, Layia platyglossa, Nemophila vienziesii, N. integrifolia,
Plagiobothrys )iothofi(lvHs, Salvia carnosa.
Chelostoma californicum Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 108. ♂.
Heriades albicinctunt Provancher, 1895. Nat. Canad. 22: 190. ♀, ♂.
Heriades odontura Cockerel!, 1902. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 1: 139. ♂.
Roberfsonella dolichosonia Cockerell, 1922. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 10: 456. ♀.

Chelostoma cockerelli Michener
South. Calif. Pollen: Apparently oligolectic on flowers of Enodictyon
including E. califoniicnm, E. crassifoliutn, E. trichocaiyx, but visits other flowers
including Clarkia, Cryptantha intermedia, Gilia exilis, Lotus scoparius, Mimulus
fremontii, Nania parryi, Navarretia heterodoxa, Penstemon, Phacelia distans, P.
tana ceti folia, Tricbostema lanatnm, T. pariskii. Verbena lasiostachys, Viguiera
deltoides.
Chelostoma niinutuni cockerelli Michener, 1938. Pan-Pacific Ent. 14: 43. ♂, ♀.

Chelostoma incisulum Michener
Calif. Pollen: Apparently oligolectic on flowers of Phacelia including P.
distans, P. platyloba, but also visits flowers oi Ceanothus, Cryptantha, Gilia tricolor,
Hesperochiron californicus, Lasthenia chrysostoma, Linanthus aureus.
Chelostoma >ninutu))i incisulum Michener, 1938. Pan-Pacific Ent. 14: 44. ♂.

Chelostoma marginatum
***authority mismatch
incisuloides Michener. Cent. Calif. Pollen: Apparently oligolectic on flowers of
Phacelia including P. platyloba, but also visits other flowers including Amsinckia,
Cryptantha, Eriodictyon californicum, Nemophila pulchella, Penstemon laetus.
Chelostoma marginatu))i incisuloides Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 27: 69. ♂, ♀.

Chelostoma marginatum
***authority mismatch
marginatum Michener. South Calif. Pollen: Apparently oligolectic on flowers of
Phacelia including Phacelia davidsonii, P. distans, P. hispida, P. minor, but also visits
other flowers including Allium pannim, Cryptantha intermedia, Eriodictyon
crassifolium, Lomatium dasycarpum, Nemophila pulchella, Rharnnus crocea, Rhus
trilobata. Salvia columbariae, S. mellifera.
Chelostoma miyiutum marginatum Michener, 1938. Pan-Pacific Ent. 14: 44. ♂, ♀.

Chelostoma minutum Crawford
Wash., Oreg., Utah, Nev., Calif. (Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mts.),
Idaho. Pollen: Presumably oligolectic on Phacelia including P. californica, P. davidsonii,
P. distans, P. heterophylla, P. imbricata, P. liyiearis, P. ramosissi^na, but also visits
other flowers including Allium parvum, Calochortus, Cryptantha, Draperia systyla,
Erigeron divergens, Eriodictyon crassifolium, E. trichocaiyx, Eriophyllum lanatum,
Erysimum asperum, Heuchera micrantha, Lepidium virginicum, Lotus argophyllus,
Mimulus fremontii, Nemophila menziesii, Penstemon spectabilis, Polemonium,
Potentilla glandulosa, Sidalcea maivaeflora.
Chelostoma minuta Crawford, 1916. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 4: 102. ♀.

Chelostoma phaceliae Michener
Wash., Oreg., Calif., Nev. Pollen: Apparently oligolectic on Phacelia

including P. californica, P. distans, P. heterophylla, P. hispida P. imbricata, P. linearis,
P. ramosissima, P. tanacetifolia, but also visits other flowers including Allium
dichlamydium, Brodiaea laxa, Calochortus, Clarkia dudleyana, C. pulchella, C.
rhomboidea, Cryptantha intermedia, Erigeron foliosus var. stenophyllus, Eriodictyon
californicum, E. crassifolium, Gilia exilis, Horkelia bolanderi, Lepechinia calcycina.




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Lotus scoparius, Mimulus fremo7itii, Monardella lanceolata, Nama parryi, Nasturtium
officinale, Polemonium, Potentilla glaudulosa, Sidalcea malvaeflora.

Chelostoma phaceliae MicheVier, 1938. Pan-Pacific Ent. 14: 38. cJ, 9.

Chelostoma tetramerum Michener
North. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of a yellow Mimulus.

Chelostoma tetramerum Michener, 1942. Ent. News 53: 47. ♂.

Genus CHELOSTOMOPSIS Cockereli

Chelostomopsis Cockereli, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 205.

Type-species: Ckelynia rubifloris Cockereli. Orig. desig.
Raphidostoma Cockereli, 1936. Pan-Pacific Ent. 12: 133.

Type-species: Chelyuia rubifloris Cockereli. Monotypic and orig. desig.
{=Raphidostoma ceanothi Cockereli).

Revision: Michener, 1938. Ent. News 49: 127.

Taxonomy: Popov, 1961. Zool. Zhur. Akad. Nauk 40: 359-370, 3 figs. (tax. status, tax,

relationships).

Chelostomopsis rubifloris
***authority mismatch
(Cockereli). Wash., Oreg., Calif., Ariz. Ecology: Has been reared from cones of

Pinus attenuata. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Allium
parvum, Agoseris, Arbutus menziesii, Arctostaphylos drupacea, A. ynariposa, A.
nevadensis, A. patula, Arenaria douglasii, Calochortus luteus, C. nudus, Castilleia,
Ceanothus ciineatus, C. integerrimus, C. parviflorus, Cercocarpus ledifoiius,
Chamaebatia foliolosa, Chorizantlie staticoides, Clarkia unguiculata, Collinsia bicolor,
Convolvulus occidentalis, Cryptantha denticulata, C. intermedia, C. lepida, Delphinium,
Eriastrum, Eriodictyon califomicum, Frasera californica, Fragaria califomica, Gilia
exilis, G. tricolor, Grindelia, Haplopappus li^iearifolius, Helianthus, Hesperochiron,
Horkelia, Lepechinia, calycina, Limnanthes douglasii, Lotus argophyllus, L.
comiculatus, L. davidso7iii, L. glaber, L. scoparius, Lupinus bicolor, L. micranthus, L.
namis, Melilotus, Mimulus fremontii, M. primuloides, M. suksdorfii, Montia perfoliata,
Narna pai~ryi, Navarretia heterodoxa, Nemophila exilis, N. heterophylla, N. integrifolia,
N. macidata, N. menziesii, Penstemon breviflorus, P. heterophyllus, Phacelia
brachyloba, P. califomica, P. davidsonii, P. heterophylla, Plagiobothrys nothofulvous,
Plectri(is ciliosa, Potentilla gla^idulosa, Prunus ilicifolia, P. subcordata, Radicula
nasturtium-aquaticum. Ranunculus, Rhamnus califomica, R. crocea, Rhus trilobata,
Ribes roe^zlii. Salvia camosa, S. colunibariae, S. mellifera, Satureja douglasii, Sedum
stenopetaium, Senecio, Stenotopsis linearifolius, Streptanthus tortuosus, Thysanocarpus
curvipes, Trifolium gracilentum, T. melanayithum, T. microcephalum, T. tridentatum.
Verbena lasiostachys, V. prostrata, Viola pedunculata, V. purpurea, Wyethia.

Chelynia rubifloris Cockereli, 1898. Canad. Ent. 30: 50. ♀.

Chelostoma rubifloris edwardsii Cockereli, 1916. Entomologist 49: 157. ♀.

Raphidostoma ceanothi Cockereli, 1936. Pan-Pacific Ent. 12: 134. ♂.

Genus PROTERIADES Titus

The bees of this genus appear to collect pollen almost exclusively from flowers of the
boraginaceous genus Cryptantha. Some of the species make their nests in the ground while
others construct them in preexisting holes in wood above ground.

Revision: Timberlake and Michener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 387-440, 16 figs.

Taxonomy: Kurd and Michener, 1955. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 3: 129-153, pis. 9, 21-22, figs.
92-111, maps 63-76 (Calif, spp.). —Michener and Sokal, 1957. Evolution 11: 158 (subgeneric
assignments). —Rubin, 1966. Syst. Zool. 15: 176-182, tables 1-3 (phenetic classification).
—Michener and Sokal, 1966. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 59: 1211-1217, 5 figs, (phenetic
similarities among the species of the Hoplitis complex).

Genus PROTERIADES Subgenus CEPHALAPIS Cockereli

Chelostoma subg. Cephalapis Cockereli, 1910. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 5: 23.

Type-species: Chelostoma (Cephalapis) jacintanum Cockereli. Monotypic and orig.
desig.




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Proteriades jacintana (Cockerell)
Calif., Oreg. Pollen: Oligolege of Cryptantha including C. intermedia, C.
micrantha, C. m. var. lepida, C. muricata var. denticulata, but also visits flowers of
Ceanothus and E riogonum for nectar.
Chelostoma jacintanum Cockerell, 1910. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 5: 23. ♂.

Genus PROTERIADES Subgenus PROTERIADES Titus

Proteriades Titus, 1904. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 12: 25.

Type-species: Heriades seyn (rubra Cockerell. Monotypic.

Proteriades basingeri
***authority mismatch
Timberlake and Miehener. Calif. (Riverside). Pollen: Cryptantha intermedia.

Proteriades basingeri Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 413. ♂, ♀.

Proteriades bidenticauda
***authority mismatch
Timberlake and Miehener. Calif. (Inyo and Kern Cos.). Pollen: Cryptantha sp.,
but also visits flowers of Mentzelia presumably for nectar.
Proteriades bidenticauda Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 420.,
figs. 4, 11. cJ, 9.

Proteriades boharti
***authority mismatch
Timberlake and Miehener. Calif. (Carrville, Trinity Co.).

Proteriades boharti Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 429, figs. 2,

14. ♂.

Proteriades caudex
***authority mismatch
Timberlake and Miehener. Calif. (San Jacinto Mts.). Pollen: Oligolege of Cryptantha
intermedia, C. lepida, C. micrantha.
Proteriades caudex Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 418, figs. 3,

15. ♂, ♀.

Proteriades cryptanthae
***authority mismatch
Timberlake and Miehener. South. Calif. Pollen: Cryptantha intermedia.

Proteriades cryptanthae Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 416. ♂.
9.

Proteriades deserticola
***authority mismatch
Timberlake and Miehener. South. Calif. Ecology: Nests in burrows in ground.
Pollen: Cryptantha angustifolia, C. barbigera.
Proteriades deserticola Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 430. cJ, 9.

Proteriades evansi
***authority mismatch
Miehener. Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.). Pollen: Cryptantha flaccida.

Proteriades evansi Miehener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 92. ♀.

Proteriades hamulicornis
***authority mismatch
Timberlake and Miehener. Calif. (Inyo Co.). Pollen: Cryptantha spp.

Proteriades hainulicortiis Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 425,
figs. 5, 13. (J, 9.

Proteriades nanula
***authority mismatch
nanula Timberlake and Miehener. South. Calif, lowlands. Pollen: Cryptantha
intermedia.
Proteriades nanula nanula Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 409.

5, 9.

Proteriades nanula
***authority mismatch
sparsa Timberlake and Miehener. Centr. Calif., south. Calif, mts. Pollen: Cryptantha
angustifolia, C. flaccida, C. micrantha var. lepida.
Proteriades nanula sparsa Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bu). 33: 410.

6, 9.

Proteriades nigrella
***authority mismatch
attonita Miehener. Calif. (Inyo Co.). Pollen: Cryptantha raceinosa.

Proteriades nigrella attonita Miehener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc., Jour. 27: 73. ♀, ♂.

Proteriades nigrella
***authority mismatch
nigrella Miehener. South. Calif. Pollen: Cryptantha angustifolia.

Proteriades nigrella nigrella Miehener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc., Jour. 27: 73. ♀.

Proteriades palmarum (Cockerell)
South. Calif. Pollen: Cryptantha angustifolia, C. barbigera.

Osmia palmarum Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 48. ♀.

Proteriades nigra Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 405. ♀.

Taxonomy: Miehener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 27: 71. 6. — Hurd and Miehener, 1955.
Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 3: 139 (synonymy).

Proteriades pygmaea
***authority mismatch
Timberlake and Miehener. South. Calif. Pollen: Oligolege of Cryptantha including C.
angustifolia, C. barbigera, but also visits flowers of Eriogonum and Nama deiuissuni.
Proteriades pygmaea Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 411, figs. 6,

16. ♂, ♀.

Proteriades reducta
***authority mismatch
Timberlake and Miehener. Calif. (Riverside Co.). Pollen: Cryptantha intermedia.
Proteriades reducta Timberlake and Miehener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 414.



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Proteriades seminigra
***authority mismatch
seminigra Timberlake and Michener. South. Calif. Pollen: Cryptantha intermedia.
Proteriades seminigra seminigra Timberlake and Michener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33:
403. ♂, ♀.

Proteriades seminigra
***authority mismatch
yosemitensis Timberlake and Michener. Cent. Calif. Pollen: Cryptantha sp.

Proteriades seminigra yosemitensis Timberlake and Michener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui.
33:404.

Proteriades semirubra (Cockerell)
Coastal south, and cent. Calif. Pollen: Cryptantha intermedia, but also
visits Eriophyllum multicaule for nectar.
Heriades semirubra Cockerell, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 198. ♂.

Proteriades shoshone Parker
Nev. (Elko County). Ecology: Nests in elderberry trap-stems. Parasite:
Stelis coarctatus Cwfd. Pollen: Stores pollen of Cryptantha.
Proteriades shoshone Parker, 1976. Pan-Pacific Ent. 52: 73, figs. 1-8.
Biology: Parker, 1976. Pan-Pacific Ent. 52: 75-79, figs. 9-14 (nest, sex ratio, cocoon,

supersedure, parasite).

Proteriades similis Timberlake and Michener
South. Calif. Pollen: Cryptantha intermedia.

Proteriades similis Timberlake and Michener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 406. ♀.

Proteriades tristis Michener
South. Calif. Pollen: Cryptantha intermedia, C. micrantha, C. muricata.

Proteriades tristis Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 92. ♀.

Proteriades truicauda Timberlake and Michener
Calif. (San Jacinto Mts.). Pollen: Cryptantha micrantha.

Proteriades truicauda Timberlake and Michener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 33: 423. ♂, ♀.

Genus PROTERIADES Subgenus XEROSMIA Michener

Anthocopa subg. Xerosmia Michener, 1943 Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 81.
Type-species: Osmia xerophila Cockerell. Orig. desig.

Proteriades xerophila (Cockerell)
South. Calif. Ecology: Reared from old nests of Anthophora linsleyi

Timberlake dug from ground. Parasite: Nemognatha scuteilaris Say. Pollen: Oligolege of
Cryptantha including C. barbigera, but also visits flowers of Larrea tridentata and
Malva parviflora for nectar. Predator: Cymatodera.
Osmia xerophila Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 45. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1055, figs. 146-148, 150 (larva).

Biology: Linsley and MacSwain, 1942. Amer. Midland Nat. 27: 408 (nest).

Genus PROTERIADES Subgenus PENTERIADES Michener and Sokal

Proteriades subg. Penteriades Michener and Sokal, 1957. Evolution 11: 158.
Type-species: Osmia remotula Cockerell. Orig. desig.

Proteriades incanescens
***authority mismatch
incanescens (Cockerell). Ariz.

Hoplitina incanescens Cockerell, 1922. Amer. Mus. Novitates 40: 7. ♀.

Proteriades incanescens
***authority mismatch
nevadensis Timberlake and Michener. S. Dak., Wyo., Nev., Calif. Pollen:
Cryptantha bradburiana.
Proteriades incanescens nevadensis Timberlake and Michener, 1950. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui.
33:399. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc. Jour. 27: 71. S. — LaBerge, 1973. Ent. News 84:
160. (geog. and floral recs.). — Tepedino, 1974. Ent. News 85: 146 (geogr. record).

Proteriades incanescens
***authority mismatch
iota Michener. Calif. (Tuolumne Co.).

Proteriades incanescens tola Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 27: 72. ♀.

Proteriades remotula (Cockerell)
Calif. Ecology: Observed entering hole in the ground. Pollen: Oligolege
of Cryptantha including C. intermedia, C. micrantha, but also visits flowers of
Asclepias and Eriophyllum confertiflorum for nectar.
Osmia remotula Cockerell, 1910. Canad. Ent. 42: 170. ♀.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1962. Pan-Pacific Ent. 38: 228-229 (geogr. and floral records).

Genus PROTERIADES Subgenus HOPLITINA Cockerell

Hoplitella Cockerell, 1910. Canad. Ent. 42: 169. Preocc.



i



Superfamily APOIDEA; 2013

Type-species: Ashmeadiella howardi Cockerell. Monotypic. (=Hoplifella pentamera
Cockerell).
Hoplitma Cockerell, 1913. Canad. Ent. 45: 34. Proposed to replace Hoplitella Cockerell.

Proteriades bullifacies (Michener)
East. Calif., desert. Parasite: Aiithrax irroratus Say, Leucospis affinis
Say, Sphaeropthalma sp., Stelis sp. Pollen: Presumably Cryptantha, but is known to
visit flowers of Phacelia including P. aff. fremontu. Predator: Trichodes oniatits Say.
Hoplitis (Hoplitina) bullifacies Michener," 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 274. 9 (6
misdet.). '

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 37-38. tJ, 9.

Proteriades bunocephala (Michener)
Cent. Calif. Parasite: Chrysura pacifica (Say). Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers of Lotus including L. subpinnatus.
Hoplitis (Hoplitina) bunocephala Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 276. ♀.
6.

Proteriades howardi (Cockerell)
South, and cent. Calif. Parasite: Stelis sp. Pollen: Unknown, but appears
to visit principally the flowers o{ Lotus including L. glaber, L. scoparius, L. strigosus,
but has also been taken at flowers oi Cryptantha intermedia, Eriophyllum
confertifloruni, and Salvia.
Ashmeadiella howardi Cockerell, 1910. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 5: 22. ♀ (♂ misdet.).
Hoplitella pentamera Cockerell, 1910. Canad. Ent. 42: 169. tJ.
Hoplitina hesperia Crawford, 1916. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 4: 103. ♀.

Proteriades linsdalei (Michener)
Cent. Calif.

Hoplitis (Hoplitina) liiisdalei Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 277. ♂.

Proteriades mazourka (Michener)
Calif. (Inyo Co.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Cryptantha,
Gilia, Tetradymia.
Hoplitis mazourka Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 38. ♂.

Proteriades mojavensis (Michener)
South. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Cryptantha
barbigera, Lasthenia chrysostoma, Nama demissum, Phacelia fremontii.
Hoplitis (Hoplitina) mojavensis Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 275. ♀.

Genus PROTERIADES Subgenus ACROSMIA Michener

Hoplitis subg. Acrosmia Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 298.
Type-species: Hoplitis plagiostoma Michener. Orig. desig.

Proteriades laevibullata (Michener)
Calif., Utah. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Calyptriditim
umbellatum, Nemophila, Phacelia.
Anthocopa (Eremosmia) laevibullata Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 68. ♀.
Hoplitis (Acrosmia) perissocera Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 299. ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 40 (synonymy).

Proteriades plagiostoma (Michener)
Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.), Oreg.

Hoplitis (Acrosmia) plagiostoma Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 298. ♂.

Proteriades rufina (Michener)
Calif., Oreg., Utah. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Nemophila, Viola
purpurea.
Hoplitis rufina Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 40. ♀, ♂.

Genus HOPLITIS Klug

Revision: Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 261-317 (N. Amer. spp. with
references to biological works).

Taxonomy: Hurd and Michener, 1955. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 3: 44-94, pis. 7, 14-18, figs. 5,
51-70, maps 17-39 (Calif, spp.). —Michener and Sokal, 1957. Evolution 11: 130-162 (phenetic
classification of the Hoplitis complex). —Sokal and Michener, 1958. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui.
38: 1409-1438 (systematic relationships within the Hoplitis complex). —Mitchell, 1962. N.
C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 56-68, figs. 19-25, table 3 (eastern U. S. spp.).
— Michener, 1966. Entomologist 99: 146 (status of Anthocopa and Hoplitis). —Rubin, 1966.
Syst. Zool. 15: 176-182, tables 1-3 (phenetic classification of the Hoplitis complex).
—Michener and Sokal, 1966. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 59: 1211-1217, 5 figs, (phenetic




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similarities among the species of the Hoplitis complex). — Michener, 1968. Ent. South.
Africa, Jour. 31: 337 (status of Anthocopa and Hoplitis).

Genus HOPLITIS Subgenus HOPLITIS Klug

Hoplitis Klug, 1807. Mag. Insektenk. 6: 225.

Type-species: Apis adnnca Panzer. Monotypic.
Osniia subg. Ctenosmia Thomson, 1872. Hym. Scand., v. 2, p. 233.

Type-species: Apis adunca Panzer. Desig. by Michener, 1941.

Hoplitis anthocopoides (Schenck)
N. Y. (Albany and adjacent counties); Europe. Ecology: Builds

mortar and pebble nests on exposed rock surfaces. Adventive from Europe. Parasite:
Acroricnus stylator (Thunb.), Anthrax irroratus Say, Chrysis coerulajis Fabr.,
Melittohia chalybii Ashm., Monodontomerus montivagus Ashm., Stelis labiata (Prov.).
Pollen: Oligolectic on Echinm vulgare, but in Europe also collects pollen from Anchiisa
officinalis.
Osniia spinolae Schenck, 1851. Nassau. Ver. f. Naturk. Jahrb. 7: 68. ♀. Preocc.
Osniia anthocopoides Schenck, 1853. Nassau. Ver. f. Naturk. Jahrb. 9: 181. N. name.
Osniia caenientaria Gerstaecker, 1869. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 30: 339. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Eickwort, 1970. Psyche 77: 190-201, Ufigs. (synonymy, redescription, systematic
position, distribution).

Biology: Eickwort, 1970. Psyche 77: 196-199 (floral relationships, summary of Hfe history).
—Eickwort, 1973. Search, Cornell Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta. 3: 1-31, 55 figs., 3 tables (life
history, nest architecture, immature stages, parasites). —Eickwort, 1975. Evolution 29:
142-150, 1 fig., 2 tables (gregarious nesting and evolution of parasitism and sociality among
megachilid bees). —Eickwort, 1975. Ztschr. Tierpsychol. 3: 237-254, 8 figs, 1 table
(nest-building behavior).

Morphology: Schmidt and Stockton, 1971. Ent. News 82: 275-277 (analysis of DNA in sperm).

Genus HOPLITIS Subgenus ANDRONICUS Cresson

AndronicHS Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 384.

Type-species: Androniciis cylindriciis Cresson. Montypic.

Hoplitis cylindrica (Cresson)
Que. and N. S. to Fla., west to N. W. T., B. C, Colo., Tex. Ecology: Nests
in dry pithy stems including trap-nests. Parasite: Melittohia chalybii Ashm., Stelis
foederalis Smith, S. labiata Prov., S. lateralis Cress., Tricrania stansburyi Hald. Pollen:
Polylectic, visits flowers of many families, principally Leguminosae, Compositae, and
Labiatae, including Aniorpha, Blephilia, Celastms, Dianthera, Hydrophylluni, Lobelia,
Petalostemon, Riibus, Senecio, Specularia, Trifolium, Verbena, Veronica.

Andronicus cylindriciis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 384. ♂.

Osniia spoliata Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada, Hym., p. 327. ♀.

Hopilitis nionardae Cockerell, 1914. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 363. ♀.

Hoplitis hicksi Cockerell, 1932. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 27: 203. ♀.

Biology: Hicks, 1926 Colo. Univ. Studies 15: 217 (nest). -Eye, 1965. Canadian Ent. 97:
871-872, fig. 2 (life history, parasite). — Medler, 1967. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 40: 137-140, fig.
1 (nest architecture, life history, parasites).

Genus HOPLITIS Subgenus MONUMETHA Cresson

Monunietha Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 2: 387.

Type-species: Chelostoma albifrons Kirby. Desig. by Titus, 1904. {=Monumetha

Hoplitis argentifrons
***authority mismatch
Cresson).
Chlorosmia Sladen, 1916. Canad. Ent. 48: 270.

Type-species: Osniia fiilgida Cresson. Monotypic.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 29 (key).




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Hoplitis albifrons
***authority mismatch
albifrons (Kirby). N. S., to N. Y., west to B. C, north to N. W. T. and Alaska.

Parasite: Melittohia chalybii Ashm., Stelis subemarginata Cress. Pollen: Unknown, but

visits flowers of Phacelia.
Chelostoma albifrons Kirby, 1837. In Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Amer., v. 4, p. 270. ♂.
Mo7mmetha borealis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 388. ♀.
Monumetha obsoleta Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 388. ♂.
Megachile oblonga Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 230. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1947. Evolution, 1: 172.

Biology: Fye, 1965. Canad. Ent. 97: 867-871, tables 2-4 (nest, nest architecture, parasite).

Hoplitis albifrons
***authority mismatch
argentifrons (Cresson). Alta. south to N. Mex. and Ariz., east to Nebr. (Sioux Co.),
west to B. C, Wash, and Oreg., thence south along Sierra Nev. in Calif. Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Allium, Apocynutu,
Arctostaphylos nevadejisis, Astragalus, Cirsium, Clarkia pulchella, C. unguiculata, C.
williamsoni, C. xa7itia7ia, Cleorne sernilata, Erigeron, Eriodictyon californicum.
Geranium fremontii, Gilia, Gomnania obtusata, Lotus, Mertensia franciscana, Mirabilis
laevis, Navia rothrockii, Opulaster, Opuntia, Pedicularis groenlandica, Penstemon
newberryi, Phacelia frigida, P. glandulosa, P. leucophylla, Phyllodoce breweri,
Potentilla glandulosa, Rosa, Senecio, Spiraea sorbifolia, Strepta}ithus tortuosus.
Monumetha argentifrons Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 387. ♂.

Biology: MacSwain, Raven and Thorp, 1973. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 70: 51 (floral

relationships).

Hoplitis albifrons
***authority mismatch
maura (Cresson). Southwest. Oreg., Calif, (west of Sierra Nevada Mts.). Ecology: A
female has been collected carrying a pulpy, green mass, apparently consisting of
macerated leaf tissue. Parasite: Stelis sp., Tricrania stansbnryi Hald. Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Apocynum
androsaemifolium, Brodiaea lutea, Chamaebatia foliolosa, Clarkia biloba, C. breweri, C.
concinna, C. cylindrica, C. dudleyana, C. elegans, C. gracilis albicaulis, C. rhomhoidea,
C. rubicunda, C. speciosa nitens, C. unguiculata, Cirsium, Convolulus, Cordylanthus
pilosus, Cryptantha intentiedia, Eriodictyon trichocalyx, Enogonum, Gilia capitata,
Gormania obtusata. Iris niissouriensis, Helianthella californica, Lotus davidsonii, L.
scoparius, Lonicera interrupta, Mimulus, Mirabilis laevis, Nemophila integrifolia, N.
menziesii, Penstemon, Phacelia californica, P. distajis, P. heterophylla, P. ramosissima,
Phyllodoce breweri, Ranmicuhis, Stanleya pinnata.

Osmia maura Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 104. ♀.

Andronicus hesperius Cockerell, 1903. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 2: 35. ♂.

Biology: MacSwain, Raven and Thorp, 1973. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 70: 51 (floral

relationships).

Hoplitis fulgida
***authority mismatch
fulgida (Cresson). Alaska and Yukon, south to Oreg., Ariz, and N. Mex. Ecology: Nests
in abandoned beetle burrows in wood of various sorts. Parasite: Arit ranis imitator
ruficauda Townes, Melittobia sp., Sapyga aculeata Cress., Sphaeropthalma sp., Stelis
monticola Cress., Stelis sp., Tricrania stansburyi Hald. Pollen: Apparently polylectic,
visits flowers oi Allium diehlii, Clarkia pulchella. Convolvulus, Fragaria vesca,
Gentiana parryi. Geranium caespitosum, Phacelia leucophylla, P. linearis, Potentilla,
Prunus melanocarpa. Ranunculus, Rosa, Rubus deliciosus. Predator: Trichodes
omatus Say.

Osmia fulgida Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 34. ♀.

Osmia viridis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 35. ♀.

Biology: Clement and Rust, 1976. Pan-Pacific Ent. 52: 114-116, figs. 3, 4, tables 1, 2 (nest
architecture, cell provisions, development, parasites).

Hoplitis fulgida
***authority mismatch
platyura (Cockerell). South. Oreg., Calif. Parasite: Anthrax irroratiis Say, Leucospis
affinis Say, Sapyga aculeata Cress. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of
Alliu7)i ixirvu7U, Astragalus douglasii, Calochortus nudus, Cenfromadia, Chamaebatia
foliolosa, Clarkia cylindrica, C. dudleyana, C. purpurea quadrivulnera, C. rhoniboidea,
C. unguiculata, Chaenactis glabriuscula, Collinsia heterophylla, C. ti^ictoria, C. torreyi
wrightii, Cryptantha intermedia, Eriodictyon califorviicum, E. crassifoliuiri, Fragaria




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califomica, Gilia capitata, Haplopappus li7iearifolius, Hemizonia, Hesperochiron
califomicus, Lappula, Lotus subpinnatus, Lupinus bicolor, L.formosus, L. nanus,
Marrubium vulgare, Mentzelia albicaulis, MimitlHS, Ne7)iopliila integrifolia, N.
maculata, N. menziesii, Phacelia alba, P. ciliata, P. davidsonii, P. distaus, P.frigida, P.
heterophylla, P. raniosissima, P. tanacetifolia, Potentilla glandiilosa, Rhus irilobata,
Salix, Sidalcea malvaeflora, Sphaeralcea fasciculatum, Stacliys californica, Taraxacum,
Thysanocarpus curvipes, Trichostema parishii, Trifolium.

Osmia platyura Cockerell, 1911. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 8: 765. ♂, ♀.

Osmia lawae Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 29. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Clement and Rust, 1976. Pan-P?,cific Ent. 52: 114-116, figs 3, 4, tables 1, 2 (nest

architecture, cell provisions, development)

Hoplitis louisae (Cockerell)
B. C, Wash., Oreg., Idaho, north. Calif, and Utah.

Osmia louisae Cockerell, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 679: 14. ♀.

Hoplitis viridimicans (Cockerell)
Wash., west Oreg., Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.).

Os7Hia viridimicans Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 334. ♀.

Genus HOPLITIS Subgenus DASYOSMIA Michener

Hoplitis subg. Dasyos7nia Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 294.
Type-species: Alcidamea biscutellae Cockerell. Orig. desig.

Hoplitis biscutellae (Cockerell)
Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., Utah, Nev., south. Calif.; deserts. Ecology: Nest
has been observed in a bank. Parasite: Anthrax irroratus Say, Neynogtiatha inacswaini
Enns, N. nigripennis LeC, Stelis sp. Pollen: Oligolege of La rrea tridentata, but also
visits other flowers for nectar including Aster abatus, Encelia farinosa, Geraea
cayiescens, Helianthus niveus, Hyptis emoryi, Prosopis, Salvia, Sphaeralcea, ambigua,
Steiiotopsis linearifolius. Predator: Cymatodera sp., Trichodes oniatus Say.
Alcidamea biscutellae Cockerell, 1897. Ann. and Mag., Nat. Hist. (6) 19: 400. ♂.

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 36, tables 2, 5, 7, 9, 11-15 (floral
relationship with Lai-rea).

Hoplitis paroselae Michener
East. Calif., desert. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Dalea
fremontii, D. polyadenia.
Hoplitis (Dasyosmia) paroselae Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 296. ♂, ♀.

Genus HOPLITIS Subgenus CYRTOSMIA Michener

Hoplitis subg. Cyrtosinia Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 292.
Type-species: Osmia hypocrita Cockerell. Orig. desig. and monotypic.

Hoplitis hypocrita (Cockerell)
B. C. to Calif., Nev., Utah., Colo, and Ariz. Ecology: Nests in dead dry
stems and also trap-nests of various sorts. Parasite: Aritranis imitator ruficauda
Townes, Eurytoma sp., Nemognatha scutellaris LeC, Sapyga aculeata Cress., Stelis
sexmaculata Ashm., Stelis sp., Tricrania stansburyi Hald. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a
wide variety of flowers including ^/┬╗smc^!a douglasiana. Astragalus antisellii, A.
goniatus, A. pomoneyisis, A. parishii, A. tener, Brodiaea capitata, Brassica campestris,
Eriodictyon calif oniicum, Grindelia, Lathyrus, Lotus crassifolius, L. glaber, L.
scoparius, Lupinus paynei, Medicago sativa, Penstemon leonardi, Salix, Salvia carnosa,
Sambucus, Stanleya pinnata, Trifolium, Vicia.

Osmia hypocrita Cockerell, 1906. Canad. Ent. 38: 160. ♀.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ. Studies 15: 217 (nest). —Clement and Rust, 1976.
Pan-Pacific Ent. 52: 111-114, figs. 1, 2, tables 1, 2 (nest architecture, cell provisions,
development, parasite)

Genus HOPLITIS Subgenus ALCIDAMEA Cresson

Alcidamea Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 385.

Type-species: Alcidamea producta Cresson. Desig. by Michener, 1941.
Autochelostoma Sladen, 1916. Canad. Ent. 48: 270.

Type-species: Alcidamea producta Cresson. Monotypic. {=Autochelostoma
canadensis Sladen).




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The species of this subgenus, whose habits are known, nest in the pithy cores of dead stems or
canes of various plants.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1051, figs. 142-145, 149 (larva).

Hoplitis brachyodonta (Cockerell)
South. Calif. Ecology: Uses plant material sometimes supplemented
with pebbles in nest construction. Parasite: Stelis sexmaculata Ashm. Pollen: Unknown,
but visits flowers of C haenactis glabriuscula, Heliotropium curassavicum.

Alicidamea brachyodonta Qockerell, 1933. Ent. News 44: 205. ♂.

Hoplitis colei (Crawford)
South. Nev., south. Calif. Parasite: Nemognatha scutellaris LeC, Stelis
sexmaculata Ashm. Pollen: Possibly an oligolege of Eriodictyon including E.
califomicuni, E. crassifolium, E. trichocalyx, but also visits other flowers including
Collinsia tinctoria, Eriastrunt virgatum, Lotus, Nama demissum.

Alcidamea colei Crawford, 1916. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 18: 127. ♂.

Hoplitis elongaticeps Michener
Calif. (Mojave and east, deserts). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Dalea fremontii, Mimulus.

Hoplitis (Alcidarnea) elongaticeps Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 290. ♀.
6.

Hoplitis grinnelli
***authority mismatch
grinnelli (Cockerell). Ariz., Calif., north. Mexico (Baja California and Sonora).

Parasite: Nemognatha scutellaris LeC, Stelis sexvtaculata Ashm. Pollen: Polylectic,
visits a wide variety of flowers including Amsinckia intermedia, Astragalus fremontii,
Ceaywthus, C haenactis, Chorizanthe staticoides, Collijisia torreyi, Cryptantha
intermedia, C. racemosa, Dalea fremontii, Eriastrum virgatum, Erigeron stenophyllus,
Eriogonum fasciculatum, Eucnide urens, Larrea tridentata, Lotus glaber, L. scoparius,
L. strigosus, L. subpinnatus, Lupinus concinnus, Marrubium vulgare, Melilotus indica,
Mentzelia, M esembryanthemum edule, Mimulus, Phacelia distans, P. platyloba, P.
ramosissima, Prosopis pubescens, Rhamnus crocea. Salvia mellifera, Sphaeralcea
ambigua, Trifolium.

Hoplitis grinnelli Cockerell, 1910. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 5: 22. ♀.

Hoplitis grinnelli
***authority mismatch
septentrionalis Michener. B. C, Wash., Oreg., Idaho, Utah. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers oi Linum, Penstemon cyanantlius, Phacelia linearis.

Hoplitis grimielli septentrionalis Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 291. ♂.
9.

Hoplitis pilosifrons (Cresson)
Que. and Mass. to Fla., west to Alta., Colo., and Tex. Ecology: Excavates
pith in dead stem of Helianth us tuberosus for nest. Parasite: Stelis labiata Cress., S.
lateralis (Prov.). Pollen: Stores pollen of Aniorpha fndicosa and Melilotus officinalis,
but also visits other flowers for nectar and or pollen including Barbarea, Blephilia,
Cardavtine, Chrysanthemum, Coreopsis, Desmodium, Dianthera, Erigeron, Geranium,
Gillenia, Heracleuyn, Houstonia, Hydrophyllum, Krigia, Lepachys, Linaria, Lobelia,
Lythrum, Malva, Nepeta, Oenothera, Oxalis, Pedicularis, Penstemon, Petalostemon,
Polymonium, Potentilla, Psoralea, Pycnanthemum, Radicula, Rubus, Scutellaria,
Senecio, Specularia, Stachys, Taenidia, Tephrosia, Teucrium, Trifolium, Verbena,
Vero7iica, Vicia, Zizia.

Alcidamea pilosifrons Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 386. ♂.

Hoplitis graceae Cockerell, 1923. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 11: 263. ♀.

Alcidamea mucronata Cockerell, 1934. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 29: 18. ♂.

Biology: Michener, 1955. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 28: 81-83 (nest, life history, parasite).

Hoplitis producta
***authority mismatch
bernardina Michener. South. Calif. Mts. (overlapping range of producta gracilis).
Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Astragalus
parishii, Collinsia, Convolvulus, Dicentra chrysantha, Gilia exilis, Helianthus,
Hesperochiron, Lotus scoparius, M esembryantheynum crystallinum, Mimulus fremontii,
Penstemon cordifolius, P. grinnelli, P. heterophyllus, P. spectabilis, Phacelia.
Hoplitis producta bernardina Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 287. ♂, ♀.

Hoplitis producta
***authority mismatch
gracilis (Michener). Oreg., Calif. Nev. Ecology: Nests in dead, pithy stems and
trap-nests of various sorts. Parasite: Aprostocetus sp., Chrysura sonorensis (Cam.),
Eurytoma stigini Ashm., Sapyga aculeata Cress., Stelis sexmaculata Ashm. Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Allium parrum. Aster




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foliaceus, Astragalus bolanderi, Brodiaea capitata, Calyptridium umbellatum, Carduus
tenuiflorus, Castilleia, C hamaebatia foliolosa, Cirsium vulgare, Clarkia amoena, C.
biloba, C. dudleyana, C. elegans, C. gracilis albicaulis, C. purpurea, C. rhomboidea, C.
unguiculata, C. williamsonii, Collinsia parviflora, C. tinctoria, C. torreyi, Convolvulus,
Cryptantha, Dudleya, Hugelia brauntonii, Eriodictyon califomicum, E. trichocalyx,
Gayophytum diffusum, Gilia exilis, Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Gormania obtusata,
Hesperochiroyi, Heterogaura heterandra, Kelloggia galioides, Lepechinia calycina,
Lessingia germanorum, Lotus argophyllus, L. comiculatus, L. davidsonii, L.
nevadensis, L. scoparius, Lupinus breweri, Mimulus, Monardell'a villosa, Navarretia
heterodoxa, Nemophila, Penstemon heterodoxus, P. newberryi, P. spectabilis, Phacelia
davidsonii, P. distans, P. linearis, Potentilla glandulosa, Rayiuncuius califomicus,
Rosa, Rubus leucodermis, Salix, Satureja douglasii, Sidalcea calycosa, Trifolium
gracilentum, T. variegatum. Verbena lasiostachys, Vicia amencana.
Osmia gracilis Michener, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: l^S. 9.

Biology: MacSwain, Raven and Thorp, 1973. Calif. Univ., Pubs. Ent. 70: 51 (floral
relationships).

Hoplitis producta
***authority mismatch
interior Michener. Alta., Wyo., Colo., Utah, N. Mex., Ariz, (west of plains). Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Achillea millefolium. Astragalus, Helianthus
peliolaris, Monarda pectinata, Penstemon angustifolium, Phacelia linearis.
Hoplitis producta intcTrior Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 286. ♂, ♀.

Hoplitis producta
***authority mismatch
panamintana Michener. Calif. (Panamint and nearby mts.). Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers of Phacelia.
Hoplitis producta panamintana Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 287. ♂.

Hoplitis producta
***authority mismatch
producta (Cresson). Que. to Ga., west to Alta., Colo., and Tex. Ecology: Nests in
sumac borings. Parasite: Anthrax irroratus Say, Leucospis affinis Say, Nemognatha
nigripennis LeC, A^. scutellaris LeC, Sapyga aculeata Cress., Stelis crassiceps Ckll., S.
labiata (Prov.), S. lateralis Cress., S. sexmaculata Ashm., Tricrania stansburyi Hald.
Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Amorpha fruticosa,
Apocynum, Astragalus, Azalea, Baptisia, Barbarea, Chrysanthemum, Crataegus,
Erigeron philadelphicus. Geranium maculatum, Gilia, Lesquerella, Medicago sativa,
Melilotus officinalis, Mentha canadensis, Penstemon hirsutus, Phacelia dubia,
Potentilla, Rubus argutus, Salix, Solidago, Tephrosia virginiana, Trifolium. Predator:
Philanthus pulcher Dalla Torre.
Alcidamea producta Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 386. ♂.
Autochelostoma canadensis Sladen, 1916. Canad. Ent. 48: 270. "S" = intersex.
Alcidamea helenae Cockerell, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 732: 6. ♂.

Biology: Graenicher, 1905. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 3: 153 (nest). — Comstock, 1924.
Introduction to entomology, p. 824 (nest). —Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ. Studies 15: 217 (nest).
— Rau, 1928. Psyche 35: 100-107, 1 fig. (nest, life history). — Medler, 1961. Canad. Ent. 93:
571-573 (nest, life history).

Hoplitis producta
***authority mismatch
subgracilis Michener. B. C, Wash., Oreg., Idaho.

Hoplitis producta subgracilis Michener, 1947. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 89: 286. ♂, ♀.

Hoplitis sambuci Titus
B. C. to Calif., Nev. and Utah. Ecology: Nests in dry, pithy stems and

trap-nests of various sorts. Parasite: Gasteruption kirbii russeum Townes, Nemognatha
nigripennis LeC, A^. scutellaris LeC, Sapyga aculeata Cress., Sphaeropthalma sp.,
Stelis sp. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including
Amorpha fruticosa, Asclepias eriocarpa. Astragalus antisellii, Cirsium, Clarkia
unguiculata, Cryptantha, Dicentra chrysantha, Eriodictyon califomicum, E.
crassifolium, Eriogonuni, Helianthus, Hesperochiron, Layia glandulosa, Lonicera
interrupta, Lotus glaber, L. scoparius, Lupinus formosus, L. hallii, L. paynei, Medicago
sativa, Mimulus guttatus, Nama parryi, Penstemon spectabilis, Phacelia, Potentilla
glandulosa, Rhamnus califomica, Rubus leucodermis. Salvia mellifera, Sambucus
glauca;, Stanleya pinnata, Trichostema ovatum, Vicia americana.
Hoplitis sambuci Titus, 1904. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 6: 101. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Clement and Rust, 1976. Pan-Pacific Ent. 52: 116-117, fig. 5, tables 1, 2 (nest
architecture, cell provisions, development, parasite).




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Hoplitis truncata
***authority mismatch
mescalerium Cockerell. Colo., N. Mex., Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Gilia.
Hoplitis mescalerium Cockerell, 1910. Entomologist 43: 90. ♀.

Hoplitis truncata
***authority mismatch
truncata (Cresson). Que. and Maine to Fla., west to N. Dak., Wyo., Colo, and Miss.
Parasite: Sapyga centrafa Say. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of
flowers including Baptisia, Berlandiem, Ceaiiothus, Cleome, Convolvulus, Erigeron,
Gillenia, Ilex, Melilotus, Oenothera, Penstemon, Pogonia graminifolia, Rubus,
Tephrosia virginiana, Trifolium, Vaccinium, Vkia.
Alcidantea truncata Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 108. ♂.

Hoplitis uvulalis (Cockerell)
Calif., Oreg., Idaho, Utah. Parasite: N emognatha scutellaris LeC. Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers of Castilleia, Senecio.
Alcidamea uvulalis Cockerell, 1902. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 1: 139. ♂.

Genus HOPLITIS Subgenus FORMICAPIS Sladen

Forynicapis Sladen, 1916. Canad. Ent. 48: 271.

Type-species: Formicapis ctypeata Sladen. Monotypic.

Revision: Michener, 1938. Ent. News 49: 129 (as clypeata).

Hoplitis robusta (Nylander)
Holarctic, Alaska, N. W. T., Que., B. C, Alta., Sask., Mont. Wyo., Colo.,

Oreg., Calif.; Europe and Asia. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, evidently stores pollen of
Astragalus, Silene ruprestris. Taraxacum, Trifolium. Predator: Philanthus pulcher
Dalla Torre.
Heriades robusta Nylander, 1848. Notis. Saellsk. Faun. Flor. Fenn. Forh. 1: 270. ♀, ♂.
Osniia rhinoceros Giraud, 1861. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, Verb. 11: 464. ♀.
Formicapis clypeata Sladen, 1916. Canad. Ent. 48: 271. ♀.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 57-58, figs. 19-20

(redescription). —Peters, 1970. Senckenb. Biol. 51: 193-197 (synonymy, distribution, floral
relationships).

Biology: Clement and Rust, 1975. Ent. News 86: 115-120, 2 figs, (nest, cocoon, supersedure,
floral relationships).

Genus HOPLITIS Subgenus ROBERTSONELLA Titus

Robertsonella Titus, 1904. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 12: 22.

Type-species: Robertsonella gleasoni Titus Monotypic and orig. desig.

Revision: Michener, 1938. Ent. News 49: 130.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 64-68, fig. 25, table 3 (eastern
U. S. spp.).

Hoplitis gleasoni (Titus)
Tex. to 111. and N. J. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Geranitim,
Phacelia, Rubus.
Robertsonella gleasoni Titus, 1904. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 12: 23. ♀, ♂.
Robertsonella crataegina Cockerell, 1909. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 4: 28. ♂.

Hoplitis micheneri Mitchell
Kans., Ga. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers o{ Amorpha fruticosa.

Hoplitis {Robertsonella) micheneri Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 64,
fig. 25. ♀, ♂.

Hoplitis simplex (Cresson)
Tex. to Conn. Parasite: Stelis labiata (Prov.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Phacelia, Salix.
Heriades simplex Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc 2: 384. ♀.

Genus HOPLITIS Subgenus Unassigned

Hoplitis alboscopata (Provancher)
Que.

Heriades albo.'icopatum Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada, Hym., p. 425.
9.
Taxonomy: Titus, 1906. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 7: 160.




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Hoplitis imperfecta (Provancher)
Calif.

Monumetha imperfecta Provancher, 1896. Nat. Canad. 23: 9. 9 . Perhaps a Megachile.

Genus ANTHOCOPA Lepeletier

This rather large genus of chiefly Holarctic bees occurs in Eurasia, Africa and in western
North America, west of the Great Plains. Although there is some evidence which indicates that
Ayithocopa should be merged with Hoplitis, these taxa are maintained as distinct in this catalog.

Revision: Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 49-86 (Nearctic spp.).

Taxonomy: Kurd and Michener, 1955. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 3: 94-126, pis. 8, 19-20, figs.
71-91, maps 40-61 (Calif, spp.). —Michener and Sokal, 1957. Evolution 11: 130-162 (phenetic
classification of the Hoplitis complex). —Sokal and Michener, 1958. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui.
38: 1409-1438 (systematic relationships within the Hoplitis complex). —Michener, 1966.
Entomologist 99: 146 (status of Anthocopa and Hoplitis). —Rubin, 1966. Syst. Zool. 15:
176-182, tables 1-3 (phenetic classification of the Hoplitis complex). —'Michener and Sokal,
1966. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 59: 1211-1217, 5 figs, (phenetic similarities among the species
of the Hoplitis complex). —Michener, 1968. Ent. South Africa, Jour. 31: 337 (status of
Anthocopa and Hoplitis).

Genus ANTHOCOPA Subgenus ANTHOCOPA Lepeletier

Anthocopa Lepeletier, 1825. Encycl. Meth., Diet. Ins., v. 10, p. 314.

Type-species: Apis papaveris Latreille. Monotypic.
Phyllotoma Dumeril, 1860. Acad. Sci. Inst. Imp. France, Mem. 31: 842. Preocc.

Type-species: Apis papaveris Latreille. Desig. by Michener, 1941.
Pseudosniia Radoszkowski, 1872. Soc. Ent. Rossica, Horae 8: xviii. RepubHshed by
Radoszkowski, 1874. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, Bui. 48 (1): 152.

Type-species: Megachile cristata Fonscolombe. Desig. by Cockerell, 1922.
Pseudo-osmia Radoszkowski, 1873. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, Bui. 46 (2): 137. Emend.
Peudocosmia Radoszkowski, 1886. Soc. Ent. Rossica, Horae 20: 14. Emend.

This subgenus does not occur in the New World.

Genus ANTHOCOPA Subgenus ATOPOSMIA Cockerell

Osmia subg. Atoposrnia Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 50.
Type-species: Osmia triodonta Cockerell. Grig, desig.

All species visit chiefly flowers of Penstemon in the mountains.

Anthocopa abjecta
***authority mismatch
abjecta (Cresson). Calif. (White Mts.), Greg., Utah, Wyo., Colo. Ecology: Nests under
stones. Pollen: Gligolege of Penstemon, including P. alpinus, P. heterodoxus, P. moffatti,
P. newberryi.

Osmia abjecta Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 103. ♀.

Hoplitis mesae Cockerell, 1930. Amer. Mus. Novitates 397: 2. ♂.

Anthocopa (Atoposmia) nigrior Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 54. 9 (cJ
misdet.).

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 43 (synonymy).

Biology: Parker, 1975. Pan-Pacific Ent. 51: 119-121, table 1 (nest, cocoon, sex ratio).

Anthocopa abjecta
***authority mismatch
alta (Michener). CaHf. (Sierra Nevada Mts.).

Osmia alta Michener, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 41. ♀.

Anthocopa anthodyta
***authority mismatch
anthodyta Michener. Calif., Nev., Greg., Idaho; Mexico (Baja Cahfornia). Pollen:
Gligolege oi Penstemon including P. cinereus, P. grinnellii, P. newberryi, P. palmeri,
but also visits flowers of Colli^isia parviflora.
Anthocopa (Atoposmia) anthodyta Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 60. ♀, ♂.

Anthocopa anthodyta
***authority mismatch
bequaerti Michener. Ariz. (Santa Rita Mts.). Pollen: Penstemon.

Anthocopa anthodyta bequaerti Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 42. ♂, ♀.

Anthocopa arizonensis Michener
Ariz.

Anthocopa arizonensis Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 43. ♀.




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Anthocopa elongata (Michener)
Calif., Oreg., Wash., Mont., Colo. Pollen: Oligolege of Pensfemon including
P. heterodoxus, P. neicberryi, but also visits flowers of Pliacelia, Potentilla presumably
for nectar.
Osmia elongata Michener, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 41. ♀.

Anthocopa hebitis Michener
Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.). Pollen: Presumably an oligolege of Penstemon,
but also visits flowers of Mi))ndus.
Anthocopa hebitis Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 44. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1962. Pan-Pacific Ent. 38: 228 (geogr. and floral records).

Anthocopa oregona Michener
Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.), Oreg.

Anthocopa (Atoposmia) oregona Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 53. ♀, ♂.

Anthocopa panamintensis Michener
Calif. (Panamint Mts.).

Anthocopa (Atoposmia) panamintensis Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 65. ♀, ♂.

Anthocopa pycnognatha
***authority mismatch
pycnognatha Michener. East. Calif. Pollen: Oligolege of Penstemon including P.
brevifloriis.
Anthocopa (Atoposmia) pycnognatha Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 64. ♀, ♂.

Anthocopa pycnognatha
***authority mismatch
solata Michener. Calif. Pollen: Oligolege of Penstemon including P.

antirrhinoides, P. spectabilis, but also visits flowers of Euphorbia alboviarginata,
Salvia colnmbariae presumably for nectar.
Anthocopa (Atoposmia) pycnognatha solatus Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 48.
9, (J.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1962. Pan-Pacific Ent. 38: 228 (geogr. and floral records).

Anthocopa triodonta
***authority mismatch
shastensis (Cockerell). Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.), Nev., Oreg. Pollen: Oligolege of
Penstemon including P. cinereus.
Osmia shastensis Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 46. ♀.

Anthocopa triodonta
***authority mismatch
triodonta (Cockerell). Calif. (Mt. Diablo, Sierra Nevada and White Mts.). Pollen:
Oligolege of Penstemon including P. heterophyllus.
Osmia (Atoposmia) triodonta Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 50. ♂, ♀.

Anthocopa triodonta
***authority mismatch
usingeri Michener. South. Calif. Pollen: Oligolege of Penstemon including P.

grinnellii, P. labrosus, P. spectabilis, but also visits other flowers presumably for nectar
including Na m a pa rry i.
Anthocopa triodonta usingeri Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 63. ♂, ♀.

Genus ANTHOCOPA Subgenus HEXOSMIA Michener

Anthocopa subg. Hexosmia Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 74.
Type-species: Osmia copelandica Cockerell. Orig. desig.

Anthocopa copelandica
***authority mismatch
albomarginata (Cockerell). Calif, west. Oreg. Parasite: Chrysnra sonorensis
Cam., Epistenia sp., Nemognatha scutellaris LeC, Sapyga puinila Cress. Pollen:
Apparently an oligolege of Phacelia including P. ciliata, P. davidsonii, P. distans, P.
heterophylla, P. hydrophylloides, P. ramosissima, but also visits other flowers including
Collinsia wrightii, Mi7)iulus rubellns, Nemophila integrifolia, N. menziesii.
Osmia albomarginata Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 49. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Parker, 1975. Pan-Pacific Ent. 51: 116-119, figs. 7-8, table 1 (nest, cocoon, parasites).

Anthocopa copelandica
***authority mismatch
arefacta (Cockerell). South. Calif., deserts. Parasite: Leucospis affinis Say. Pollen:
Apparently an oligolege of Phacelia including P. distans, but also visits other flowers
presumably for nectar including Cryptantha intermedia, Malacothrix glabrata.
Predator: Cymatodera sp.
Osmia arefacta Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 42. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Parker, 1975. Pan-Pacific Ent. 51: 116, 117, 119, fig. 9, table 1 (nest, cocoon, nest
associates).

Anthocopa copelandica
***authority mismatch
copelandica (Cockerell). Colo., Utah, Wyo., Mont., Idaho, east. Oreg., Wash., B. C.
Pollen: Apparently an oligolege of Phacelia.
Osmia copelandica Cockerell, 1908. Entomologist 41: 59. ♀.
Osmia besseyae Cockerell, 1910. Entomologist 43: 92. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Parker, 1975. Pan-Pacific Ent. 51: 116 (Idaho nests only).




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Anthocopa phaceliarum (Cockerell)
South. Calif. Pollen: Apparently an oligolege of Phacelia including P.
distans.
Osmia phaceliarum Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 45. ♀.

Genus ANTHOCOFA Subgenus EREMOSMIA Michener

Anthocopa subg. Ereviosmia Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 66.

Type-species: Osmia robust ula Cockerell. Orig. desig.
Anthocopa subg. Phaeosmia Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 77.

Type-species: Osmia enceliae Cockerell. Orig. desig.

Revision: Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour 22: 53 (spp. formerly placed in Phaeosmia).
beameri Michener. Tex. (Big Bend Natl. Park, Marathon). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Nama, Phacelia.
Anthocopa (Eremosmia) beameri Michener, 1951. Pan-Pacific Ent. 27: 64. ♀, ♂.
daleae Michener. Tex. (Big Bend Natl. Park, Sanderson). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Dalea, Phacelia.
Anthocopa (Phaeosmia) daleae Michener, 1951. Pan-Pacific Ent. 27: 62. ♀, ♂.

enceliae enceliae (Cockerell). South. Calif., desert border. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Baileya, Encelia farinosa.
Osmia enceliae Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 43. ♀.
enceliae mortua (Cockerell). Ariz., Calif., Nev. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Encelia
actoni, E.fari7iosa.
Osmia vignierae var. mortua Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 44. ♀, ♂.
Anthocopa {Ereynosynia/) mallognatha Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 67. ♀.
hemizoniae (Cockerell). South. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Helianthus
gracilentus, Hemizonia pa7iicutata.
Osmia hemizoniae Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 47. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 50. ♂.
hypostomalis Michener. CaHf. Ecology: Nests in preexisting burrows in wood including
prebored elderberry trap stems. Parasite: Leucospis affinis Say, Sphaeropthalma
amphion (Fox), Stelis sp. Pollen: Apparently an oligolege of Dalea including D.
fremontii, D. schottii, but also visits other flowers including Cryptantha barbigera,
Palafoxia linearis. Predator: Cymatodera sp.
Anthocopa (Phaeosmia) hypostoyualis Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 50. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 49. ♂.

Biology: Parker, 1975. Pan-Pacific Ent. 51: 113-116, figs. 1-6, table 1 (nest, cocoon, sex ratio,
nest associates).
maryae Michener. Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Dalea.

Anthocopa (Phaeosmia) maryae Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 50. ♀.
mirifica Michener. Calif. (Inyo and Riverside Cos.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
Chaenactis brachypappa, C. carphociinia, Cryptantha, Encelia farinosa.
Anthocopa mirifica Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 51. ♀, ♂.
namatophila Michener. Calif. (Twentynine Palms). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers Nama
demissmn.
Anthocopa namatophila Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 47. ♀.
nitidivitta Michener. South, and east. Calif., desert. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of

Astragalus fremontii, Dalea fremontii, Mentzelia.albicaulis, Nama deynissum, Phacelia.
Anthocopa (Eremosmia) nitidivitta Michener, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 70. ♀, ♂.
robustula (Cockerell). South, and east. Calif., Nev. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of

Astragalus coulteri, Cercidium floridum, Cryptantha barbigera, Dalea californica, D.
fremontii, D. polyadenia, D. saundersii, D. schottii, Geraea canescens, Lotus scoparius,
Lupinus odoratus, Palafoxia linearis, Senecio.
Osmia robustula Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 44. ♀.




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rupestris (Cockerell). South, and east. Calif., desert. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Chaenactis stevioides, Eriodictyon trichocalyx, Larrea tride7itata, Nama demissiim,
Phacelia distans.
Os7nia ritpesfris Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 47. ♀.
segregata Michener. Calif. (Inyo Co.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers ot Dalea fremontii.
Anihocopa segregata Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 48. ♀.

timberlakei (Cockerell). South. Calif., desert. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Astragalus fremontii, Palafoxia linearis.
Osynia timberlakei Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 41. ♀.

viguierae (Cockerell). South. Calif., desert border. Pollen: Apparently an oligolege of vernal
flowering Compositae including Encelia farinosa, Enceliopsis argophylla var.
.grandiflora, Viguiera parishii, but also visits flowers of Hypt is enioryi.
Osmia viguierae Cockerell, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 44. ♀ (♂ misdet.).

Genus ANTHOCOPA Subgenus ISOSMIA Michener and Sokal

Anthocopa subg. Isos7nia Michener and Sokal, 1957. Evolution 11: 159.

Type-species: Anthocopa (Phaeosmia) rubrella Michener. Orig. desig.

Anthocopa hurdiana Michener
Calif. (Panamint Mts.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Dalea
fremontii.
Anthocopa hurdiana Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 47. ♀, ♂.

Anthocopa rubrella
***authority mismatch
macswaini Michener. Calif., Nev. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers oi Dalea
mollis.
Anthocopa rubrella macswaini Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 45. ♀, ♂.

Anthocopa rubrella
***authority mismatch
rubrella Michener. Tex.; Mexico (Sonora). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Dalea.
Anthocopa (Phaeosmia) rubrella Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 51. ♀, ♂.

Anthocopa rubrella
***authority mismatch
rubrior Michener. South. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers ot Dalea mollis.
Anthocopa rubrella rubrior Michener, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 30: 46. ♀, ♂.

Genus ASHMEADIELLA Cockerell

Revision: Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 1-16. —Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland
Nat. 22: 1-84 (Nearctic spp.).

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1051, figs. 134, 138, 139, 141 (larva).
—Hurd and Michener, 1955. Calif. Ins., Survey, Bui. 3: 153-215, pis. 10, 23-24, figs. 2,
112-141, maps 77-111 (Calif, spp.). —Michener and Sokal, 1957. Evolution 11: 130-162
(phenetic classification of the Hoplitis complex). —Sokal and Michener, 1958. Kans. Univ.
Sci. Bui. 38: 1409-1438 (systematic relationships within the Hoplitis complex). —Mitchell,
1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 53-56, figs. 1, 17-18, table 3 (eastern U. S. spp.).
— Rubin, 1966. Syst. Zool. 15: 176-182, tables 1-3 (phenetic classification of the Hoplitis
complex). —Michener and Sokal, 1966. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 59: 1211-121'7, 5 figs,
(phenetic similarities among species of the Hoplitis complex).

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 36 {Lai-rea visiting spp.).

Morphology: Michener, 1943. Pan-Pacific Ent. 19: 96-100 (sex anomalies).

Genus ASHMEADIELLA Subgenus CHILOSIMA Michener

Ashmeadiella subg. Chilosima Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 78.
Type-species: Ashmeadiella rhodognatha Cockerell. Orig. desig.

Ashmeadiella holtii Cockerell
N. Mex., Ariz., deserts.

Ashmeadiella holtii Cockerell, 1898. Canad. Ent. 30: 51. ♂.

Ashmeadiella rhodognatha Cockerell
Tex., Nev. South, and east. Calif.; north. Mexico (Baja California and
Sonora). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Cercidium torreyanuyn, Cryptaiitha
angustifolia, Dalea californica, D. emoryi, D. fremontii, D. neomexicana, D. polyadenia,




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D. schottii, Heliotropium curassavicum, Larrea tridentata, Melilotus, Nama hispidum,
Olneya tesota, Pluchea sericea, Prosopis glandidosa var. torreijanum.
Ashmeadiella rhodognatha Cockerell, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 557. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1942. Ent. News 53: 51. — Michener, 1943. Pan-Pacific Ent. 19: 96.

Genus ASHMEADIELLA Subgenus ASHMEADIELLA Cockerell

Ashmeadiella Cockerell, 1897. Ent. News 8: 197.

Type-species: Henades opuntiae Cockerell. Orig. desig.
Titusella Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 445.

Type-species: Titusella pronitens Cockerell. Monotypic.

Taxonomy: Michener and Sokal, 1957. Evolution 11: 159 (synonymy).

Ashmeadiella altadenae Michener
South, and cent. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Adenostoma fasciculatum, Lotus scoparius.
Ashmeadiella altadenae Michener, 1936. Pan-PacLfic Ent. 12: 63. ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. See, Jour. 27: 75. ♀.

Ashmeadiella aridula
***authority mismatch
aridula Cockerell. Wash., Oreg., Calif., Nev., Utah, Idaho, Wyo., Colo. Parasite:

Anthrax irroratus Say, Chrysura sonorensis (Cam.), Episteyiia sp., Leucospis affinis
Say, Sapyga pumila Cress. Pollen: Presumably polylectic, visits a wide variety of
flowers including Chaetopappa aurea, Cleomella obtusifolia, Cryptantha intermedia, C.
Micrantha, Eriogonum gracile, Eriodictyon, Gutierrezia lucida, G. sarothrae,
Heliotropium curassavicmn var. oculatunt, Lotus americanus, L. argyrophyllus, L.
canade7isis, L. davidsonii, L. glaber, L. hamatus, L. nevadensis, Na7)ia parryi, Phacelia
imbricata, P. ramosissima, Prosopis, Sidalcea malvaeflora, Solidago califomica,
Sphaeralcea ambigua, Viguiera iievadensis.
Ashmeadiella aridula Cockerell 1910. Entomoligist 43: 91. ♂.

Ashmeadiella aridula
***authority mismatch
astragali Michener. Wash., Wyo., Oreg., Calif., Nev. Pollen: Presumably polylectic,
visits a wide variety of flowers including Astragalus bolanderi, Calycadenia
multiglandulosa, Centromadia pungens, Cressa cretica, Dalea polyadenia. Euphorbia,
Grindelia camporum, Heliotropium curassavicum var. obovatum, H. c. var. oculatum,
Hemizonia pungens, Lotus a^nerica^ius, L. glaber, Marrubium vulgare, Melilotus alba,
Phacelia distans, Solidago califomica, Trichostema laxuin, Trifolium.
Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) cactorum astragali Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22:
44. ♀, ♂.
Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 27: 74 (geogr. records and variation).

Morphology: Snelling, 1962. Pan-Pacific Ent. 38: 229-230, fig. 1 (intersex).

Ashmeadiella bigeloviae (Cockerell)
Tex., to south. Calif., Nev.; north. Mexico. Ecology: Nests readily in
trap nests. Parasite: Anthrax irroratus Say, Chrysura sonorejisis (Cam.), Leucospis
affinis Say, Monodontomerus anthidii (Ashm.), Nemognatha nigripennis LeC,
Pyemotes ventricosus (Newport). Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers
including Acacia greggii, Asclepias galioides, Baileya pleniradiata, Bebbia juncea,
Cercidiuvi floridum, C. torreyanum, Cleomella obtusifolia, Coldenia palmeri,
Cryptantha barbigera, C. intermedia, Dalea fremontii, D. mollis, D. spinosa,
Echinocereus engelmannii, Eriastrum virgatum, Eriogonum deflexans, E. deserticola,
E.fasciculatu7u, E.f var. polifolium, E. inflatum, E. trichopes, Eucnide urens, Geraea
canescens, Gutierrezia califomica, G. lucida, G. sarothrae, Haplopappus acradenius, H.
palmeri, Helenium laciniatum, Heliotropium curassavicum, Hymenopappus flavescens,
Isomeris arborea, Larrea tridentata, Lepidium alyssoides, Lotus davidsonii, Medicago
sativa, Melilotus alba, Monardella exilis. Pedis papposa, Petalonyx thurberi, Phacelia
crenulata, Pyrrhopappus multicaulis, Prosopis, Rhus trilobata. Salvia pilosa, Senecio
douglasii, Sesuvium sessile, Sphaeralcea ambigua, S. orcutti, Stephanomeria pauciflora,
Tamarix gallica, Thelypodium cooperi, Tidestromia oblongiflora, Verbesina auriculata,
WisUzenia refracta. Predator: Trichodes omatus Say.
Heriades bigeloviae Cockerell, 1897. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20: 136. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 282-284 (nest architecture,
supersedure, parasite).




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Ashmeadiella biscopula Michener
Ariz., N. Mex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Prosopis.

Ashmeadiella (Tifusella) biscopula Michener, 1935. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 54. ♀.

Ashmeadiella bucconis
***authority mismatch
bucconis (Say). N. Dak., south to N. Mex. and Tex., east to Wis., 111., Ind., Mo., Ark.,
La. and Ga. Pollen: Appears to collect pollen principally from the Compositae, visits
flowers o{ Ainbrosia psilostachija, Anthemis cotula, Brauneria pallida, Callirrhoe
involiicrata. Coreopsis, Gaillardia pulchella, Grindelia squarrosa, Heleniurn
laciniaium, Helianthus petiolaris, Heliopsis helianthoides, Lactuca pulchella, Monarda,
Petalostevwn, Sideranthus, Solidago, Tetragonotlieca ludoviciana. Verbena, Verbesina.
Osmia buccoiiis Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 400. ♀, ♂.
Megachile osmioides Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 269. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 54-55, fig. 17 (redescription).

Ashmeadiella bucconis
***authority mismatch
denticulata (Cresson). B. C. to Calif., east to Mont., Wyo., Colo., N. Mex. and Tex.;

Mexico. Ecology: Nests readily in trap-nests. Parasite: Anthrax irroratus Say, Chrysura
sonorensis (Cam.), Leucospis ajfinis Say, N emognatha nigripennis LeC, Pyemotes
ventricosus (Newport). Pollen: Appears to collect pollen principally from the
Compositae, visits flowers oi Acaniptopappus sphaerocephalus, Adenostoma
sparsifoliu))!. Aster tephrodes, Baileya muttiradiata, B. pleniradiata, Chaenactis
glabriuscula, Chrysothainyuis yiauseosus, Coreopsis grandiflora, C. lanceolata,
Cryptantha iiitermedia, Encelia califomica, E.fariywsa, Eremocarpus setigenis,
Erigeron divergens, E.foliosus var. stenophyllus, Eriogonum gracile, Eriophyllum
confertifloruDi, Gnaphaliunt californicum, Grindelia camporum, G. hallii, G. nana,
Gutierrezia califomica, G. lucida, G. sarothrae, Haplopappus acrade^iius, H.
squarrosus, H. teretifolius, H. venetus, H. veiiionioides, Helianthus, Heterotheca
grandiflora, Navarretia viscidula. Pedis papposa, Penstemon, Senecio douglasii,
Solidago caiifoniica, Sfephano7)ieria exigua.

Heriades/ denticulatum Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 108. ♂.

Heriades^ rotundiceps Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 205. ♀.

Ashmeadiella wislizeni Cockerell, 1922. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 10: 545. ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 285-286 (nest architecture, life

history, parasites).

Ashmeadiella cactorum
***authority mismatch
basalis Michener. South, and cent. Calif., west of deserts, also isolated localities in
east Calif. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Baileya ynultiradiata,
Castilleia, Chilopsis linearis, Chrysopsis villosa, Chrysothamnus, Cordylanthus nevinii,
C. pilosus, Cryptantha inaequata, C. intermedia, C. micrantha var. lepida, Dalea
fremontii, Encelia farinosa, Erigeron divergens, Eriastrum virgatum, Eriogonum
fasciculaturn, E. wrightii subscaposurn, Eryngium aristatulum, Grindelia camporum,
Gutierrezia califomica, G. sarothrae, Lotus argophyllus, L. davidsonii, L. glaber, L.
nevadensis, L. rosea, L. scoparius, Mimulus, Monardella linoides var. stricta,
Penstemon bridgesii, P. grinnellii, P. tematus, Phacelia heterophylla, P. imbricata, P.
ramosissima. Salvia pachyphylla, Trichostema lanatum, T. parishii, Verbena
lasiostachys.

Ashmeadiella basalis basalis Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 6. cJ, 9.

Ashmeadiella cactorum
***authority mismatch
cactorum (Cockerell). B. C, Wash., Oreg., north, and east. Calif., Mont., Wyo., Utah,
Colo., Ariz., N. Mex., Tex.; north. Mexico. Pollen: Stores pollen of Prosopis and small
amounts oi Anisacanthus, but is most probably quite polylectic; visits a wide variety of
flowers including Allium parvum, Asctepias tuberosa, Chilopsis linearis, Clarkia
pulchella, C. rhomboidea, Cordylanthus nevinii, Cryptantha, Dalea argyraea, D.
pogonothera, Echinocereus, Encelia farinosa, Eriastrum virgatum, Erigeron divergens,
E. stenophyllus, Eriogonum fasciculatuvi, Lasthenia chrysostoma, Lotus argyrophyllus,
L. scoparius, Monardella stricta, Nama rothrockii, Opuntia, Penstemon tematus,
Phacelia ramosissima, Trichostema lanatu)n.

Heriades cactorum Cockerell, 1897. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20: 140. ♀.

Ashmeadiella curriei Titus, 1904. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 6: 100. ♀.

Ashmeadiella echinocerei Cockerell, 1911. Canad. Ent. 43: 132. ♀.

Ashmeadiella echinocacti(l) Cockerell, 1931. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 10: 543.

Ashmeadiella basalis nigra Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 7. ♀, ♂.




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Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 286-288 (nest architecture, larval

food, life history, cocoon).

Ashmeadiella californica
***authority mismatch
californica (Ashmead). B. C. to Calif, (except deserts and Sierra Nevada Mts.),

Idaho, Nev., Utah; Mexico (Baja California). Parasite: Aiithrax in-oratus Say, Chrysura
sp., Leucospis affinis Say, Sphaeropthalma unicolor (Cress.), Stelis ashmeadiellae
Timberlake. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including
Asclepias, Aster adscejideyis var. yosemitanus, Calycadenia mtdtiglandulosa,
Camissonia caynpestris, Centaurea meiitensis, Chaenactis glabriuscula, Chorizanthe
staticoides, Chrysothaynnus, Corethrogyne, Cressa cretica, Cryptantha intermedia,
Encelia californica, E. farinosa, Eriastrum virgatum, Erigeron divergens, E . foliosus
var. stenophyllus, Eriogoniim fasciculatum, E. subscaposum, Eriophyllum
confertiflormn, Eupatorium occidentale, Frankenia grandiflora, Gilia multicaulis,
Grindelia camporiim, G. elata, Gutierrezia californica, G. sarothrae, Haplopappus
linearifolius, H. parishii, H. squarrosus, H. vemonioides, Helianthus gracilentus,
Hemizonia fasciculata, H. luzulaefolia, H. paniculata, H. wrightii, Heterotheca
grandiflora, Lessingia germanormn, L. grandiflora, L. leptoclada, L. tenuis, Lotus
americanus, L. glaber, L. hamatus, L. scoparius, Medicago sativa, Melilotus,
Monardella douglasii, M. stricta, Navarretia heterodoxa, N. viscidula, Pentachaeta
aurea, Phacelia ciliata, P. davidsonii, Potentilla glandulosa, Senecio douglasii,
Sesuvium sessile, Solidago lasiostachys, Stephanomeria exigua. Verbena prostrata,
Vigiiiera.

Chalicodoma californica Ashmead, 1897. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. 1 (3): 1. ♂, ♀.

Ashmeadiella coquilletti Titus, 1904. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 6: 99. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Timberlake, 1941. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 49: 134 (parasite).

Ashmeadiella californica
***authority mismatch
florissantensis Michener. Idaho. Wyo., Colo., N. Mex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Aster, Chrysolepis.
Ashmeadiella florissantensis Michener, 1936. Pan-Pacific Ent. 12: 62. ♂, ♀.

Ashmeadiella californica
***authority mismatch
sierraensis Michener. Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.). Pollen: Apparently polylectic,
principally flowers of Compositae, including Aster adscendens, A. foliaceus, Erigeron,
Helianthus, Senecio canus, Solidago multiradiata.
Ashmeadiella {Ashmeadiella) californica sie-rraensis Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat.
22: 51. ♀, ♂.

Ashmeadiella cockerelli Michener
South. Calif.

Ashmeadiella cockerelli Michener, 1936. Pan-Pacific Ent. 12: 62. ♂.

Ashmeadiella cubiceps
***authority mismatch
clypeata (Michener). Calif., low and middle altitudes; Mexico (Baja California).
Parasite: Chrysura sp., Leucospis affinis Say, Monodoyitomerus anthidii (Ashm.).
Pollen: Apparently polylectic, principally Compositae, visits flowers of Baileya,
Chaenactis, Cryptantha, Encelia, Eriophylhim confertiflorum, Haplopappus
linearifolius, Hemizonia, Lessingia germanorum, Melilotus, Sphaeralcea, Viguiera.
Titusella clypeata Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 93. ♀.

Ashmeadiella cubiceps
***authority mismatch
cubiceps (Cresson). Nev., Calif., Oreg., high mts.

Heriades/ cubiceps Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 205. ♀.

Ashmeadiella difugita
***authority mismatch
difugita Michener. South. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Chrysopsis
fastigiata, Eriodictyon trichocalyx, Eriogonum fasciculatum, E. inflatum, Gilia,
Phacelia heterophylla, Verbeyia lasiostachys.
Ashmeadiella {Ashmeadiella) difugita Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 41. ♀, ♂.

Ashmeadiella difugita
***authority mismatch
emarginatula Michener. Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.), Oreg., Idaho, Nev. Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers of Camissonia clavaeformis citrina, C. tanacetifolia,
Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Cirsium tioganum, Clarkia, Eriogonum, Grindelia,
Haplopappus apargoides.
Ashmeadiella difugita emarginatula Michener, 1951. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 24: 53. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 27: 74 (geogr. and floral records).

Ashmeadiella dimalla Michener
Ariz.

Ashmeadiella {Ashmeadiella) dimalla Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 45. ♀, ♂.




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Ashmeadiella femorata (Michener)
South, and east. Calif., Nev., Ariz., deserts. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Baileya, Cercidium florid luri, C. torreyanum, Croton califoniicus, Dalea
fremontii, Haplopappus interior, Hyptis emoryi, Larrea tridentata, Prosopis pubescens.
Predator: Cymatodera sp.
Osmia femorata Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 91. ♀.

Ashmeadiella floridana (Robertson)
N. C. to Fla. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Lupinus.
Heriades floridanus Robertson, 1897. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 7: 348. ♀.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 55-56, fig. 18, table 3
(redescription).

Ashmeadiella foveata Michener
Cent, and east. Calif., Ariz., Nev., Utah. Ecology: Nests under stones.

Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Collinsia torreyi, Cryptantha intermedia, Dalea,
Diplacus anriantiacus, Encelia, Erigeron miser, Haplopappus interior, Helianthus
gracilentus, Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatum, Lotus scoparius, Monardella
lanceolata, Phacelia platyloba, Prosopis, Salvia pilosa.
Ashmeadiella (A shmeadiella) foveata Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 39. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 27: 74. ♂.

Ashmeadiella gillettei
***authority mismatch
cismontanica Michener. Calif. (Riverside, Fresno, Contra Costa Cos.). Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers of Cryptantha intermedia, Eriastrum virgatum,
Eriogonum, Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatuvi, Melilotus.
Ashmeadiella {Ashmeadiella) gillettei cismontanica Michener, 1951. Pan-Pacific Ent. 27:
67. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 24: 52. ♂.

Ashmeadiella gillettei
***authority mismatch
gillettei Titus. Colo., N. Dak., S. Dak., Nebr. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Sedum ste7iopetalu7)i.
Ashmeadiella gillettei Titus, 1904. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 6: 100. ♀.
Ashmeadiella coloradensis Cockerell, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 732: 4. ♂.

Ashmeadiella gillettei
***authority mismatch
rubra Michener. Tex., N. Mex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Dalea formosa.
Ashmeadiella (Ashyneadiella) gillettei rubra Michener, 1951. Pan-Pacific Ent. 27: 67. ♀, ♂.

Ashmeadiella gillettei
***authority mismatch
rufiventris Michener. South, and east. Calif.; Mexico (Baja California). Parasite:

Anthrax irroratus Say, Chrysura sp., Lencospis affinis Say, Stelis sp. Pollen: Unknown,
but visits flowers of Aster abatus. Astragalus fremontii, Baileya pleniradiata,
Cercidium floridum, C. torreyanum, Chaenactis carphoclinia, Cryptantha, Dalea
mollis, Geraea canescens, Heliotropium curassavicum, Lupinus, Malacothrix, Palafoxia
linearis, Phacelia dista^is, Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyanum, Stephayiomeria.
Predator: Cymatodera sp.
Ashmeadiella {Ashmeadiella) rufiventris Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 32. ♀, ♂.

Ashmeadiella leucozona Cockerell
South. Calif., Ariz.; north. Mexico, deserts. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Cercidium torreyamim, Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatum, Nama
hispidum, Teucriuni depressum.
Ashmeadiella leucozona Cockerell, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 556. ♂, ♀.

Ashmeadiella maxima Michener
Tex.

Ashmeadiella maxima Michener, 1936. Pan-Pacific Ent. 12: 61. ♀, ♂.

Ashmeadiella meliloti
***authority mismatch
meliloti (Cockerell). South. Calif., Ariz., N. Mex., Tex.; north. Mexico; deserts.

Parasite: Anthrax irroratus Say, Chrysura sp., Epistenia sp., Leucospis affinis Say,
Nemognatha nigripennis LeC, Sapyga pnmila Cress., Stelis sp. Pollen: Apparently
polylectic, analyzed pollen masses (2) ranged from 100 per cent Prosopis to a mixture of
several pollens consisting of 74 per cent Sternodia and 26 per cent Chenopodiaceae with
traces of pollen from Acacia, Krameria, entomophilous Compositae and Pinus; visits a
wide variety of flowers including Acacia greggii, Acamptopappus sphaerocephaius,
Baileya yriultiradiata, Chilopsis linearis, cleome, Cryptantha, Crusea subulata, Dalea
argyraea, D. formosa, D. pogonathera, Eriogonum gracile, E. inflatH)n, Eriastrutu
virgatum, Gutierrezia califoiiiica, G. lucida, Haplopappus interior, Heliotropium
curassavicum var. oculatum, Lepidium alyssoides, L. montanuni, Lotus davidsonii,
Melilotus alba, Opuntia megacarpa, Penstemon, Phacelia cicutai'ia, P. ramosissima,
Prosopis glandulosa var. ton-eyanum, Pyrrhopappus multicaulis, Rhus trilobata.




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Salvia pilosa, Solidago californica, Spliaemlcea ambigna, Viguiem nevadensis.
Predator: Cymatodera sp., Tricliodes hoiiii Wolcott and Chapin. Another subspecies,
crassa Ckll., occurs in Mexico (Baja California).
Heriades meliloti Cockerell, 1897. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20: 141. cJ, 9.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 288-290 (nest architecture, larval
food, life history, supersedure, parasites and predators).

Ashmeadiella occipitalis Michener
South. Ariz., west. Tex.; Mexico (Sonora, Baja California). Ecology:
Readily nests in trap-nests. Parasite: Chrysura sonorensis (Cam.), Nemognaiha
nigripennis LeC. Predator: Pyemotes ventricostis (Newport), Trichodes Iionii Wolcott
and Chapin.
Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) occipitalis Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 22. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 27: 76 (geogr. records, tax. characters of
female).

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 290-294, pi. 17, fig. 78 (nest

architecture, larval food, life history, male production, supersedure, parasites, predators).

Ashmeadiella opuntiae (Cockerell)
Tex. to south. Calif., Utah and Colo.; north. Mexico (Sonora). Parasite:
A7ifhrax irroratiis Say, Chrysura sp., Leiicospis affinis Say, Melittobia chalybii Ashm.
Pollen: Oligolege of Cactaceae, analyzed pollen masses (4) contained 95.2 per cent
Opuntia pollen of the subgenus Cylindropuntia and 4.8 per cent pollen of the subgenus
Platyopiintia; obtains pollen and nectar from flowers of Cactaceae including
Echiiiocactus cylindracens, Echinocereus engelmannii, Ferrocactus acanthodes,
Opinitia ecliinocarpa, 0. megacarpa, 0. occidenfalis, 0. parryi, 0. vaseyi, but also visits
other flowers for nectar including Clirysotharnnus, Penstemon, Viguiera nevadensis.
Predator: C ymatodera sp.

Heriades opuntiae Cockerell, 1897. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20: 139. ♀.

Aslivieadiella subiiiaxinia Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 3. ♂.

Ashvieadietla arizonensis Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 3. ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1943. Pan-Pacific Ent. 19: 97. — Hurd and Michener, 1955. Calif. Ins.
Survey, Bui. 3: 192 (synonymy).

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 294-295 (nest architecture, larval
food, life history, parasite).

Ashmeadiella pronitens (Cockerell)
Colo., Wyo.

Titusella pronitens Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 446. ♀.

Ashmeadiella prosopidis (Cockerell)
Tex. to south. Calif.; north. Mexico, deserts. Pollen: Apparently an

oligolege of Prosopsis including P. glandulosa var. torreyanum, P. piibescens, but visits
other flowers presumably for nectar including Acacia greggii, Cryptantha barbigera,
Heliotropium curassavicum, Larrea tridentata, Melilotus, Pluchea sericea, Salix nigra,
Sphaei-alcea ambigua.
Heriades prosopidis Cockerell, 1897. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20: 140. ♀ (♂ misdet.).
Ashmeadiella schivarzi Titus, 1904. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 6: 98. ♀, ♂.
Ashmeadiella subangusta Cockerell, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 588. ♀.

Taxonomy: Hurd and Michener, 1955. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 3: 161 (synonymy).

Ashmeadiella rufipes Titus
South, and east. Calif., north. Mexico, deserts. Parasite: Monodontomerus

anthidii (Ashm.), Stelis sp. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers o{ Abronia, Cryptantha
barbigera, C. intermedia, Dalea enioryi, D. mollis, Heliotropium curassavicum, H. c.
var. oculatuni, Palafoxia linearis, Pedis papposa, Petalonyx thurberi, Tidestroniia
oblongiflora.
Ashmeadiella rufipes Titus, 1904. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 6: 99. ♀.
Ashmeadiella haematopoda Cockerell, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 555. ♀.
Ashmeadiella rhodopus Michener, 1936. Pan-Pacific Ent. 12: 59. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1936. Pan-Pacific Ent. 12: 58. 9, 6. —Hurd and Michener, 1955. Calif.
Ins. Survey Bui. 3: 175-177 (synonymy).




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Ashmeadiella rufitarsis Michener
Calif. Pollen: Apparently an oligolege of Eriogonum, including E.

fasciculatum, E. gracile, E. vimineum, but also visits other flowers presumably for
nectar including Euphorbia.
Ashmeadiella (AshmeadieUa) rufitarsis Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 37. ♀, ♂.

Ashmeadiella sonora Michener
Calif., Ariz., Utah; north. Mexico (Baja California). Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers of Asclepias, Baileya multiradiata, Dalea, Eriastrum virgatum,
Eriogonum trichopes, Euphorbia polycarpa var. hirtella, Fouquieria splendens,
Gutierrezia sarothrae, Lepidium alyssoides, Olneya fesota, Pedis papposa.
Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) sonora Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 35. ♂, ♀.

Ashmeadiella stevensi Michener
N. Dak.

Ashmeadiella stevensi Michener, 1937. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 19: 405. ♀.

Ashmeadiella titusi Michener
Calif. Pollen: Possibly an oligolege of Lotus including L. scoparius, but visits
other flowers presumably for nectar including Helianthus gracilentus, Phacelia
ramosissima.
Ashmeadiella (Ashyneadiella) titusi Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 25. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1962. Pan-Pacific Ent. 38: 230 (geogr. and floral records).

Ashmeadiella truncativentris Michener
Tex. (Sanderson). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Dalea.
Ashmeadiella {Ashmeadiella) truncativentris Michener, 1951. Pan-Pacific Ent. 27: 68. ♀.
6.

Ashmeadiella vandykiella Michener
Tex.

Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) vandykiella Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 46. ♀.
6.

Genus ASHMEADIELLA Subgenus AROGOCHILA Michener

Ashmeadiella subg. Arogochila Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 58.

Type-species: Ashmeadiella timberlakei Michener. Orig. desig.
Ashmeadiella subg. Corythochila Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 74.

Type-species: Ashmeadiella iyiyoensis Michener. Orig. desig.
Rhamphorhina Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 8. Republished by Michener and
Sokal, 1957. Evolution 11: 135 and 159, lapsus for Corythochila Michener.

Ashmeadiella australis (Cockerell)
Calif., Nev., Utah. Pollen: Apparently an oligolege of Penstemon

including P. breviflorus, P. grinnellii, P. palmeri, but visits other flowers presumably
for nectar including Geranium, Monardella linoides var. stricta, Solidago califomica,
Streptanthus tortuosus.
Chelostoma australis Cockerell, 1902. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 1: 139. ♀.
Chelostomopsis australis nanus Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 14: 206. ♀.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1962. Pan-Pacific Ent. 38: 234 (geogr. and floral records).

Ashmeadiella barberi Michener
Ariz.

Ashmeadiella (Arogochila) barberi Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 61. ♀.

Ashmeadiella breviceps Michener
South. Calif., Ariz., Nev.; Mexico (Baja Calif., Sonora). Parasite: Chrysura
sp., Stelis sp. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including
Cercidium floridum, Dalea mollis, Dipetalia linifolia, Hyptis emoryi, Larrea tridentata,
Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyanuyn, Stephanomeria. Predator: Cymatodera sp.
Ashmeadiella (Corythochila) breviceps Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 77. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Kurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 36 (floral relationships).

Ashmeadiella cazieri Michener
South, and east. Calif., Ariz., deserts. Parasite: Nemognatha nigripennis

LeC, Stelis sp. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Cercidium torreyanum,
Dalea califomica, D. fremontii, D.johnsonii, Larrea tridentata.
Ashmeadiella (Arogochila) cazieri Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 72. ♀, ♂.

Ashmeadiella clypeodentata
***authority mismatch
clypeodentata Michener. Ariz., south. Calif., north. Mexico, deserts. Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Cercidium floridum, C. torreyanum, Dalea
emoryi, Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatum, Phacelia hispida, Prosopis
glandulosa var. torreyanum.
Ashmeadiella clypeodentata Michener, 1936. Pan-Pacific Ent. 12: 57. ♀.




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Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, p. 295 (nest architecture, life
history).

Ashmeadiella clypeodentata
***authority mismatch
simplicior Michener. Tex., Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Prosopis.
Ashvieadiella (Arogochila) clypeodentata simplicior Michener, 1951. Pan-Pacific Ent. 27:
70. ♀.

Ashmeadiella erema Michener
Tex., Ariz., south Calif., deserts. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Dalea
including D. fremontii.
Ashmeadiella (Arogochila) erema Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 65. ♀.

Ashmeadiella eurynorhyncha Michener
East. Calif., desert. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Dalea
fremontii.
Ashmeadiella (Arogochila) eurynorhyncha Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 62. ♀.
6.

Ashmeadiella foxiella Michener
Wash., Oreg., cent. Calif., Idaho. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Penstemon, Phacelia.
Ashmeadiella (Arogochila) foxiella Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 73. ♂.
Ashmeadiella (Chilosima) Washingtonensis Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 80. ♀.

Ashmeadiella inyoensis Michener
East. Calif., deserts. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Dalea
polyadenia, D. schottii.
Ashmeadiella (Corythochila) inyoensis Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 75. ♀, ♂.

Ashmeadiella lateralis Michener
South. Calif.

Ashmeadiella lateralis Michener, 1936. Pan-Pacific Ent. 12: 60. ♂.

Ashmeadiella leachi Michener
Calif.

Ashrneadiella (Arogochila) leachi Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 43. ♀.

Ashmeadiella lutzi (Cockerell)
Utah, Colo. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Phacelia leucophylla.

Chelostomopsis lutzi Cockerell, 1930. Amer. Mus. Novitates 397: 2. ♀.

Ashmeadiella micheneri
***authority mismatch
SnelHng. Calif. (Stanislaus and Mariposa counties). Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Phacelia.
Ashmeadiella (Arogochila) micheneri Snelling, 1962. Pan-Pacific Ent. 38: 231, fig. 2. ♂, ♀.

Ashmeadiella neomexicana (Cockerell)
N. Mex.

Chelostoma Neomexicanum Cockerell, 1904. Canad. Ent. 36: 13. ♀.

Ashmeadiella salviae Michener
South, and cent. Calif. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of

Brassica, Calochortus luteus, Dalea, Lepechinia calycina, Rhamnus crocea, Salvia
mellifera, Trichostema parishii.
Ashmeadiella (Arogochila) salviae Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 69. ♀, ♂.

Ashmeadiella sculleni Michener
Oreg.

Ashrneadiella (Arogochila) sculleni Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 60. ♀.

Ashmeadiella stenognatha Michener
Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Phacelia platyloba.
Ashmeadiella (Arogochila) stenognatha Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 63. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1954. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 27: 77. ♂.

Ashmeadiella timberlakei
***authority mismatch
solida Michener. Cent, and north. Calif., Oreg., Nev. Pollen: Apparently polylectic,
visits flowers of Astragalus bolanderi, Eriodictyon, Grindelia camporuni, Kelloggia
galioides, Lotus argophyllus, L. glaber, L. nevadensis, L. scoparius, Nama rothrockii,
Nemophila, Phacelia distans, Solidago califomica, Trifolium variegata.
Ashmeadiella (Arogochila) timberlakei solida Michener, 1939. Amer.. Midland Nat. 22: 68.
cJ, 9.

Ashmeadiella timberlakei
***authority mismatch
timberlakei Michener. South. Calif. Parasite: Anthrax irroratus Say, Leucospis
affinis Say, Nemognatha nigripennis LeC, Rhydinofoeyius sp., Stelis sp. Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Chaenactis, Chorizanthe staticoides, Cryptantha
intermedia, C. lepida, Dalea califomica, Eriodictyon crassifolium, E. trichocalyx, Lotus
argophyllus, L. davidsonii, L. glaber, L. nevadensis, L. scoparius, Lupiyius arizonicus, L.
concinnus, Mimulus freynontii, Oenothera dentata, Penstemon spectabilis, Phacelia
cicntaria, P. davidsonii, P. heterophylla, P. ramosissima, Trichostema lanata, T.
parishii, Trifolium variegata.
Ashmeadiella timberlakei Michener, 1936. Pan-Pacific Ent. 12: 56. ♀, ♂.




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Genus ASHMEADIELLA Subgenus CUBITOGNATHA Michener

Ashmeadiella subg. Cubitognatha Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 81.

Type-species: Ashmeadiella xenomastax Michener. Orig. desig. and monotypic.

Ashmeadiella xenomastax Michener
South, and east. Calif., Nev.; Mexico (Sonora); deserts. Pollen:

Apparently polylectic, visits flowers oi Aster abatus, Chaenactis xantiana, Dalea
califomica, D. mollis, D. polyadenia, D. saundersii, D. schottii, Eriogonum
fasciculatum, Lotus, Lupinus odoratus, Phacelia distans, Pholisma arenarium., Salvia
columbariae.
Ashmeadiella {Cubitognatha) xenomastax Michener, 1939. Amer. Midland Nat. 22: 81. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1942. Ent. News 53: 51. ♂.

Genus OSMIA Panzer

Revision: Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 1-167 (Nearctic spp.). —Rust, 1974.
Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 1-93, 45 figs., 9 tables (treats Nearctic spp. of the subgenera
Cephalosmia, Chalcosmia and Osmia and includes information on their biologies).

Taxonomy: Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 357-364 (key to western spp.).

— Sandhouse, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 35-41 (key to Canad. spp.). —Michener, 1941. Amer.
Midland Nat. 26: 147-167 (classification). — Sinha, 1958 (1956). Xth Internatl. Congress
Ent., Proc. 1: 243-251, 1 fig., 4 tables (phylogenetic relationships). —Sinha, 1958. Kans.
Univ. Sci. Bui. 39: 211-261, 151 figs, (reclassification of New World subgenera). —Mitchell,
1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 69-107, figs. 1, 25-35, table 4 (eastern U. S.
spp.). -Snelling, 1967. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 66: 103-108, 1 fig. (treats subgenera
Euthosmia and Mystacosmia).

Biology: Rau, 1937. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 30: 324-343, 6 figs., 2 tables (nesting habits).

— Bohart, 1955. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 57: 203-204 (gradual nest supersedure).

— Crosswhite and Crosswhite, 1966. Amer. Midland Nat. 76: 450-467 (Penstemon visiting
spp.). — Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 295-320, pi. 16, figs. 70-77, pi. 17,
figs. 82-85, 87, pi. 18, figs. 88-91, pi. 23, figs. 111-114, pi. 27, figs. 128-130, tables 29-33 (life
histories, nests, associates). — Medler, 1967. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 60: 338-344, figs. 1-2, 2
tables (life histories, nests and associates of Wis. spp.). — Maeta, 1969. The life study,
Fukui 13: 41-43 (supersedure). —Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 1-93, 45 figs., 9 tables
(life histories, nests and associates of the subgenera Cephalosmia, Chalcosmia and
Osmia).

Genus OSMIA Subgenus OSMIA Panzer

Osmia Panzer, 1806. Krit. Rev. Insektenf. Deutschlands, v. 2, p. 230.

Type-species: Apis rufa Linnaeus. Desig. by Latreille, 1810. (=Apis bicomis
Linnaeus).
Amblys Klug, 1807. Mag. Insektenk. 6: 198.

Type-species: Apis rufa Linnaeus. Desig. by Latreille, 1810.
Osmia subg. Ceratosmia Thomson, 1872. Hym. Scand., v. 2, p. 232.

Type-species: Apis rufa Linnaeus. Monotypic.
Osmia subg. Aceratosviia Schmiedeknecht, [1885]. Apidae Europaeae, v. 2, p. 19.

Type-species: Osmia emarginata Lepeletier. Desig. by Sandhouse, 1939.
Osmia subg. Pachyosmia Ducke, 1900. Ber. naturw.-med. Ver. Innsbruck 25: 18.

Type-species: Osmia rufa (Linnaeus). Desig. by Sandhouse, 1939.

Revision: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 8-32, figs. 1-2, 7-15, tables 1-3 (Nearctic spp.).
Biology: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 9-11 (summary of information on life histories).

Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski)
Utah (Garden City and Providence Canyon); China, Korea, Japan.
Ecology: Nests in preexisting burrows, holes or cavities in wood, stems or culms
including trap-nests. Purposely introduced into Utah from Morioka, Japan in 1965 and
possibly is an established species. Parasite: Tricrania stansburyi (Hald.). Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Malus, Prunus, Pyrus.
Chalicodoma coniifrons Radoszkowski, 1887. Soc. Ent. Ross., Horae 21: 430. ♀.




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Biology: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 14-15 (nest architecture, cocoon, life history,
parasite).

Osmia lignaria
***authority mismatch
lignaria Say. N. S. to Ga., west to Mich., Iowa, Nebr., Kans., Okla., and Tex. Ecology:
Nests in a wide variety of preexisting borings, burrows, cavities, crevices, and mud
nests of wasps as well as attaching their cells in clusters on exposed surfaces; uses mud
for nest construction. Parasite: Chaetodactylus kromheini Baker, Clirysura kijrae
Krombein, Leucospis affinis Say, Melittobia chalybii Ashm., Monodoniomerus obscurus
Westw., Sapyga angustata Cress. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers
including Camassia, Cardamine, Cercis canadensis, Chaerophyllum, Claytonia,
Collinsia, Dentaria laciniata, Dicentra, Diervilla japonica, Dirca, Erigenia,
Erytlironium albidum, E. americanum, Fragaria, Geranmm, Glechoma hederacea,
Hydrophyllum, Lupinus, Malus, Mertensia, Nepeta hederacea, Osmorrhiza, Oxalis,
Polemonium, Primus, Pyrus, Ranuncuhcs, Ribes, Rosa, Rubtis, Salix, Senecio,
Stellaria, Taenidia, Taraxacum, Viburnum, Vicia, Viola, Zanihoxylum.
Osmia lignaria Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 399. ♀, ♂.
Osmia purpurascens Smith, 1849. Zoologist 7 (app.): Iviii. ♂.

Biology: Rau, 1926. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 25: 203 (nest). — Rau, 1937. Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 30: 324-342, 1 pi. (nest architecture, life history, effect of cell size and placement on
sex ratio, foraging behavior, parasite). — Bohart, 1955. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 57: 203-204
(nest architecture, life history, supersedure). —Chandler, 1959 (1958). Ind. Acad. Sci., Proc.
68: 199-204 (nest). -Balduf, 1961. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 56: 83-84 (nest, foraging
behavior). —Krombein, 1962. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 75: 239-242, pi. 1 (nest architecture,
parasite). —Chandler, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., North Central Branch, Proc. 16: 18-19 (nest
architecture, life history, parasite). —Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp.
296-306; pi. 16, figs. 70-77; pi. 17, figs. 82-85, 87; pi. 18, fig. 88; pi. 23, figs. 111-114; pi. 27,
figs. 128-130 (nest architecture, life history, supersedure, effect of cell size and placement
on sex ratio, foraging behavior, cocoon, parasites). — Medler, 1967. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann.
60: 340-341, fig. 2, table 1 (nest architecture, life history). — Byers, 1972. Kans. Ent. Soc,
Jour. 45: 235-238 (supersedure by Monobia quadridens). —Matthews and Kislow, 1973.
Environ. Ent. 2: 157-158, 1 fig. (cocoon orientation). —Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32:
21-27, table 3 (nest architecture, life history, parasites). — Torchio, 1976. Kans. Ent. Soc,
Jour. 49: 475-482, 4 figs., 4 tables (use as pollinator in apple and piflne orchards).

Osmia lignaria
***authority mismatch
propinqua Cresson. Sask., to west. Tex., west to B. C, Wash., Oreg. and Calif.

Ecology: Nests in a wide variety of preexisting borings, burrows, cavities, crevices and
mud nests of wasps as well as attaching their cells in clusters on exposed surfaces; uses
mud for nest construction. Parasite: Leucospis affinis Say, Sapyga emarginata Cress.,
Stelis sp., Tricrania stansbiiryi Hald. Pollen: Polylectic,visits a wide variety of flowers
including Acer, Ayusinckia intermedia. Arbutus menziesii, Arctostaphylos drupacea, A.
glauca, A. patula. Astragalus, Berbens califomica, Blennosperma nanum, Brassica,
Ceanothus integerrimus, Cercis occidentalis, Cercocarpus beiulifolius, Cirsium,
Clarkia, Collinsia heterophylla, Cryptantha, Cytisus scopariiis, Eriodictyon,
Erythronimn, Geraea canescens, Gilia tricolor, Hydrophyllum, Isomeris arborea,
Limnanthes douglasii, Lonicera, Lupinus albifrons, L. bicolor, Lycium, Mimulus,
Nemophila exilis, N. menziesii, Penstemon, Phacelia cicutaria, P. distans, P.
tanacetifolia, Prunus subcordata, Ranunculus califortiicus, Raphanus sativus,
Rhaynnus califomica, R. crocea, Ribes cereum, R. menziesii, R. roezlii, R. velutina, R.
viscosissimum, Rubus ursiiius, Salix laevigata, S. lasiolepis, Salvia carduacea, Sejiecio,
Sisyynbrium irio, Tamarix, Taraxacum vulgare, Trifolium repens, Vicia califomicum,
Viola, Wyethia. Predator: Ptinus californicus Pic, Trichodes omatus Say.
Osmia propinqua Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 23. ♀.
Osmia lignaria lignariella Cockerell, 1906. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 17: 227. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1054, figs. 135-137, 140 (larva).

Biology: Hicks, 1934. Colo. Univ., Studies 21: 265 (nest). — Linsley and MacSwain, 1941.
South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 40: 129 (nest, parasites). —Levin, 1957. Econ. Ent., Jour. 50:
506-507 (nest architecture, life history). —Levin and Haydak, 1957. Bee World 38: 221-226
(comparative nutritional values of different pollens). —Levin, 1966. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour.




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39: 524-535, figs 2-6 (nest architecture, life history, cocoon, effect of cell size and
placement on sex ratio, mud collecting, foraging behavior, parasites, predators). —Rust,
1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 21-27, table 3 (nest architecture, life history, mating
behavior, parasites, predators).

Osmia ribifloris
***authority mismatch
biedermannii Michener. Oreg., Calif., Nev., Utah, Ariz., west. N. Mex.; Mexico (Baja
CaUfornia). Ecology: Nests in borings, abandoned Sceliphron nests and between cracks
in shingles. Pollen: Polylectic, visits flowers o{ Arctostaphylos drupacea, A. glandulosa,
A. glauca, A. patula, Asclepias, Astragalus, Berberis, Eriodictyon crassifolium,
Fendlera, Phlox, Prunus, Rhus, Ribes, Salix, Salvia soiiomensis, Wyetliia.
Osmia ribifloris biedermannii Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 19. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Leech, 1959. Pan-Pacific Ent. 35: 53 (nest). — Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps
and bees, p. 306 (nest architecture, life history, as ribifloris). —Rust, 1974. Wasmann
Jour. Biol. 32: 32 (nest architecture, foraging behavior).

Osmia ribifloris
***authority mismatch
ribifloris Cockerell. Tex., N. Mex., Colo., Utah, Nev. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Berberis, Sophora.
Osmia (Melanosmia) ribifloris Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 5: 410. ♀.

Genus OSMIA Subgenus CHALCOSMIA Schmiedeknecht

Osmia Subg. Chalcosmia Schmiedeknecht, [1885]. Apidae Europaeae, v. 2, p. 886.

Type-species: Osmia fiilviventris Latreille. Desig. by Sandhouse, 1939.
Gnatkosmia Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 165.

Type-species: Osmia georgica Cresson. Orig. desig. and monotypic.

Revision: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 32-56, figs. 3-4, 15-26, tables 4-6.
Biology: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 34 (summary of information on life histories).

Osmia chalybea Smith
N. J., N. C, Ga., Fla., La., Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Ceanothus, Cirsium, Vaccinium.
Osmia chalybea Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 143. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1905. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 33. ♂.

Osmia coerulescens (Linnaeus)
;- Holarctic. N. S. to Minn, south to N. C, Ind., 111., Mo., and Neb.;

Idaho (Twin Falls), where probably adventive. Ecology: Nests in preexisting burrows in
wood or in open cavities as in old mud dauber nests. Parasite: Melittobia chalybii
Ashm., Monodontomerus sp. Pollen: Collects pollen from Leonurus cardinea, Medicago
sativa, Nepeta cafaria, but visits other flowers including Agastache, Cercis, Cirsium,
Lotus, Philadelphus, Salvia, Trifolium, Vicia. Predator: Attagenus piceus Oliv.,
Chaetodactylus sp., Trogoderma inclusum LeC, T. teukton Beal.

Apis coerulescens Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 576. ♀.

Apis aenea Linnaeus, 1761. Fauna Suecica, ed. 2, p. 421. ♂.

Osmia cyanea Giraud, 1866. Soc. Ent. France, Ann. 6: 451. ♀, ♂.

Osmia purpurea Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 27. ♀.

Osmia rustica Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 27. ♂.

Osmia coerulescens Dalla Torre, 1896. Cat. Hym., v. 10, p. 388. Emend.

Biology: Chandler, 1963. North Central Branch, Ent. Soc. Amer., Proc. 18: 30 (nest,
predators, parasites). —Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 310-311 (nest
architecture, life history, predator). -Medler, 1967. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 60: 341, table 1
(nest architecture). — Tasei, 1972. Apidologie 3: 149-165 (nest architecture, life history,
parasites). —Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 42 (life history, predators, parasites).

Osmia coloradensis Cresson
Nebr. to Tex., west to B. C, Wash., Oreg. and Calif.; Mex. (Baja
California). Ecology: Nests in burrow in Pinns Jeffrey i cone as well as trap-nests.
Parasite: Chrysura pacifica (Say). Pollen: Apparently prefers pollen from the flowers of
Compositae, but also visits other flowers possibly for nesting material; visitation records
include Anisinckia intermedia, Barbarea orthoceras, Calandriuia caulescens var.
menziesii. Calendula, Carduus tenuiflorus, Centaurea, Chaoiactis fremontii, C.
glabriuscula, Chrysothainnus, Cirsium califoniieum. Coreopsis lanceolata, Cryptantha
intermedia, Encelia farinosa, Erigeron, Eriodictyon, Eriogonum nudum, Eriophyllum




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confertiflonim, E. lanatum, Eucnide, Gilia multicaiilis, Grindelia camporum,
Gutierrezia, Helenium bigelovii, Helianthella californica, Heliantfms gracilentus,
Hyptis emoryi. Iris, Lasthenia chrysostoma, Layia platyglossa var. breviseta,
Malacothrix, Mimulus guttatus, Penstemon, Phacelia minor, Plialacoseris bola7ideri,
Ranunculus califomicus, Rhus trilobata, Senecio integerrimus, S. lugens, Siiybuni
marianum. Sisymbrium irio, Sonchus oleraceus, Sphaeralcea ambigua, Stenotopsis
linearifolius. Taraxacum officinale. Verbena, Viguiera laciniata, Wyethia.

Osmia coloradensis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 105. ♀.

Osmia hypochrysea Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 449. ♀.

Osmia hypochry sea Rohweri Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Higt. (7) 19: 366. ♀.

Osmia pasadenae Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 122. ♂.

Biology: Ruckes, 1956. Pan-Pacific Ent. 32: 122, 1 fig. —Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32:

47-48 (nest architecture, cocoon, parasite).

Osmia georgica Cresson
Mass. to Mich., south to Fla. and Tex. Ecology: Nests in borings and glass
tubes. Parasite: Chrysura pacifica (Say). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers o{ Aronia,
Brassica, Cardamine, Chrysantheynnm leucanthemum, Claytonia, Coreopsis, Erigeron,
Erythronium, Fragaria, Geranium, Hydrangea, Krigia Linaria, Lupiiius, Mains,
Pynis, Ranunculus, Rubus, Salix, Senecio, Taraxacum, Verbena, Vicia. Predator:
Camponotus sp., C rematogaster sp.

Osmia georgica Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 105. ♀.

Osmia (Gnathosmia) louisianae Cockerell, 1901. Canad. Ent. 42: 171. ♀.

Biology: Hartman, 1944. Psyche, 51: 162-165 (nest architecture, life history). — Krombein,

1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees. p. 311 (nest architecture, life history). —Hawkins,

1975. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 48: 493-499, 3 figs, (nest architecture, life history, parasite,

predator).

Osmia texana Cresson
N. Y., Mich., Ohio, Nebr., Tex., and B. C, Alta. and N. Dak., south to N. Mex.,
Ariz, and Cahf.; Mexico (Baja California and Tamaulipas). Ecology: Nests in abandoned
cells oi Antkophora occidentalis Cr. in clay bank and in elderberry trap-nests; uses
masticated leaf material from Malva neglecta and Sphaeralcea coccinea for cell
partitions and cell plug. Parasite: Anthrax irroratus Say, Chrysis deyisa Cress., Homia
minutipennis Riley, Monodontomerus montivagus Ashm., Nemognatha sp., Stelis

Osmia montana
***authority mismatch
Cress. Pollen: Apparently prefers pollen from Compositae, visits a wide
variety of flowers including Asclepias, Campanula, Carduus tenuiflorus, Calochortus
splendens, Centaurea, Chaenactis glabriuscula, Cirsium califomicurn, C. vulgare,
Coreopsis lanceolata, Cryptantha intermedia, Diplacus aurantiacus, Erigeron,
Eriodictyon califomicum, Eriophyllum lanatiim, Grindelia camporum, Frasera parryi,
Helianthus, Lotus, Marrubium vulgare, Monarda, Monardella villosa, Parkinsonia
aculeata, Penstemon, Phalacoseris bolanderi, Rubus leucodermis, Senecio, Stenotopsis
linearifolius, Sidalcea malvaeflora, Viguiera laciniata, V. multiflora, Wyethia
helenioides. Predator: Trichodes simulator (Horn).

Osmia texana Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 261. ♂.

Osmia mandibularis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 102. ♀.

Osmia faceta Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 103. ♂.

Osmia davidsoniella Cockerell, 1905. Canad. Ent. 37: 370. ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 217 (nest). -Mickel, 1928. Ent. News 39: 69
(nest). — Hobbs, Nummi and Virostek, 1961. Canad. Ent. 93: 143 (nest, parasite). —Rust,
1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 54-56 (nest architecture, life history, parasites).

Genus OSMIA Subgenus CEPHALOSMIA Sladen

Cephalosmia Sladen, 1916. Canad. Ent. 48: 270.

Type-species: Osmia ynontana Cresson. Monotypic (,=Osmia armaticeps Cresson).

Revision: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 56-85, figs. 5-6, 27-45, tables 7-9.

Biology: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 58 (summary of information on life histories).




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Osmia californica Cresson
B. C. to Calif., east to Mont., Wyo. and Colo. Ecology: Nests in borings

and preexisting burrows in various wood substrates. Parasite: Anthrax sp., Chrysis sp.,
Leucospis affinis Say, Nemog^iatlia sp., Stelis sp., Tricrania stansbiiryi Hald. Pollen:
Apparently mainly dependent upon the pollens of Compositae, especially Girsiioii, but
visits many flowers including Amsinckia, Arnica, Balsamorrhiza, Brodiaea liitea,
Calochortus, Carduus tenuiflorus, Ceanothus, Chaenacfis glabriuscula, Cirsimn
califoniicum, C. proteanum, Clarkia, Cryptantha intermedia, Erigeron pygmaeus,
Eriodictyon calif omicum, Eriogonum, Eriophyllum lanatum, Gilia capitata, Grindelia
camporum, Helianthus nuttallii, Layia platyglossa, Lotus strigosus var. hirtellus,
Liipinus, Mimulus guttatus, Penstemon, Pliacelia heterophylla, P. Irmnilis,
Physocarpiis, Ranunculus, Salix, Senecio integerrimus, Sidalcea, Stenotopsis
linearifolius. Taraxacum officinale, Viguiera multiflora, Wyethia angustifolia, W. elata,
W. glabra, W. Iielenioides, W. to7igicaulis, W. mollis, W. ovata, W. reticulata. Predator:
Ptinis califomicus Pic, Trichodes omatus Say.

Osmia californica Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 24. ♀.

Osmia pascoensis Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 342. ♀.

Osmia nassa Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 272. ♀.

Osmia occidentalis Michener, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 42. ♀.

Biology: Bohart, 1955. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 57: 203-204 (nest, supersedure). —Levin, 1966.

Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 39: 524-535, 6 figs., 3 tables (nest architecture, life history,

supersedure, sex relationships, pollen collection, parasites). —Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour.

Biol. 32: 66-69 (nest architecture, life history, parasites).

Osmia grinnelli
***authority mismatch
Cockerell. Calif., Nev., Utah, Idaho. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of

Arctostaphylos drupacea, A. patula. Aster abatus. Astragalus pachypus, Chaenactis
glabriuscula. Coreopsis lanceolata, Cryptantha intermedia, Descurainia sophia, Encelia
actoni, E.frutescens, Erysimum, Helianthus gracilentus, Hesperochiron califomicum,
Hulsea callicarpha, Lupinus, Nepeta, Penstemon, Prunus subcordata. Sisymbrium,
Stenotopsis linearifolius. Taraxacum, Wyethia.

Osmia gnnnelli Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 120. ♀.

Osmia marginipennis Cresson
Calif., Nev., Oreg., Idaho, Utah, Colo., Wyo.; Mexico (Baja California).
Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Chaenactis.

Osmia marginipennis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 106. ♂.

Osmia gaillardiae Cockerell, 1906. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 17: 227. ♀.

Osynia viridior Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 261. ♂.

Osmia leonis Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 123. ♀.

Osmia montana
***authority mismatch
tnontana Cresson. B. C. to Calif. (White Mts.), east to Idaho and Mont., south to

Ariz, and N. Mex. Ecology: Nests in trap-nests. Parasite: Stelis montana Cress. Pollen:
Analyzed pollen stores indicates rehance on Compositae including Balsamorrhiza
sagittata. Cosmos, Helianthus annuus, Wyethia amplexicaulis, but also visits other
flowers for nectar or pollen including Arnica, Aster, Chaenactis, Gutierrezia, Senecio,
Silybuvi, Taraxacum.

Osmia montana Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 24. ♂.

Osmia armaticeps Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 104. ♀.

Osmia armaticeps var. sapellonis Cockerell, 1901. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 7: 336. ♀.

Biology: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 76-80 (nest architecture, life history,
supersedure, parasite).

Osmia montana
***authority mismatch
quadriceps Cresson. Wash, to Calif., Nev., Ariz. (Santa Catalina Mts.). Ecology:

Nests in abandoned beetle burrows in Pinus contorta. Pollen: Apparently polylectic,
although most floral records from noncomposite genera refer to visits for leaf or dried
flower material; visitation records include Agoseris heterophylla, Arctostaphylos patula,
Aster, Astragalus, Balsamorhiza deltoides, Ceanothus integirrimus, Chaenactis
glabriuscula, Cirsium, Clarkia biloba. Coreopsis, Eriodictyon, Eriophyllum
confertiflorum, E. lanatum, Gilia capitata, Gormania obtusata, Haplopappus
linearifolius, Helianthella californica, Helianthus gracilentus, Hesperochiron
califomicus, Lasthenia chrysostoma, Layia platyglossa, Lotus scoparius, Lupinus,
Mimulus snksdorfii, Nemophila integrifolia, Penstemon, Phacelia humilis, Potentilla,




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Raillardella scaposa, Ribes cereian. Salvia, Senecio, Sidalcea, Sisyinbrium irio,
Tamarix gallica, Taraxacum officinale, Wyetliia angustifoiia, W. helenioides, W. mollis.

Osmia quadriceps Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 104. ♀.

Biology: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 81 (nest).

Osmia subaustralis Cockerell
N. W. T. east to Ont. and Mich., south to Calif., Nev., Ariz, and N. Mex.

Ecology: Nests in abandoned beetle burrows in fir log, probably Abies lasiocarpa.

Pollen: Analyzed pollen stores revealed 99 per cent from Compositae, probably Senecio;

visits flowers of Aster, Centaurea, Encelia farinosa, Erigeron, Gutierrezia, Lupinus,

Penstemon, Phacelia hmnilis, Raillardella scaposa, Senecio, Solidago, Streptajithus,

Taraxacum, Wyethia, Yucca.
Osmia nigrifrons var. subaustralis Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 5: 410. ♀.
Osmia wardiana Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 368. ♀.
Osmia seneciophila Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 446. ♂.
Osmia nelsoni Cockerell, 1930. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 5: 411. ♀.
Osmia wardiana austromontana Michener, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 42. ♀.
Osmia lyncis Cockerell, 1937. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 36: 110. ♀.
Osmia (Cephalosmia) mendocinensis Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 27. ♀.

Biology: Rust, 1974. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 32: 85 (nest architecture, pollen).

Genus OSMIA Subgenus CENTROSMIA Robertson

Centrosmia Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 165.

Type-species: Osmia bucephala Cresson. Orig. desig. and monotypic.

Revision: Sinha and Michener, 1958. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 39: 275-303 (Nearctic spp.).

Osmia austromaritima Michener
Calif., Colo., Utah.

Osmia austromaritima Michener, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 43. ♂.

Osmia bakeri Sandhouse
Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Clarkia, Collinsia
cliildii, C. heterophylla, C. wrightii, Cryptantha lepida, G'ilia tricolor, Nemopliila
integrifolia.
Osmia bakeri Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 345. ♂.

Osmia bucephala Cresson
Holarctic; Alaska, Yukon and N. W. T. to Que., south to Calif., Utah, N.
Mex., 111., Tenn., and N. C; limited to mountains in southern part of range. Ecology:
Nests in borings and in a tunnel in a maple tree. Parasite: CItaetodactylus krombeini
Baker, Melittobia chalybii Ashm. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Aesculus,
Azalea, Baptisia, Cercis canadensis, Dentaria, Dicentra, Erythronium, Mertensia
virginica, Nepefa liederacea, Penstemon, Taraxacum, Tephrosia virginiana, Viola.
Osynia bucephala Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 17. ♀.
Osmia megacepliala Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 18. ♀.
Osmia latitarsis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 20. ♂.
Osmia lignivora Packard, 1867. Amer. Nat. 1: 375. ♀.
Osmia lignicola Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 208. ♀.
Os7nia stiboniata Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 342. ♀.

Biology: Packard, 1867. Amer. nat. 1: 375 (nest, as lignivora). — Krombein, 1967.
Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 307-310, pi. 18, figs. 89-91 (nest architecture, life history,
supersedure, parasites).

Osmia nigriventris (Zetterstedt)
Holarctic; Alaska to Hudson Bay and Ont., south to Oreg., Colo, and
Minn.; Eurasia.
Anthophora nigriventris Zetterstedt, 1838. Ins. Lapponica, v. 1, p. 465. ♀.
Os7Hiafrigida Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 142. ♀, ♂.
Osmia kudso7iica Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 21. ♂.
Osmia corticalis Gerstaecker, 1869. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 30: 331. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1905. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 331. 9,6. —Mitchell, 1962. N. C.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 77-78, fig. 33, table 4 (redescription, synonymy).




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Osmia pikei Cockerell
B. C, Wash., Oreg., Nev., Calif., Colo., Wyo. Parasite: Netuognatha scutellaris
LeC, Sapyga fulvicornis Cress. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Ribes cereimi.
Osmia pikei Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 367. ♀.
Osmia universitatis Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 538. ♂.
Osmia integrella Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 124. ♂.
Osmia vallicola Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 449. ♂.
Osmia amala Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 447. ♂.
Osmia metitia Cockerell, 1909. Canad. Ent. 41: 130. ♂.

Osmia raritatis Michener
Colo., Wash., Calif.

Osmia raritatis Michener, 1957. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 30: 40, figs. 1, 3, 5. ♂.

Osmia tanneri Sandhouse
Utah. Ecology: Nests made entirely of mud on concave underside of stone.
Parasite: Clirysum pacifica (Say). Pollen: Traces of pollen attached to cocoon and exines
in feces in cell indicate an unknown species of Umbelliferae.
Osmia (Nothosinia) tanneri Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 87. ♂.

Taxonomy: Parker, 1975. Pan-Pacific Ent. 51: 179-180, figs. 1-2. ♀.

Biology: Parker, 1975. Pan-Pacific Ent. 51: 180-182, figs. 3-4 (nest architecture, larval habits,
life history, parasite).

Osmia tarsata Provancher
Que.

Osmia tarsata Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada, Hym., p. 328. ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 78-79 (redescription, tax.
status).

Osmia thysanisca Michener
Calif., Oreg., Wyo. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Hackelia
jessicae, Trifoliiim.
Osmia thysanisca Michener, 1957. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 30: 39, fig. 2. ♂.

Osmia vandykei Sandhouse
Oreg.

Osmia vandykei Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 344. ♂.

Genus OSMIA Subgenus ACANTHOSMIOIDES Ashmead

Acanthosmioides Ashmead, 1899. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 26: 76.

Type-species: Osmia odontogaster Cockerell. Orig. desig. and monotypic

Revision: White, 1952. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 219-307, pis. 39-44 (Nearctic spp.).

Taxonomy: Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 27-28 (Key).

Osmia ashmeadii (Titus)
Oreg. (Dalles).

Acanthosmioides ashmeadii Titus, 1904. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 6: 101. ♂.

Osmia calcarata White
Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Astragalus, Lotus.
Osmia calcarata White, 1952. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 245, pi. 39, fig. 15; pi. 40, fig. 11; pi.
41, fig. 9; pi. 42, fig. 9; pi. 43, fig. 11; pi. 44, fig. 15. ♂, ♀.

Osmia dakotensis Michener
N. Dak., Mont., east. Colo., Wyo.

Osmia dakotensis Michener, 1937. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 19: 407. ♀.
Osmia (/Acanthosmioides) dacotensis Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc Wash., Mem. 1: 62.
Emend.
francisconis White. Calif. (San Francisco). Ecology: Collected in sand dunes.

Osmia francisconis White, 1952. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 269, pi. 40, fig. 2. ♀.

Osmia giffardi Sandhouse
Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.).

Osmia (Acanthosmioides) giffardi Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 50. ♂.

Osmia giliarum Cockerell
Idaho, Mont., Wyo., Colo. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Gilia,
Penstemon.
Osmia giliarum Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 451. ♀.

Osmia hurdi White
Calif., B. C. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Allium.
Osmia hnrdi White, 1952. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 273, pi. 39, fig. 7. ♀.




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Integra Cresson. Calif, to B. C, east to Man., south to Ariz., N. Mex., Tex., Mich. Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers of Astragalus pomonensis, Lotus scoparius, Phacelia
distans.

Osmia integra Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 106. ♂.

Osmia novomexicana Cockerell, 1903. Ent. News 14: 331. ♀.

Os7)iia florissanticola Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 450. ♀.

Os7nia integra nigrigena Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 90. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 270. ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 246 (nesting habits, as novomexicana).

Osmia kenoyeri Cockerell
Yukon, Alta., Calif., Colo.

Osmia kenoyeri Cockerell, 1915. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 16: 483. ♂, ♀.

Osmia lanei Sandhouse
Calif.

Osviia (Acanthos7uioides) lanei Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 51. ♂.

Osmia longula Cresson
B. C. to CaUf., east to Mont., Wyo., Colo, and Utah. Ecology: Nests on side of
stone beneath a slight overhang. Pollen: Stores pollen of an unidentified Leguminosae;
visits flowers o{ Astragalus, Erigeron compositus, Penstemon heterodoxus, Wyethia
mollis.
Osmia longula Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 19. ♀.
Osmia abnonnis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 105. ♂.
Osmia gi-andior Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 343. ♀.
Osjuia pennorata Cockerell, 1910. Canad. Ent. 42: 310. ♀.

Biology: Parker, 1975. Pan-Pacific Ent. 51: 182-183, figs. 5-6 (nest architecture, larval habits,
sex ratio, nest provisions).

Osmia nifoata Cockerell
Wash, to Calif., east to Idaho, Utah, Colo, and Wyo. Parasite: Dioxys

po7nonae Ckll. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers oi Amsinckia, Astragalus

pomonensis, Cliaenactis, Lotus argophyllus, L. crassifolius, L. davidsonii, L. glaber, L.

scoparius, L. strigosus, Lupijius co7\fertus, L. formosus, L. lobbii var. lyallii, L.

odoratus, Potentilla glandulosa, Rhus trilobata, Streptanthus bemardinus, Trifolium

involucratmn, T. variegatum.
Osmia (Acanthosmioides) nifoata Cockerell, 1909. Entomologist 42: 95. ♂.
Osmia pellax Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 356. ♀.
Osmia (Aca^ithosmioides) wyomingensis Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 27. ♂.

Biology: Fulton and Bergen, 1935. Econ. Ent., Jour. 28: 729 (nest). —Kurd, 1958. Calif. Univ.

Pubs. Ent. 14: 285 (parasite).

Osmia nigrifrons Cresson
N. Dak. and Alta., west to B. C, south to Calif., Utah, Colo, and Wyo.

Ecology: Nest in borings, bamboo culms, and in corrugated steel drain pipes. Parasite:
Chrysura pacifica (Say), Dibrachys sp., Monodontomerus montivagus Ashm., Stelis
chlorocyanea Ckll. Pollen: Polylectic, apparently prefers flowers of Leguminosae for
pollen and nectar; visits other flowers for pollen including Astragalus, Lotus,
Onobrycliis, Trifolium, Vicia; visitation records include Aiusinckia douglasiana,
Astragalus douglasiana, A. parishii, A. utahe7isis, Brassica nigra, Lotus crassifolius, L.
davidsonii, L. kmnistratus, L. scopai-ius, Medicago sativa, Melilotus alba, M. offici7ialis,
07iobrychis sativa, Phacelia, Trifoliujn i-epe7is, Vicia a7nerica7ia.

Os7)iia nigrifrons Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 103. ♀.

Os7nia casta Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 272. ♀.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 246 (nest). —Rust and Thorp, 1973. Kans. Ent.

Soc, Jour. 46: 548-562, 26 figs., 2 tables (parasite). —Rust, Thorp and Torchio, 1974. Nat.

Hist., Jour. 8: 29-47, 14 figs., 2 tables (nest architecture, life history, parasites).

Osmia nigrobarbata Cockerell
Wash., Calif., Ariz., Oreg.?, Idaho?, Utah? and Sask.? Ecology: Nests
in burrows in the ground. Parasite: Dioxys pomonae Ckll. Pollen: Stores pollen of
Astragalus including A. antisellii, A. parishii, A. pomo7iensis, but visits other flowers
including A7nsi7ickia, Brodiaea, Castilleia, Crypta7itha, Lotus, Lupi7ius, Mimulus,
Pe7istemon, Salvia, Vicia.

Osmia 7iigrobarbata Cockerell, 1916. Pomona Col. Jour. Ent. Zool. 8: 52. ♀.

Osmia va7iduzeei Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 343. ♂.




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Biology: Rozen and Favreau, 1967. N. Y. Ent. See, Jour. 75: 197-203, 31 figs, (nest
architecture, life history, parasite).

Osmia obliqua White
Calif., Oreg. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Astragalus.

Osmia obliqua White, 1952. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 238, pi. 40, fig. 7; pi. 41, fig. 5; pi. 42,
fig. 2; pi. 43, fig. 9; pi. 44, figs. 1, 5. ♂.

Osmia odontogaster Cockerell
B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Osmia odontogaster Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 338. ♂.

Osmia physariae Cockerell
B. C, Alta. and Sask., south to Calif., Nev., Utah, Colo, and Wyo. Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers oi Allium, Iris missouriensis, Lappula, Lotus, Trifoliuni
liybridum.
Osmia physariae Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 446. ♂.
Osmia pinorum Cockerell, 1935. Amer. Mus. Novitates 766: 4. ♀.
Osmia (.Acanthosmioides) erecta Michener, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 40. ♂.
Osviia creiiulaticornis Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 84. ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 56 (crenulaticoniis).

Osmia sedula Sandhouse
B. C, Wash., Wyo., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers ot Layia
platyglossa, Lotus, Pliacelia distans.
Osviia sedula Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 353. ♀.
Osmia Intzi Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 25. ♀.

Osmia sladeni Sandhouse
B. C, Alta., Wyo., Utah.

Osmia sladeni Sandhouse, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 33. ♂.

Osmia trifoliama Sandhouse
Oreg. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Trifolium hybridum, T.

pratense.
Osmia (Acanthosmioides) trifoliama Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 44. ♀.

Osmia unca Michener
Oreg., Wash., B. C, Idaho, Mont., Cole, Utah. Ecology: Cells are constructed

with a leaf mastic lining surrounded by mud.
Os7nia (Acanthosmioides) uncinata Michener, 1936. Canad. Ent. 68: 39. ♂. Preocc.
Osmia (Acanthosmioides) unca Michener, 1937. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 19: 406. N.

name.
Osmia (Acanthosmioides) hicksi Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Amer., Mem. 1: 53. ♂.
Os7nia (Acanthosrnioides) depressa Michener, 1937. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 19: 406.

6.

Biology: Stephen, Bohart and Torchio, 1969. The biology and external morphology of bees,
pp. 76, 100, 104 (nest, cell construction).

Osmia watsoni Cockerell
N. Mex. (Albuquerque).

Osmia watsoni Cockerell, 1911. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 37: 235. ♂.

Genus OSMIA Subgenus NOTHOSMIA Ashmead

Nothosmia Ashmead, 1899. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 26: 75.

Type-species: Osmia distincta Cresson. Orig. desig. and monotypic
Leucosmia Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 166.

Type-species: Osmia albiventris Cresson. Orig. desig. and monotypic.
Xanthosmia Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 166.

Type-species: Osjuia cordata Robertson. Orig. desig. and monotypic.

Osmia albiventris Cresson
Que. to Ga., west to 111. and Minn. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Brassica, Geraniuyn, Gillenia, Malus, Penstemon, Rnbus, Trifolium, Vicia.
Osmia albiventris Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 31. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Medler, 1967. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 60: 341-342, fig. 1, table 1 (nest architecture,
supersedure, life history).

Osmia cordata Robertson
Colo., N. Mex., N. Dak., Ill, Mo., Ohio, Ind. Ecology: Nests in abandoned
mud-dauber cells, and in borings in wood. Parasite: Monodontomerus mandibularis
Gahan, M. montivagus Ashm., M. obscurus Westw., Sapyga confluenta Cress. Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers oi Aesculus, Cardamine, Lithospermum, Penstemon,
Phlox, Rubus, Salvia, Trifolium, Verbena.
Osmia cordata Robertson, 1902. Ent. News 13: 79. ♂.




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Osmia hesperella Cockerell, 1906. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 17: 227. ♀.
Osmia coloradella Cockerell, 1906. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 17: 229. ♀.
Osmia Ravialeyi Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 126. ♂, ♀.
Osmia figginsi Cockerell, 1935. Amer. Mus. Novitates 766: 2. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1911. Canad. Ent. 43: 389 (tax. characters, synonymy).

Biology: Turner, 1911. Jour. Anim. Behavior 1: 374 (as "Sfelidae"). — Rau, 1916. Jour. Anim.
Behavior 6: 39. —Rau, 1923. Ent. News 34: 308. -Rau, 1928. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans.
25: 363. —Hicks, 1934. Colo. Univ., Studies 21: 265. —Rau, 1937. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 30:
324 (nest architecture, life history, parasite). —Chandler, 1959 (1958). Indiana Acad. Sci.,
Proc. 68: 199-204 (life history). —Chandler, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., North Central Branch,
Proc. 16: 18-19 (interspecific competition). —Chandler, 1963. Ent. Soc. Amer., North
Central Branch, Proc. 18: 30 (interspecific competition).

Osmia distincta Cresson
Ont. and Que., Maine to N. C, west to N. Dak., and Colo. Pollen: Unknown,
but visits flowers of Blephilia, Dianthera, Gillenia, Hypoxis, Lithospemium,
Penstemon, Rubus, Trifolium.
Osmia disfincta Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 30. ♀.

Osmia enixa Sandhouse
Colo., Calif.

Osmia enixa Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 347. ♂.

Osmia grindeliae Cockerell
Alta., Colo., Wash., Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Grindelia.
Os7)iia grindeliae Cockerell, 1910. Psyche 17: 246. ♀.

Osmia inspergens Lovell and Cockerell
Que. and Maine, south to Ga. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Baptisia, Polycodium, Trifolium, Vaccinium.
Osviia inspergens Lovell and Cockerell, 1907. Psyche 14: 17. ♀.

Osmia liogastra Cockerell
Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Lotus, Lupiniis, Phacelia
distans.
Osmia liogastra Cockerell, 1933. Pan-Pacific Ent. 9: 26. ♀.

Osmia lupinicola Cockerell
Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Astragalus donglasii,
Chaetopappa aurea, Cryptantha, Lotus davidsonii, Lupinus, Nolina.
Osmia lupinicola Cockerell, 1937. Amer. Mus. Novitates 948: 12. ♀.

Osmia marginata Michener
South. Calif., desert. Parasite: Nemognatha macswaini Enns. Pollen:
Polylectic, visits flowers of Am sinckia douglasiana, Antiri-hinum filipes, Astragalus
coulteri, Beleperone califomica, Cliaenactis glabriuscula, Dalea inollis, D. saundersii,
Helianthus annuus, H. gracilentus, Hyptis emoryi, Isomeris arborea, Larrea tridentata,
Lotus scoparius, Lupinus sparsifolius, Mirabilis glutinosa, Prosopis, Salvia carduacea.
Osmia marginata Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 86. ♀.

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 37 (floral relationships).

Osmia melanopleura Cockerell
Calif.

Osmia melanopleura Cockerell, 1916. Pomona Col. Jour. Ent. ZooL 8: 52. ♀.

Osmia michiganensis Mitchell
Mich. (Grand Traverse Co.).

Os7nia (Notlwsmia) michiganensis Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 92.
6.

Osmia mixta Michener
Calif.

Osmia mixta Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 88. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 56.

Osmia morongana Cockerell
Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Amsinckia, Lupinus
odoratus, Orthocarpus omatus, Hyptis emoryi.
Osmia morongana Cockerell, 1937. Amer. Mus. Novitates 948: 11. ♀.

Osmia nigritula Friese
No locality known.

Osmia pai-va Provancher, 1883. Nat. Canad. 14: 37. ♂. Preocc.

Osmia parvula Dalla Torre, 1896. Cat. Hym., v. 10, p. 405. N. name. Preocc.

Osmia nigritula Friese, 1902. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 2: 109. N. name.

Osmia novaescotiae Cockerell
N. S. Probably a synonym of simillima or proxima.

Osmia novaescotiae Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 355. ♀.




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Osmia phenax Cockerell
N. Mex.

Osmia phenax Cockerell, 1897. Canad. Ent. 29: 66. ♀.

Osmia prunorum Cockerell
N. Mex.

Oswia prunorum Cockerell, 1897. Canad. Ent. 29: 65. 9 (c? misdet.).

Osmia pumila Cresson
Que. to Ga., west to 111., Minn., Kans. Ecology: Readily nests in borings.
Parasite: Chaetodactylus^ sp., Chrysura pacifica (Say), Leucospis affiuis Say,
Melittobia chalybii Ashm., Pyemotes ventricosus (Newport), Sapypa centrata Say.
Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Anemonella,
Antennaria, Arabis, Astragalus, Barbarea, Camassia, Cardamine, Cercis,
Chaerophyllum, Claytonia, Collinsia, Comandra, Cbnius, Crataegus, Dentaria,
Diospyros, Ellisia, Erigevia, Erythronunn, Fragaria, Geranium, Houstonia, Isopyrum,
Krigia, Malus, Maiva, Melilotus, Mertensia, Nepeta, Oxalis, Pedicularis, Penstemon,
Polemonium, Potentilla, Rayiunculus, Ribes, Rosa, Rubus, Salix, Sassafras, Scutellaria,
Sisyrinchiu7)i, Synilax, Taraxacum, Trifolium, Vaccinium, Vibunmm, Vicia, Viola,
Zantlioxylum, Zizia.

Osmia pumila Cresson, 1864. Ent. See. Phila., Proc. 3: 35. ♀.

Osmia vidua Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 88. ♂.

Osmia pumilia(\) Pearson, 1933. Ecol. Monogr. 3: 381.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 312-318, tables 32-33 (nest
architecture, life history, supersedure, parasites). — Medler, 1967. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann.
60: 342, table 1 (nest architecture, life history, parasite).

Osmia sandhouseae Mitchell
New England to Fla., west to Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Astragalus, Claytonia, Crataegus, Fragaria, Gaylussacia, Geranium, Ilex, Iris,
Linaria, Lupiuus, Oenothera, Pedicularis, Penstemon, Polycodium, Rubus, Tephrosia,
Toxicodendron, Trifolium, Vaccinium, Vicia.
Osmia albohirta Mitchell, 1924. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 40: 164. ♀. Preocc.
Osmia sandhouseae Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 178. N. name.
soiitaria Sandhouse. Calif.

Osmia soiitaria Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 346. ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 55.

Osmia titusi Cockerell
South. Calif., N. Mex.? Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Astragalus
fremontii, Lotus, LaiTea tridentata, Lupinus sparsifolius, Phacelia fremontii.
Osmia titusi Cockerell, 1905. Canad. Ent. 37: 370. ♀.

Genus OSMIA Subgenus CHENOSMIA Sinha

Osmia Subg. Chenosmia Sinha, 1958. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 39: 233.
Type-species: Osmia pentstemonis Cockerell. Orig. desig.

Osmia atriventris Cresson
N. S. to Alta., south to la.. 111., Tenn. and Ga. Ecology: Readily nests in
artificial nesting devices. Parasite: Chrysis coerulans Fabr., Dibrachys maculipennis
Szelenyl?, Leucospis affinis Say, Sapyga sp., Stelis foederalis Sm. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers of Ara6/s, Astragalus, Barbarea, Cardatnine, Cercis cayiadensis.
Chrysanthemum leucanthenium, Claytonia, Collinsia, Ellisia, Erigenia, Fragaria,
Geranium, Gillenia, Hydrangea, Hypoxis, Lithospermum, Mertensia, Nothoscordum,
Penstemon, Polemonium, Psoralea, Rubus, Trifolium, Uvularia, Vaccinium, Vicia,
Viola, Zizia. ,

Osmia atriventris Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 29. ♀.

Biology: Fye, 1965. Canad. Ent. 97: 872-874, fig. 4, tables 3-4 (nest architecture, life history,
parasites).

Osmia bruneri Cockerell
*. Mont, to N. Mex., west to B. C. and Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Chamaebatia foliolosa, Clarkia rhomboidea, Collinsia heterophylla,
Eriodictyon catifornicum, Erysimum perenne. Geranium molle, Gilia capitata,
Hesperochiron, Lepechinia calycina, Lotus argophyllus, L. scoparius, Limnanthes
douglasii, Lupinus lobbii var. lyallii, Malacothanrnus arcuatus, Medicago sativa,
Mimulus guttatus, Monardella lanceolata, Nemophila spatulata, Penstemon
heterophylius, P. spectabilis, Phacelia distayis, P.frigida, P. heterophylla, P. iinbricata.




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Sidalcea malvaeflora, Solidago multiradiata, Stellaria crispa, Streptanthus tortuosus,
Taraxacum, Trifolium microcephalurn, T. repens, Verbena californica, V. lasiostachys,
Vicia americana, V. californica, V. cracca.

Osmia bruneri Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 337. ♀.

Osmia Bennettae Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 122. ♂.

Osmia holochlora Cockerell, 1923. Canad. Ent. 55: 205. ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 242, 243 (nesting habits).

Osmia calla Cockerell
Idaho to Colo., west to Calif, and B. C. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Astragalus, Brassica geniculata, Brodiaea lutea, Cirsium califdmicurn, Clarkia
rhomboidea, Cryptantha intermedia, C. lepida, Eriodictyon trichocalyx, Lepechenia
calycina, Lotus comiculatus, Lotus davidsonii, L. scoparius, Lupinus albifrons,
Malacothammis arcuafus, Marrubium vulgare, Nama pari'yi, Nemophila integrifolia,
Penstemon grinnellii, P. labrosus, Phacelia distans, P. heterophylla, P. imbricata, P.
ramosissima, Pkalacoseris bolanderi, Potentilla glandulosa, Streptanthus bemardinus,
Trichostema lanatuin, Trifolium involucratum, T. microcephalurn, T. repens, T.
variegatum. Verbena lasiostachys.

Osmia calla Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 337. ♂.

Os7nia Ednae Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 123. "♀"=♂.

Osmia caulicola Cockerell
Wyo., Colo.

Osmia caulicola Cockerell, 1934. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 29: 17. ♀, ♂.

Osmia cerasi Cockerell
N. Mex.

Osmia cerasi Cockerell, 1897. Canad. Ent. 29: 66. ♀.

Osmia clarescens Cockerell
South. Calif., N. Mex., Sask.? Ecology: Nest in abandoned cells of

Sceliphron. Pollen: Polylectic, visits flowers oi A7nsinckia douglasii, Arctostaphylos
patula, Astragalus parishii, A. pomonensis, Beleperone californica, Chaenactis
glabriuscula, Cirsium californicum, Cryptantha intermedia, Dalea saundersii,
Eriodictyon crassifolium, Helianthus gracilentus, Heliotropium curassavicum, Hyptis
emoryi, Isomeris arborea, Larrea tridentata, Koeberli^iia, Lotus davidsonii, L. glaber, L.
scoparius, Marrubium vulgare, Penstemon antirrhinoides, P. spectabilis, Phacelia
davidsonii, P. distans, P.fremontii, Rhus trilobata, Ribes indecorum. Salvia caryiosa, S.
coiumbariae, S. mellifera, Sphaeralcea ambigua, Trifolium repens, T. variegatum.

Osmia clarescens Cockerell, 1911. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 8: 764. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 36-37 (floral relationships).

Osmia cobaltina Cresson
Idaho to Colo., west to B. C. and Calif., Ariz.? Pollen: Unknown, but visits a
wide variety of flowers including Ambrosia, Arctostaphylos drupacea, A. patula,
Chamaebatia foliolosa, Clarkia pulchella, C. rhomboidea, Eriogonum inflatum,
Horkelia bolanderi, H. tillingi, Lotus argophyllus, L. davidsonii, L. glaber, Lupinus
austromontanus, Mimulus primuloides, Monardella stricta, M. linoides, M. stricta,
Orthocarpus purpurascens, Penstemon bridgesii, P. grinnellii, P. labrosus, P. palmeri,
Phacelia heterophylla, P. imbricata, P. ramosissima, Phalacoseris bolanderi, Potentilla
glandulosa, Ribes, Sambucus nevadensis, Senecio lugens, Streptanthus bemai-dinus, S.
major, Vicia americayia.

Osmia cobaltina Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 104. ♀.

Osmia bella Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 107. ♂.

Osmia basilissa Cockerell, 1911. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 8: 764. ♀.

Osmia kerminesina Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc (4) 13: 349. ♀.

Osmia cockerelli Sandhouse
Colo., N. Mex.

Osmia (Nothosmia) cockerelli Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 104. ♂.

Osmia collinsiae Robertson
Maine to N. C, west to Minn, and 111. Pollen: Unknown, but visits

flowers of Astragalus, Cardamine, Cercis, Claytonia, Collinsia, Dicentra, Erythronium,
Geranium, Lupinus, Nepeta, Pedicularis, Penstemon, Rubus, Trifolium, Vicia, Viola.
Osmia collinsiae Robertson, 1905. Canad. Ent. 37: 236. ♂.

Osmia cyanopoda Cockerell
Idaho, Nev., Wash., Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Amsiiickia intermedia, Castilleia, Cryptantha intermedia, Erysimum asperum, Lotus
scoparius. Salvia coiumbariae, S. mellifera.
Osmia cyanopoda Cockerell, 1916. Pomona Col. Jour. Zool. 8: 52. ♀.




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Osmia parallela Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 19. ♂.

Osmia dolerosa Sandhouse
B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers o{ Clarkia
rhomboidea, Collinsia tinctoria, Horkelia fiisca, Livinayithes douglasii, Lotus
argophylius, Rosa, Stachys, Trifoliinii mkrocephalum, T. gracilentum.

Osmia dolerosa Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 123. ♀.

Osmia exigua Cresson
South. Colo., N. Mex., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers oi AUiniii

parvum, Anagallis arvensis, Brodiaea elegans, B. laxa, B. lutea, Centaurea uielitensis,
Cirsium vulgare, Clarkia imguiculata, Diplacus aurantiacus, Epilobium minutum,
Eriodictyon califomicum, Eriophyllum confertiflonim, Geranium niolle, Helianthella
califomica, Hesperochiron, Lepechinia calycina, Lotus scoparius, L. subpinnatus,
Lupinus densiflorus, Miyuulns guttatus, Monardella viltosa, Navarretia heterodoxa,
Penstemon speciosus, Phacelia cicutaria, P. distans, Plectritis macrocera, Satureja
douglasii, Streptantkus tortuosus, Trifolium microcephalum, T. variegatum. Verbena
lasiostachys, Viola purpurea.

Osmia exigua Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 107. ♂.

Os7nia granulosa Cockerel], 1911. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 8: 767. ♀, ♂.

Osmia exiguuaO) Cresson, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 1: 118.

Os7nia vana Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc (4) 13: 349. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1962. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 35: 253-254 (tax. characters, geogr.

records).

Osmia gaudiosa Cockerell
N. Mex., Colo., Ariz., Calif. Pollen: Analyzed pollen masses from two cells
revealed 96 per cent Papillionoideae (cf. Astragalus, Vicia, or Lathyrus) and 4 per cent
probably Scrophulariaceae (cf. Stemodia); visitation records include Arctostapliylos
patula. Astragalus, Dalea califomica, Fragaria califomica, Gilia multicaulis, Lathyrus,
Lotus davidsonii, L. scoparius, Mirabilis laevis, Nemophila integrifolia, Phacelia
davidsonii, P. distans, Rhus tiilobata, Ribes indecorum. Salvia columbariae, Sambucus
caerulea. Predator: Metaponium sp., Telabis sp.

Os7nia gaudiosa Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 538. ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1962. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 35: 253-254 (tax. characters, geogr.
records).

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 318-320 (nest architecture, life
history, larval food, supersedure, predators).

Osmia hemera Sandhouse
Calif.

Os7nia (Nothosynia) hemera Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc Wash., Mem. 1: 114. ♂.

Osmia illinoensis Robertson
South. 111., Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Astragalus,
Fragaria, Hypoxis, Lithospermum, Ranunculus.
Osmia illiyioensis Robertson, 1897. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 7: 347. ♂.

Osmia indeprensa Sandhouse
Idaho, Nev., Wash., Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Calyptridium umbellatum, Clarkia pulchella, Collinsia torreyi, Limnanthes douglasii,
Lotus nevadensis, Phacelia hydrophylloides.
Osmia {Nothosmia) ijideprensa Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 115. ♀, ♂.

Osmia inermis (Zetterstedt)
Holarctic; Labrador, Que., N. B., Ont, Maine, Mass., Wis., Colo., N. W.
T., Alta., Mont., B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif.; Eurasia. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Kalmia polifolia. Ledum glandulosuyu, Phyllodoce breweri, Rubus, Salix, Vaccinium.
Anthophora (Osmia) inerinis Zetterstedt, 1838. Ins. Lapponica, v. 1, p. 466. ♀.
Osmia parietina Smith, 1844. Zoologist 2: 743. ♀.
Osmia globosa Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc. 3: 36. ♀.
Osmia vulpecula Gerstaecker, 1869. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 30: 335. ♀.
Osmia globosiformis Cockerell, 1910. Canad. Ent. 42: 311. ♂.

Osmia inurbana Cresson
Wyo., Colo., Idaho, Wash., Oreg., Calif., Que.?, Man., Alta.?, B. C? Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers of Gilia multicaulis, Lotus davidsonii, Nemophila
integrifolia, Potentilla glandulosa, Senecio lugens, Streptanthus tortuosus.
Osmia inurbana Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 107. ♂.
Osmia eutrichosa Cockerell, 1910. Canad. Ent. 42: 312. ♂.




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Osmia kincaidii Cockerell
Nebr., N. Mex., Idaho, B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Parasite: Chrysum

so7iorensis (Cam.), Epistenia sp., Leiicospis affinis Say, NeDiognaflia scittellaris LeC.
Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Alii inn pay~viini, Avisinckia douglasiana,
Bivdiaea, Calochotius nudus, Chaniaebatia foliolosa, Clarkia rliovihoidea, C.
unguiculata, Fmgaria californica, Geranium molle, Hetewgaura lieterondra, Linantlius
jnontanus, Lotus scoparius, L. subpinnatus, Lupinus niicranfhus, Monardella villosa,
Neynophila spafulata, Pliacelia distans, Rhamnus californica, Sida hederacea,
Trifoiium microcephalum, Vicia.

Osmia kiiicaidii Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 334. ♀, ♂.

Osmia lacus Sandhouse
Oreg., Calif.

Osynia (Nothosniia) lacus Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 125. ♂.

Osmia laeta Sandhouse
Calif., N. Mex.? Parasite: Neniognatha scutellaris LeC. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers o{ Arctostapliylos drupacea, A. patula. Astragalus, Brassica geniculata,
Cryptantha intermedia, Eriodictyon trichocalyx, Gilia exilis, Lotus argopliyllus, L.
davidsonii, L. glaber, L. nevadeiisis, L. scoparius, L. strigosus, Nania parryi, Neniopliila
integrifolia, Penstemon centranthifolius, P. labrosus, P. spectabilis, Pliacelia inibricata,
P. heterophylla, P. raniosissima, Rubus leucodermis, Trifoliuvi variegatum, Vicia
villosa.

Os7nia laeta Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 350. ♀.

Osmia aglaia Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 112. ♀.
tnalina Cockerell. Wash., Calif., Colo. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Arctostapliylos
drupacea, Ceanotlius cordulaius, C. leucodermis, C. integerrinius, Cliamaebatia
fotiolosa, Comandra uvibellata, Lotus argopliyllus, L. crassifolius, L. davidsonii, L.
nevadensis, Lupinus austromontanus, Miniutus guttatus, Pliacelia raniosissima,
Sfreptantlius tortuosns, Trifoiium gracilentum.

Osmia malina Cockerell, 1909. Entomologist 42: 94. ♀.

Osmia mertensiae
***authority mismatch
Cockerell. Colo., Calif.?, B. C? Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Lappiila
floribunda, Mertensia.

Osmia mertensiae Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 488. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 732: 5. ♀.

Osmia nanula Cockerell
Idaho, Utah, Colo., B. C, Wash., Oreg. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Pliacelia.
Osmia nanula Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 339. ♀.
Osmia pliaceliae Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 364. ♀.

Osmia pagosa Sandhouse
Oreg., Colo., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Vicia californica.

Osmia (Notliosmia) pagosa Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 89. ♀.

Osmia pentstemonis Cockerell
Alta., Idaho, Utah, Colo., B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Unknown,
but visits flowers of Fragaria californica, Gonnania obtusata, Penstemon heterodoxus,
P. newberryi. Predator: Pliilantlius pulclier Dalla Torre.
Osmia pentstemonis Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 451. ♀.

Osmia pingreeana Michener
Colo.

Osmia pingreeana Michener, 1937. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 19: 408. ♀.

Osmia potentillae Michener
Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Calyptridium umbellatuni,
Fragaria californica, Lotus nevadensis, L. scoparius, Navarretia divaiicata, Nemopliila
integrifolia, Pliacelia raniosissima, Potentilla glandulosa.
Os7nia potentillae Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 89. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 56.

Osmia proxima Cresson
Alaska to N. S., south to Oreg., Idaho, Wyo., N. Dak., 111. and Ga. Parasite:
Stelis subemarginata (Cress.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Houstonia,
Penstemon, Rubus, Trifoiium.
Osmia proxima Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 32. ♂.
Osmia sericea Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 27. ♂.
Osmia vielanotriclia Lovell and Cockerell, 1907. Psyche 14: 16. ♀.




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Biology: Fye, 1965. Canad. Ent. 97: 874, tables 2-4 (nest, parasite). -Medler, 1967. Ent. Sec.
Amer., Ann. 60: 342 (nest, parasite).

Osmia pulsatillae Cockerell
Idaho, Wyo., Colo., Wash., Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Epilobium glaberrimum.
Osmia pulsatillae Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 363. ♂.

Osmia pusilla Cresson
Wash., Oreg., Calif., Colo., N. Mex.? Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Gayophytuw diffiisum, Neniophila integrifolia, Phacelia davidsojiii, Plialacoseris
bolanden, Potentilla glandulosa, Sanicula iievadeiisis.
Osniia pusilla Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 35. ♂.

Osmia regulina Cockerell
Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Astragalus,
Calandrinia caulescens var. nienziesii, Chaenactis glabriiiscula, Cryptantha
interviedia, Gilia inulticaulis, Lotus argopliyllus, L. scoparius, Salvia mellifera,
Trifolium involucratum, T. repens, T. variegatum.
Osmia regulina Cockerell, 1911. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 8: 766. ♀ (♂ misdet.).

Osmia sanctaerosae Cockerell
Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Eriodictyon
califomicum, Lotus argopliyllus, L. davidsonii, Lupinus confertus.
Osmia sanctae-rosae Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 121. ♀.

Osmia sequoiae Michener
Calif.

Osmia sequoiae Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 89. ♀.

Ta.xonomy: Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 57.

Osmia tersula Cockerell
Alaska to Hudson Bay and N. B., south to Oreg., Colo, Wis. and Mich.
Parasite: Sapyga viartinii Sm.? Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Rubus.
Osmia tersula Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 358. ♂.
Osmia subarctica Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 357. ♀.

Biology: Medler, 1967. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 60: 342-343, figs. 1-2, tables 1-2 (nest
architecture, life history, parasite).

Osmia tokopahensis Michener
Calif.

Osmia tokopahensis Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 87. ♀.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1949. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 22: 58.

Osmia trevoris Cockerell
B. C. and Alta., south to Calif., Nev., Colo., and Wyo.
Osmia trevoris Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 341. ♀.
Osmia subtrevoris Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 451. ♀.
Osmia corkinsi Sandhouse, 1924. Ent. News 35: 351. ♀.

Osmia tristella
***authority mismatch
cyanosoma Cockerell. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Ceanothus, Dalea
sau7idersii, Diplacus aurantiacus, Lotus davidso7iii, Lupinus longipes, Monardella,
Neynophila integrifolia, Penstemon grinnellii, Phacelia hydro phylloides, Prunus
emarginata, Rubus vitifolius, Senecio lugens.
Osmia cya^wsoma Cockerell, 1916. Pomona Col. Jour. Ent. Zool. 8: 52. ♀.

Osmia tristella
***authority mismatch
tristella Cockerell. B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif., Idaho, Colo., Que.? Pollen: Unknown,
but visits flowers of Diplacus aura^itiacus, Lepechinia calycina, Lotus scoparius.
Osmia tristella Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 340. ♀.
Osmia hypoleuca Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 366. ♀.

Osmia virga Sandhouse
Mass. to Wis., south to Va. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Salix.

Osmia virga Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc Wash., Mem. 1: 130. ♂.

Osmia zephyros Sandhouse
Calif. Ecology: Nests in oak gall. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Collinsia parviflora.
Osmia zephyros Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc Wash., Mem. 1: 132. ♂, ♀.

Genus OSMIA Subgenus EUTHOSMIA Sinha

Osmia subg. Euthosmia Sinha, 1958. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 39: 235.
Type-species: Heriades glaucum Fowler. Orig. desig.

Osmia glauca (Fowler)
Calif. Ecology: Nests in abandoned burrows and also trap-nests; uses mud for
cell construction. Parasite: Stelis sexmaculata Ashm. Pollen: Oligolege of Collinsia




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including C. bicolor, C. heterophylla, C. sparsifolia, but visits other flowers presumably
for nectar including Alyssum maritimum. Convolvulus, Cryptantha, Geranium
dissectum, G. rnolle, Gilia tricolor, Lasthenia chrysostoma, Lupinus bicolor, L.
micranthus, Melilotus i^idica, Mimuius, Neniophila integrifolia, N. pulchella, Phacelia
distans, P. douglasii, P. rattani, Platystemon califomicus, Plectritis macrocera, Rhus
trilobata, Trifoiium microcephalum.

Heriades glaucum Fowler, 1899. Psyche 8: 405. ♂.

Osmia exilis Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 351. ♀.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1967. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 66: 103 (tax. status).

Biology: Linsley and MacSwain, 1941. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 40: 129 (nest). —Rust and
Clement, 1972. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 45: 523-528, 1 fig., 1 table (nest architecture, life
history, floral relationships, parasite, biological characteristics).

Genus OSMIA Subgenus MYSTACOSMIA Snelling

Osmia subg. Mystacosmia Snelling, 1967. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 66: 104.
Type-species: Osmia nemoris Sandhouse. Orig. desig.

Osmia nemoris Sandhouse
B. C, Idaho and Mont., south to Calif, and Utah. Ecology: Nests in

abandoned burrows of Diadasia diniinuta Cress, as well as trap-nests; uses masticated
leaf material from Malva rotundifolia and Sphaeralcea coccinea cemented with resin
for cell construction. Pollen: Collects pollen primarily from flowers of Penstemon and
various legumes; visitation records include Astragalus, Brassica, Brodiaea congesta, B.
elegans, B. laxa, B. lutea, B. pulchella, Calochortus luteus, C. venustus, Chamaebatia
foliolosa, Chaenactis glabriuscula, Cirsiuyn, Clarkia biloba, C. cylindrica, C. dudleyana,
C. gracilis, C. pulchella, C. purpurea viminea, C. speciosa, C. ungidculata, Collinsia
callosa. Convolvulus malacophyllus, C. subacaulis, Cryptantha, Dodecatheon
hendersoni, Eriogonum fascicu latum. Geranium molle, Grindelia, Lasthenia
chrysostoma, Layia platyglossa, Linanthus parviflorus, Lotus scoparius, L.
subpi^inatus, Lupinus, Medicago sativa, Mimuius, Monardella villosa, Orthocarpus
purpurascens, Penstemon, Phacelia ciliata, P. distans, Plectritis macrocera, Prunus
ilicifolia, Raphanus sativus, Rhus ovata, Rosa califomica, Rubus, Salvia, Satureja,
Sisy7)ibriu7n, Trifoiium involucratum, T. microcephalum, T. repens, T. tridentatum,
Vicia americana, Wyethia.

Osmia nemoris Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 345. ♂.

Osmia seclusa Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 352. ♀.

Osmia abdominalis Michener, 1935. Pan-Pacific Ent. 11: 184. ♂.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1967. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 66: 103 (synonymy).

Biology: Bohart, 1955. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 57: 235-236 (nest architecture, life history).
— Rust and Clement, 1972. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 45: 523-528, table 1 (nest architecture,
life history, biological characteristics). —MacSwain, Raven and Thorp, 1973. Calif. Univ.
Pubs. Ent. 70: 52 (floral relationships, as seclusa).

Genus OSMIA Subgenus MONILOSMIA Robertson

Monilosmia Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 166.

Type-species: Osmia siinilliyua Smith. Orig. desig. and monotypic. (=Osmia

Osmia canadensis Cresson
).

Osmia albolateralis
***authority mismatch
albolateralis Cockerell. Alta. to N. Mex., west to B. C. and Wash.
Osmia dubia Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 29. ♀. Preocc.
Osmia albolateralis Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 450. ♀.
Wsmia enena Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 448. ♂.

Osmia albolateralis
***authority mismatch
visenda Sandhouse. Oreg., CaHf. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Astragalus antisellii, A. douglasii, Clarkia cylindrica, C. rhomboidea, Collinsia
tinctoria. Erysimum asperum, Horkelia tillingi, Iris hartwegii, Lathyrus alfeldii, Lotus
argophyllus, L. davidsonii, Montia perfoliata, Nemophila integrifolia, Penstemon




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spectabilis, Phacelia, Senecio lugens, Sidalcea maivaeflora, Vicia califoniica, V.
tnincata, Viola purpurea.

Osmia visenda Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 355. ♀.

Osmia atrocyanea
***authority mismatch
atrocyanea Cockerel). Wash., Oreg., Calif., Colo., Utah, Nev. Parasite: Sapyga
angustata Cress. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Cla)-kia rhoyiiboidea,
Cryptantha intermedia, Cirsium, Eriodictyon californicum, Lotus glaber, L. scoparius,
Lupinus, Penstemon laetus, Phacelia, Ribes, Rubus ursi^ius, Sidalcea maivaeflora,
Trifolium involucratum, T. variegatum. Verbena lasiostachys, Vicia califomica, V.
villosa.

Osmia atrocyanea Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 344. ♀.

Osmia senior Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 368. ♀.

Osmia pseudamala Cockerell, 1910. Canad. Ent. 42: 312. ♂.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1930. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 5: 163. ♂, ♀.

Osmia atrocyanea
***authority mismatch
putata Cockerell. South. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of

Arctostaphylos dnipacea, A. patula, Cryptantha intermedia. Iris hartwegii, Lathyrus
califomicus, Lupinus confertus, L. latifoiius, Neniophila integrifolia, Penstemon
spectabilis, Ribes roezlii, Vicia califomica.

Osmia putata Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 272. ♀.

Osmia brevis
***authority mismatch
brevis Cresson. Wyo., Colo., Utah, Ariz., B. C, Oreg., north, and cent. Calif.

Osmia brevis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 36. ♀.

Osmia wilmattae Cockerell, 1906. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 17: 228. ♀.

^Osmia wheeleri Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 449. ♂.

Osmia brevis
***authority mismatch
peridonea Sandhouse. South. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Astragalus
antisellii, Arctostaphylos drupacea, Castitleia, Clarkia, Colliiisia heterophylla, C.
tinctoria, Cryptantha intennedia, C. lepida, Eriodictyon californicum, E. crassifolium,
Fragaria califomica, Gilia exilis, Horkelia tillingii, Lotus davidsonii, L. scoparius,
Lupinus bicolor, Nama parryi, Penstemon antirrhinoides, P. gri^inellii, P.
heterophyllus, P. spectabilis, Phacelia andersonii, P. davidsonii, Phalacoseris bolanderi,
Psoralea califomica, Rhus trilobata. Salvia cartiosa, Strepta^ithus beniardinus, S.
tortuosus. Taraxacum.

Osmia peridonea Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 348. ♂.

Osmia bridwelli Sandhouse
Nev., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Agastache urticifolia,
Brodiaea coronaria, B. lutea, Chamaebatia foliolosa, Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Iris
hartwegii, Lathyms sulphureus, Lotus nevadensis, Lupinus albifrons, L. densiflorus, L.
succulentus, Mimulus guttatus, Penstemon spectabilis, Psoralea physodes, Sedn7H,
Streptanthus tortuosus, Vicia califomica, Wyethia helenioides.

Osmia {Nothosmia) bridwelli Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 100. ♂, ♀.

Osmia cara Cockerell
South. Calif., Nev. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Cirsium

californicum, Clarkia, Dicentra chrysantha, Eriodictyon californicum, E. trichocalyx,
Lotus crassifolius, L. davidsonii, L. glaber, L. scoparius, Lupinus densiflorus, L. nanus,
Mimulus, Nama parryi, Penstemon heterophyllus, P. laetus, P. spectabilis, Trichostema
parishii.

Osmia cara Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 271. ♀.

Osmia cyanella Cockerell
Wash., Oreg., Calif., Colo., Utah, Nev. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Chamaebatia foliolosa, Cirsium californicum, Collinsia heterophylla, C. tinctoria,
Cryptantha intemiedia, Eriodictyon californicum, Eriophyllum confertiflorum,
Fragaria califomica, Heterogaura califomica, Iris hartwegii, Lepechinia calycina,
Linanthus parviflonis, Lotus davidsonii, L. nevadeiisis, L. scoparius, Lupinus,
Mimulus guttatus, Penstemon grinnellii, P. heterodoxus, P. speciosus, Phacelia
califomica, P. heterophylla, P. imbricata, P. ramosissima, Potentilla glandulosa,
Raminculus califomicus, Streptanthus tortuosus.

Osmia cyanella Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 340. ♀.

Osmia aprilina Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 364. ♂.

Osmia aprilina atrovirens Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 347. ♂.

Osmia brevior Michener, 1936. Amer. Mus. Novitates 875: 20. ♀.

Osmia cyaneonitens Cockerell
S. Dak., Colo.

Osmia cyaneonitens Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 448. ♂.




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Osmia brevibirta Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 365. ♀.

Osmia densa
***authority mismatch
densa Cresson. Mont, to N. Mex., west to B. C, cent. Calif., and Ariz. Pollen: Polylectic,
visits a wide variety of flowers including Arctostaphylos Crustacea, A. viariposa,
Brodiaea liitea, B. pidchella, Calochortus nudus, Ceanotlius integerrimus, Chaviaebatia
foliolosa, Cirsium californicum, Clarkia breweri, C. dudleyana, C. rhomboidea, C.
ungukulata, Convolvulus malacophyllus, Eriodicfyon califoniicu))i, EriogonuDi
uiflatuvi, Gilia capitata, Hackelia jessicae, Horkelia fusca, Iris liartwegii, Lathyrus
graminifolius, L. sulphureus, Limnanthes dougiasii, Lotus argophyllus, Lupiuus
albifrons, L. bicolor, L. latifoiius, L. micrantlius, L. stiversi, Mimulus guttatus, M.
primuloides, M. suksdorfii, Monardella lanceolata, Penstemon spectabilis, Phacelia
heterophylla, Ranunculus califomicus, Ribes nevadensis, Spraguea unibellata,
Streptantltus tortuosus, Tlierviopsis 7)ialacophyllus, Verbena lasiostachys, Vicia
califomica.

Osmia densa Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 25. ♀.

Osmia olivacea Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 362. ♂.

Osmia proposita Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 354. ♀.

Osmia densa
***authority mismatch
pogonigera Cockerell. Calif. Parasite: Tricrauia stansburyi Hald. Pollen: Polylectic,
visits a wide variety of flowers including Arctostaphylos drupacea, A. patula,
Astragalus antisellii, A. parisliii, Barbarea orthoceras, Ceanothus cordulatus, Clarkia
breweri, C. unguiculata. Convolvulus, Cryptantlia intermedia, Dicentra chrysantlia,
Epilobiuiu angustifolium, Horkelia bernardina, Lathyrus, Lotus crassifolius, L.
davidsonii, L. scoparius, Lupinus austroviontanus, L. confertus, L. formosus, L. grayi,
Mains, Marrubium vulgare, Nemophila integrifolia, Penstemon grinnellii, P.
spectabilis, Phacelia davidsonii, P. distans, P. heterophylla, Rhannius califomica,
Rhododendron occidentale, Ribes cereum, R. roezlii, Vicia arvensis, V. califomica.

Osmia pogonigera Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 121. ♀.

Osmia celsa Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 354. ♀.
feiti Cockerell. New England to Minn., south to West Va.

Osmia felti Cockerell, 1911. Ent. News 22: 18. ♀.

Osmia gabrielis Cockerell
Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Brodiaea lutea,
Castilleia, Clarkia cylindrica, Diplacus aurantiacus, Glycyrrhiza lepidota. Iris
hartwegii, Lathyrus sulphureus, Lotus glaber, L. scoparius, Lupinus albifrons, L.
formosus, L. subspicata, Marrubium vulgare, Orthocarpus lithospermoides, Penstonon
speciosHS, Psoralea physodes, P. rigida. Salvia mellifera, Streptanthus bemardiuus,
Trifolium variegatum, Vicia califomica.
Osmia gabrielis Cockerell, 1910. Ent. News 21: 120. ♀.

Osmia hendersoni Cockerell
Mont., Wyo., Colo., Utah, Oreg. Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.).

Osmia Hendersoni Cockerell, 1907. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 19: 365. ♀.

Osmia hesperos Sandhouse
Calif., Oreg.

Osmia hesperos Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 131. ♂.

Osmia iridis Cockerell and Titus
Colo., N. Mex., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers Collinsia
callosa, Malus.
Osmia iridis Cockerell and Titus, 1902. Amer. Nat. 36: 816. ♂.

Osmia juxta
***authority mismatch
juxta Cresson. Alta. to N. Mex., west to Idaho and Ariz.
Osmia juxta Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 19. ♀.
Osmia theta Sandhouse, 1925. Canad. Ent. 57: 34. ♂.

Osmia subpurpurea jamesi Michener, 1937. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 19: 409. ♀.

Osmia juxta
***authority mismatch
subpurpurea Cockerell. B. C. to Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Brodiaea
congesta, Geranium, Lotus scoparius, Lupinus lobbii var. lyallii, L. longipes, Mertoisia,
Penstemon speciosus, Phalacoseris bolauderi, Plectritis macrocera. Salvia columbariae,
Trifolium microcephalum, Wyethia augustifolia.
Osmia subpurpurea Cockerell, 1897. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 344. ♀.

Osmia paradisica Sandhouse
Wash., Oreg., Calif. (Sierra Nevada Mts.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers oi Eriogonum.
Osmia paradisica Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 343. ♂.

Osmia rawlinsi Sandhouse
Wyo., Calif.

Osmia (Nothos))iia) rawlinsi Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 115. ♀.




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Osmia rostrata Sandhouse
Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Amsinckia douglasiana,
Grossularia, Pkacelia tanacetifolia.
Osmia rostrata Sandhouse, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 13: 351. ♀.

Osmia sculleni Sandhouse
Oreg., Calif., Utah, Colo. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Hackelia
jessicae.
Osmia (Nothosviia) scidleni Sandhouse, 1939. Ent. Soc. Wash., Mem. 1: 82. ♀.

Osmia simillima Smith
N. S., west to N. W. T. and B. C, south to Oreg., Ariz., and N. C. Parasite:
Leucospis affinis Say, Stelis subemarginata (Cress.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Althaea, Barbarea, Oxalis, Penstemon, Ranuncuhis, Rubus, Vicia, Viola.
Osmia simillima Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 142. ♀, ♂.
Osmia canadensis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 33. ♂.
Osmia cognata Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 3: 33. ♂.
Osmia major Robertson, 1902. Ent. News 13: 79. 9 (cJ misdet).
Osmia chlorops Cockerell and Titus, 1902. Amer. Nat. 36: 816. ♂.
Osmia stasima Lovell, 1909. Ent. News 20: 125. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1905. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 332. —Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus.
Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 448. 6. -MitcheU, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 80-81,
figs. 28, 32, 35 (redescription, synonymy).

Biology: Packard, 1867. Amer. Nat. 1: 377 (nest). —Saunders, 1872. Canad. Ent. 4: 237 (nest,
as canadensis). — Graenicher, 1935. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 28: 285 (nest, parasite).

Genus OSMIA Subgenus TRICHINOSMIA Sinha

Osmia subg. Trichinosmia Sinha, 1958. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 39: 244.

Type-species: Osmia latisulcata Michener. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Osmia latisulcata Michener
Ariz., Nev., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Amsinckia,
Arctostaphylos glandidosa, Astragalus douglasii, Chaetopappa aurea, Dalea,
Cryptantha intermedia, Eriodictyon califomicxcm, Lottis scoparius, L. strigosus,
Lupimis, Salix, Salvia camosa, S. cohimbariae.
Osmia latisulcata Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 86. ♀.

Genus OSMIA Subgenus DICERATOSMIA Robertson

Diceratosmia Robertson, 1904. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 166.

Type-species: Osmia conjuncta Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig. {=Osmia

Osmia quadridentata Cresson
).

Revision: Michener, 1949. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 42: 258-264 (Nearctic spp.).

Taxonomy: Kurd and Michener, 1955. Calif. Ins. Surv., Bui. 3: 215-217, fig. 4, pi. 11, map 112
(Calif, spp.). -Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 81-85, figs. 29, 31-32,
table 4 (eastern U. S. spp.).

Osmia botitena (Cockerell)
Tex.

Osmia botitena Cockerell, 1909. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 4: 30. ♀.

Osmia conjuncta marilaunidii Cockerell, 1914. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 363. ♂.

Osmia conjuncta (Cresson)
Ont. to Minn., south to N. C. and Tex. Ecology: Nests in snail shells.
Pollen: Polylectic, visits flowers of many families, especially Leguminosae and
Scrophulariaceae, including Anemonella, Blephilia, Cardamine, Cercis, Collinsia,
Dentaria, Fragaria, Geranium, Hydrophyllum, Lupinus, Osmorrhiza, Polemonium,
Psoralea, Ranunculus, Rubus, Scutellaria, Stellaria, Trifolium, Viola.

Osmia conjuncta Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. PhUa., Proc. 3: 31. ♀.

Osmia i-den'tata Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 107. 6. Preocc

Osmia cressoni Dalla Torre, 1896. Cat. Hym., v. 10, p. 392. N. name.

Osmia quadridentata Dalla Torre, 1896. Cat. Hym., v. 10, p. 392. Emend.

Biology: Rau, 1937. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 30: 330 (nest).




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Osmia subfasciata
***authority mismatch
miamiensis Mitchell. Southern Fla. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Crotalaria.

Osmia {Diceratos7nia) subfasciata niiamieyisis Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech.
Bui. 152:84. ♀, ♂.

Osmia subfasciata
***authority mismatch
subfasciata Cresson. N. J. to Fla., west to south. Calif.; northern Mexico. Ecology:
Nests in abandoned beetle burrows, also accepts artificial nesting devices. Parasite:
Melittobia chalybii Ashm. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including
Achillea, Acacia greggii, Amorpha fruticosa, Astragalus, Cercis canadensis, Coreopsis,
Gaillardia pulchella, Helenium tenuifolium, Helianthus, Heliotropium curassavicum
var. oculatum, Larrea tridentata, Lesquerella, Lotus scoparius, Machaeranthera
tenacetifolium , Marilaunidium origani folium, Mamibium vulgare, Medicago sativa,
Melilotus officinalis, Monarda citriodora, Oxalis, Palafoxia liiiearis, Parkinsonia
aculeata, Phacelia, Pluchea sericea, Prosopis juliflora, Prunus, Rhus, Rubus, Salix,
Sphaeralcea, Vicia.

Osynia subfasciata Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 261. ♀, ♂.

Osmia conjunctoides Robertson, 1893. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 20: 276. ♂.

Osmia punctata Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 85. ♀.

Biology: Linsley, 1946. Econ. Ent., Jour. 39: 24 (nest sites, pollination of alfalfa). —Mitchell,
1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 84 (nest). — Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting
wasps and bees, pp. 311-312 (nest architecture, life history, parasite).

Genus OSMIA Subgenus Unassigned

Osmia angustipes Cockerell
Colo.

Osmia angustipes Cockerell, 1933. Pan-Pacific Ent. 9: 158. ♂.

Osmia claremontensis Michener
Mont., Wash., Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of

Arctostaphylos patula, Collinsia heterophylla, Crypta^itha intermedia, Phacelia distans,
Trifolium repens.
Osmia claremontensis Michener, 1936. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 35: 84. ♂.

Taxonomy: Snelling, 1967. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 66: 106-107 (tax. status).

Osmia foxi Cameron
N. Mex.

Osmia Foxi Cameron, 1901. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 27: 316. ♂.

NoMEN Nudum in Osmia

Osmia pacifica Packard, 1892. Psyche 6: 340.

Genus MEGACHILE Latreille

This genus, which is nearly cosmopolitan in distribution, has until recently included all of the
so-called leaf-cutter bees regardless of whether the various species cut leaves with which to
make their nests or not. As currently restricted, those species which make their nests with
pieces of leaves or petals belong to the genus Megachile while those which use resin, mud, or
other such material have been assigned to Chalicodoma Lepeletier and Creightonella Cockerell.
The latter genus does not occur in the Western Hemisphere. Some authors have concluded that
Chelostomoides Robertson warrants generic rank rather than subgeneric status within the
Genus Chalicodoma as it is treated here.

Revision: Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 295-361, pis. XX-XXI (Part I,
classification of Nearctic subgenera including key; n. spp.). —Mitchell, 1935. Amer. Ent.
Soc, Trans. 61: 1-44, pi. I (Part II, treats Nearctic spp. of subgenera Cressoniella,
Litomegachile, Neomegachile). —Mitchell, 1935. Ent. Soc. Amer., Trans. 61: 155-205, pis.
VIII-IX (Part III, treats Nearctic spp. of the subgenera Anthemois and Delomegachile).
—Mitchell, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 117-166, pis. VIII-XI (Part IV, treats
Nearctic spp. of the subgenera Derotropis, Megachiloides, Phaenosariis, and
Xanthosarus). -Mitchell, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 323-382, pis. XXII-XXVI
(Part V, treats Nearctic spp. of the subgenus Xeromegackile). —Mitchell, 1937. Amer.
Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 45-83, pis. V-VI (Part VI, treats Nearctic spp. of the subgenera
Acentron, Argyropile, Leptorachis, Melanosarus and Pseudocentron). —Mitchell, 1937.




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Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 175-206, pis. XII-XIII (Part VII, treats Nearctic spp. of the
subgenus Sayapis). -Mitchell, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 381-426, pis. XXVI-XXIX
(Part VIII, treats Nearctic spp. of the subgenus Chelostomoides; addenda and inde.\ to
Parts I-VIII).

Taxonomy: Michener, 1962. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 70: 17-29 (classification). —Mitchell, 1962.
N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 108-191, figs. 1, 36-62, tables 5-6 (eastern U. S. spp.).
— Pasteels, 1965. Mus. Royal 1' Afrique Centr., Ann. Sci. Zool. 137: ix, 579 pp.
(classification). —Butler, 1965. Ariz. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 187: 1-19 (Ariz. spp.).

— Michener, 1965. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 130: 185-186 (classification). — Medler and
Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 1-80 (Wis. spp.). —Stephen, Bohart and Torchio,
1969. The biology and external morphology of bees, pp. 53-54 (classification).

Biology: Hobbs and Lilly, 1954. Ecology 35: 453-462 (alfalfa pollination in southern Alberta).

— Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 320-337, pi. 19, figs. 92-97; pi. 20, figs.
98-100 (life histories, nest associates). —Holm and Skou, 1972. Ent. Scandinavica 3:
169-180, 6 figs., 8 tables (nesting habits, parasites). — Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn.
Contrib. Zool. 193: 37-38 {Larrea visiting spp.).

Morphology: Mitchell, 1935. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 61: 3-9 (male sternites and genital
armature). —Pasteels and Pasteels, 1971. Acad. Sci. Paris, Compt. Rend. 273: 1481-1483
(tergal glands).

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus LITOMEGACHILE Mitchell

Megachile subg. Litomegacliile Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 301, 308.
Type-species: Megachile brevis Cresson. Orig. desig.

Megachile brevis
***authority mismatch
brevis Say. U. S. and south. Canada. Ecology: Nests in a wide variety of situations

including within dead plant stalks of Ambrosia trifida, Cirsiion, Helianthus annuiis, H.
tuberosa, Venionia interior, Zea tnays, in a rolled leaf of Eupatori urn perfoliatnin,
among green leaves of Erigeron canadensis, among rocks and under dried cow chips, in
a termite tunnel, and in various burrows and holes in the soil. Parasite: Anthrax
irroratus Say, Coelioxys novo7)iexicana Ckll., C. octoderitata Say, C. salinaria Ckll., C.

Megachile sayi
***authority mismatch
Robt., Leucospis affinis Say, Nemognatha nigripennis Lee Pollen: Polylectic, visits
a wide variety of flowers especially Compositae, Leguminosae and Labiatae; visitation
records include Abutilon, Acerates, Althaea rosea, Aniorpha, Apios, Asclepias eriocarpa,
Aster canescens. Astragalus, Baptisia, Bidens laevis, Blephilia, Boltonia, Brauneria,
Campanula, Cassia, Ceanothus, Cephalanthus, Chaenactis glabriuscula, Chamacrista
fasciculata. Chrysanthemum, Chrysothamnus, Cicuta, Clarkia boftae. Convolvulus
occidentalis. Coreopsis lanceolata, Comus, Crotalaria, Croton califomicus, Cryptantha
intermedia, Cuscuta, Cynoglossum, Desmodium, Dianthera, Encelia farinosa,
Engelmania, Erechthites, Erigeron stenophyllus, Eryngium, Eupatorium, Fayopynim,
Frankenia grandiflora, Gaillardia pulchella, Galactia, Geranium maculatum, Gerardia,
Gilia, Gossypium, Grindelia elata, Gutierrezia californica, G. sarothrae, Haplopappus
palmeri, H. vemwnioides, Helenium, Helianthus annuus, Heliopsis, Heliotropium
curassavicum, Hemizonia fasciculata, Hieracium, Heterotheca grandiflora. Hibiscus,
Hydrophyllum, Hypericum perfoliatum, Ivipatieiis, Koellia, Krigia, Kuhnistera,
Lactuca, Lepidospartum squamatu^)!, Linaria, Lippia, Lobelia, Lotus scoparius,
Lupinus parryi, Lycopus, Lythrum, Marruhium vulgare, Medicago saliva, Melilotus
alba, Mentha piperita, Nepeta, Nutilla stricta, Oenothera, Onobrychis, Penstemon,
Petalostemon compactus, Phacelia distans, P. heterophylla, P. ramosissima, Phaseolus,
Phyla lanceolata, P. uodiflora rosea, Physostegia, Pluchea camphorata, Polygala,
Polygonum auberti, Psoralea, Psoralioides, Pycnanthemum, Rhus, Rosa, Rubus,
Rudbeckia hirta, Ruellia, Sabatia, Saggittaria, Salix lasiolepis. Salvia, Schinus molle,
Scutellaria, Senecio, Sidalcea reticulata, Silphiuru, Solidago canadensis, Sphaeralcea
fasciculata, Stachys, Stephanomeria exigua, S. virgata, Strophostyles, Suriana,
Tephrosia, Tecrium, Tradescantia, Trifolium pratense, T. repens. Verbena, Verbesina,
Vicia.

Megachile brevis Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 407. ♂, ♀.

Megachile lanuginosa Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 190. ♀, ♂.

/Megachile nupta Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 268. V.




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Megachile perbrevis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 127. ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1057, figs. 151-153, 157 (larva).
— Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1663 (tax. status).

Biology: Rau, 1922. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 24: 39 (nesting habits). — Rau, 1934. Acad.
Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 28: 220 (nesting habits). — Rockwood, 1951. Pan-Pacific Ent. 27: 155
(nest, parasite). -Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1659-1748, 31 figs, (life history,
nest and associates). —Donahue, 1954. Nature Mag. 47: 300-302 (life history). — Medler and
Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 19-20 (life history, parasites).

Megachile brevis
***authority mismatch
onobrychidis Cockerell. Southwest. U. S., intergrading with typical brevis Say in a wide
area from Nebr. and Tex. to Pacific Coast from Calif, to B. C. and Idaho. Ecology: Uses
grape leaves for nesting material. Parasite: Coelioxys ociodentaia Say. Pollen:
Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers especially Compositae, Leguminosae and
Labiatae, visitation records include Achillea laniilosa, A. iniUefoliuin, Agastaclie,
Asclepias eriocarpa, A. niexicana, Bigelovia, Brassica geniculata, Calochortus litteus, C.
venustiis, Calycadetiia innltiglandulosa, Calyptridiiim unibellatn))!, Centaurea
solstitialis, Cercidiii))t, Chamaebafia foliolosa, Clirysotlia)tniHii noiiseosus speciosits, C.
viscidiflorus typicus, Cirsiiivi califoDiicnni, Clarkia dudleyana, C. speciosa speciosa, C.
itnguiculata, Cleomella obtitsifolia, CohvoIvuIhs aridus, Cordylantliiis filifolius, C.
pilosus, Coreopais lanceolata, Corethrogyne beniardiua, Crepis vescicaiia, Croton
califoniicits, Cryptantha intermedia, EriastruDi virgatuin, Erigeron canadensis,
Eriodicfyon, Eriogonuni fasciculation, E. gracile, E. laiifoUitni var. nudum, Eryngium
aristatulutn, Eschscholzia califoniica, Foeniculum vulgare, Frankenia grandiflora,
Grindelia caniporum, G. hallii, Gntierrezia califoniica, G. lucida, G. sawfhrae,
Haplopappus arborescens, H. bloomeri var. angustatus, H. pachylepis, H. pabnevi, H.
venetus, Heleniuni, Helianflius, Heliotropiuvi cumssavicuni, He))ii:onia fasciculata, H.
luzulaefolia, H. pungens, H. wrightii, Hefeivtheca grandiflora, Hoffnianseggia
microphylla, Lotus aviericaiius, L. glaber, L. hamatus, L. humistratus, L. pursliianus,
L. scoparins, L. strigosus, Lupinns micrantlius, Lythrmn califomicuni, Malacothanrnus
arcuatus, Marrnbiuni vulgare, Medicago saliva, Metilotus alba, M. indica, Mi))Uilus
brevipes, Onobrychis, Phacelia distans, P. ramosissima. Phyla lanceolata, P. nodiflora
var. rosea. Polygonum aubertii, Ribes, Rudbeckia serotina, Prosopis, Salix, Salvia
clevelandii, Sida hederacea, Solidago califoniica, S. occidentalis. Spiraea, Stanleya
pinnata, Stephatiomeria exigua, S. virgata, Trichostema lanceolatum laxuni, T. parishii,
T. repens, T. variegatuyn. Verbena lasiostachys, Wislizenia refracta.
Megachile onobrychidis Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 266. ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1663 (tax. status).

Megachile brevis
***authority mismatch
pseudobrevis Mitchell. N. C. to Fla. and Miss. Pollen: Presumably polylectic, visits

flowers of Afzelia, Chrysopsis, Crotalaria, Erigeron, Galactia, Gaylussacia, Heleniuni,
Helia)ithus, Lupinus, Melilotus, Opuntia, Polygonum, Rhus, Rubus, Solidago, Suriana,
Trilisa, Vacciniitm.
Megachile (Litomegachile) brevis var. pseudobrevis Mitchell, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans.
61: 20. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 116 (tax. status).

Megachile coquilletti Cockerell
Idaho and Utah, west to B. C. to south. Calif, and Ariz. Pollen:

Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Asclepias erosa, A.
mexicana, A. speciosa, Baccharis, Brassica geniculata, B. incana, Brodiaea crocea,
Centaurea solstitiatis, Cercidium torreyanum, Cirsium vulgare, Clarkia unguiculata,
Cleome serrulata, Cordylanthus pilosus, C. rigidns, Croton californicus, Cryptantha
intermedia, Eriastruvi virgatuni, Erigeron stenophyllus, E. elatnni, E.fasciculatum
var. polifolium, E. latifoliuni var. nudum, E. plumatella, Eriophyllum confertiflorum,
Frasera parryi, Grindelia, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Heliaiithns gracilentus, Lotus
americanus, L. glaber, L. scoparius, Marrubium vulgare, Medicago saliva, Melilotus
alba, Phacelia ra)iiosissi}na, Pluchea cainphorata. Phyla filiformis, P. lanceolata,
Rhamnus californicus, Solidago, Swertia parryi.
Megachile mendica coquilletti Cockerell, 1915. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 15: 535. ♂.




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Megachile gentilis Cresson
Tex. to Calif., Nev., Oreg. and Idaho, adventive and established in Hawaii.

Ecology: Nests in twigs o{ Sanibucus and also in trap-nests. Parasite: Anthrax atriplex
Marston, A. daphne (0. S.), A. irroratus Say, A. melanopogon (Bigot), Aiitranis notata
sierrae Townes, Coelioxys novomexicana Ckll., Lencospis a(finis Say, Tetrastichus
megachilidis Burks. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Acacia, Amorpha
fruticosa, Asclepias erosa, A. speciosa, Aster canescens, A. sphiosiis, Bigelovia,
Baccharis, Brassica geniculata, B. incana, Cercidium, Cereus engeima7inii,
Chamaebatia foliolosa, Chrysopsis fastigiata, Chrysothamnus, Clarkia amoena, C.
dudleyana, C. ungiiicnlata, Clematis, Cleomella obtitsifolia, Colliyisia tinctoria,
Condalia, Cordylanthus filifolius, C. nevinii, C. pilosus, C. rigidus, Croton califomicus,
Cryptantha intermedia, Dalea, Echi^iocactus, Erigeron stenophyllus, Eriogonum
fasciculatum, E. gracile, E. latifolium var. nuduyn, Eriophyllum confertiflorum,
Grindelia camporum, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Haplopappus acradenius, H. arborescens,
H. bloomeri var. aiigustatus, H. vemonioides, Helenium bigelovii, Helianthus aintuus,
Hemizoiiia pungens, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Heterotheca grandiflora, Hyptis emoryi,
Larrea tridentata, Lathyrus splendens, Lepidiurn, Lessingia glandulifera, Lippia, Lotus
argophyllus, L. glaber, L. heermannii, L. nevadensis, L. purshianus, Lupinus longipes,
Marrubium vulgare, Medicago sativa, Melilotus alba, M. indica, Monarda citriodora,
Nolina parryi, Opuyitia, Phacelia distans, P. heterophylla, P. ramosissima. Phyla
nodiflora var. rosea, Plitchea camphorata. Polygonum, Prosopis, Ratibida columnaris,
Rhamnus californica, Sapindus, Senecio donglasii. Sisymbrium altissimum, Solidago
confiiiis, S. occide^italis, Spraguea umbellatum, Swertia neglecta, Trifolium repens, T.
variegatum, Vauquelinia, Verbena lasiostachys, Verbesina, Viguiera multiflora,
Wislizenia refracta. Predator: Trichodes homi Wolcott and Chapin.

Megachile gentilis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 267. ♂.

Megachile palmaruni Perkins, 1899. Fauna Hawaii., v. 1, p. 114. ♂, ♀.

Megachile murinella Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 263. ♀.

Biology: Bechtel, 1958. Pan-Pacific Ent. 34: 12 (nest, parasite). — Krombein, 1967.

Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 320-321, pi. 20, figs. 99-100 (nest architecture, life

history, supersedure, parasites, predator).

Megachile lippiae Cockerell
Mont., Nebr., Tex., west to Utah and Calif. Ecology: Uses cuttings from rose
leaves for nest material. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers
including Acacia, Agave, Althaea rosea, Amorpha, Asclepias, Aster, Baccharis,
Cercidium, Cirsiuni, Cucurbita, Erigeron, Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium,
Haplopappus, Helenium, Helianthus, Hoffmanseggia, Hyptis emoryi, Larrea tridentata,
Lippia, Lotus, Marrubium vulgare, Medicago, Melilotus, Mortonia, Na7na, Nolina,
Opuntia, Petalostemon, Prosopis, Sapindus, Sphaeralcea, Symphoricarpos, Trifolium,
Verbesina.

Megachile cleomis var. lippiae Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 15. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 37 (floral relationship with
Larrea).

Megachile mendica
***authority mismatch
mendica Cresson. Ont. and Maine to Fla., west to S. Dak., Colo., Ariz, and Calif.
Ecology: Nests in rose canes and trap nests. Parasite: Coelioxys octodentata Say, C.

Megachile sayi
***authority mismatch
Robt, Melittobia chalybii Ashm., Physocephala marginata (Say). Pollen: Polylectic,
visits a wide variety of flowers, especially Compositae, Leguminosae, and Labiatae;
visitation records include Acerates, Agastache, Amorpha, Apios, Aralia, Asclepias
tuberosa. Aster, Baptisia, Bidens, Blephilia, Boltonia, Borrichia, Brassica nigra,
Brauneria, Buddleia campanula, Camassia, Cassia, Ceanothus, Cephalanthus,
Chaemaecrista, Chrysanthemum, Chrysopsis, Cicuta, Cirsium, Clematis, Cleomella
obtusifolia, Clethra, Conoclinum caelestinum. Coreopsis stellata, Cosinos, Crataegus,
Crotalaria, Cyrilla, Daucus, Desmodium, Diospyros, Elephantopus carolinianus,
Erigeron, Eriogonum, Eryngium, Eupatorium, Flaveria, Galactia, Gaura, Gaylussacia,
Geranium, Haplopappus, Helenium, Helianthus, Heliopsis helianthoides, Hypericum,
Hex, Impatiens, Ilea, Koellia mutica, Lepachys, Lespedeza, Linaria, Lupinus, Lycopus,
Lythrum, Marrubium vulgare, Medicago, Melilotus alba, Monarda, Nepeta, Nyssa,
Ocimum, Oenothera, Opuntia, Phacelia, Phaseolus, Polygala incamata. Polygonum,




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Prunella, Psedera, Psoralea, Pycnanthemum, Pyrrlwpappus, Rhus, Richardia, Robinia,
Rosa, Rubus, Rudbeckia, Salix, Senecio, Silpliium, Solidago, Specularia, Spiraea,
Stachys, Strophostyles, Suriana, Sympkoricarpos, Tephrosia, Teucrium, Trifolium,
Trilisia, Vaccinium, Verbena, Verbesina, Venwnia glauca, Veronica, V eronicastrum
virginicum, Vicia, Zinnia, Zizia. Predator: Pyemotes ve7itricosus (Newport), Vidia sp.
Megackile mendica Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 126. ♀.

Taxonomy: Rau, 1922. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 24: 39 (life history).

Biology: Koerber and Medler, 1959. Wis. Acad. Sci., Arts and Letters 47: 56 (geogr. records).

— Medler, 1965. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 67: 113-116, 1 table (life history, nest architecture,

cocoon, parasites). — Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 322-325 (life

history, nest architecture, supersedure, parasites, predators). — Medler and Lussenhop,

1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 25-26 (nesting habits).

Megachile mendica
***authority mismatch
snowi Mitchell. Colo., N. Mex., Ariz. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of
Asclepias, Ceanothus, Chilopsis, Cleome, Eriogonum, Geranium, Gilia, Helenium,
Heliopsis, Heterotlieca, Ligustrum, Lupinus, Marrubium vulgare, Melilotus, Robinia,
Rudbeckia, Verbesina, Viguiera.

Megachile mendica snowi Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 113. ♀.

Megachile texana Cresson
Que. to Fla., west to B. C. and Calif. Ecology: Nests in preexisting holes in
the ground. Parasite: Coelioxys moesta Cress., C. octodentata Say, C. rufitarsis Sm., C.
soda I is Cress. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers especially Leguminosae,
Compositae, and Labiatae, but also commonly takes pollen from Larrea tridentata
(Zygophyllaceae) in the southwestern U. S.; visitation records include Acacia greggii,
Acerates, Achillea lanulosa, Afzelia, Agave deserti, Althaea rosea, Alyssuin
maritimuni, Apocynum androsaemifolium, Amorpha fruticosa, Asclepias galioides, A.
mexicana, A. speciosa. Aster, Baccharis emoryi, Baptisia, Berberis, Blephilia, Buddleia,
Calycadenia multiglandulosa, Chaniaecrista fasciculata, Chrysothamnus, Cirsinm,
Clematis ligusticifolia, Clethra, Convolvulus, Cordylanthus nevinii. Coreopsis,
Crotalaria, Croton califoniicus, Cryptantha, Dianthera, Elephantopus carolinianus,
Eriastruni virgatum, Eriogonum elongatum, E.fasciculatum, E. latifolium var.
nudum, E. subscaposum, E. wrightii, Erigeron coulteri, Eupatorium, Euphorbia,
Frasera parryi, Galactia, Gilia inconspicua, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Haplopappus,
Helenium, bigelovii, Helianthus, Hypericum, Hyptis emoryi, Kuhnistera oligophylla,'
Larrea tridentata, Liatris, Lotus nevadensis, L. scoparius, Lupinus longipes,
Marrubium vulgare, Medicago saliva, Melilotus alba, Monardella lanceolata, Nepeta,
Molina, Opuntia, Oxydendron, Penstemon, Petalostemon candidum, Phacelia
heterophylla, Phaseolus, Phyla nodiflora, Pluchea camphorata, Polygala, Polygonum
aubertii, Psoralea, Pycnanthemum, Pyrrhopappus, Rhamnus califomica, Rhus, Rubus,
Sapi7idus, Schinus molle, Serinea, Silphium, Solidago (alifomica, S. confinis, Stachys,
Stanleya pinnata, Strophostyles, Tamarix, Tephrosia, Trifolium, Verbena, Vicia,
Viguiera laciniata.

Megachile texana Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 125. ♂ (♀ misdet.).

Megachile generosa Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 125. ♀.

Megachile schismatura Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 267. ♂.

Megachile cleomis Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 13. ♀, ♂.

Megachile pruinosa Friese, 1903. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 3: 246. ♀, ♂. Preocc.

Megachile voiionensis Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 354. "♀"=♂.

Biology: Rau, 1922. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 24: 38 (nest, as generosa). —Hicks, 1926.
Colo. Univ. Studies 15: 228 (nest, as cleomis). —Krombein, 1953. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc.
55: 84-85 (nest). —Medler and Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 30 (nest).
— Krombein, 1970. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 72: 415 (nest). — Hurd and Linsley, 1975.
Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 37-38 (floral relationships).

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus NEOMEGACHILE Mitchell

Megachile subg. Neomegachile Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 302, 307.
Type-species: Megachile chichimeca Cresson. Orig. desig.




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Megachile aegra Mitchell
South. Tex., south to Brazil.

Megachile aegra Mitchell, 1930. Amer. Ent. See, Trans. 56: 283. ♂.

Megachile chichimeca Cresson
South. Tex.; Mexico.

Megachile chichimeca Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 130. ♀.

Megachile disparipennis Cockerell, 1917. In W. P. Cockerell, N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 25: 192.
9.

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus CRESSONIELLA Mitchell

Megachile subg. Cressoniella Mitchell, 1943. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 302, 307.
Type-species: Megachile zapoteca Cresson. Orig. desig.

Megachile zapoteca Cresson
South. Ariz., south to Costa Rica. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Asclepias, Helenium, Helianthus, Lathyrus, Melilotus, Monarda.
Megachile zapoteca Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 128. ♀.
Megachile tuxtla Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 128. ♂.

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus MEGACHILE Latreille

Megachile Latreille, 1802. Hist. Nat. Formis, p. 413, 433.

Type-species: Apis centuncidaris Linnaeus. Desig. by Curtis, 1828.
Anthophora Fabricius, 1804. Systema piezatorum, p. 372. Preocc.

Type-species: Apis centuncnlaris Linnaeus. Desig. by Michener, 1951.
Anthemois Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 168.

Type-species: Apis centuncnlaris Linnaeus. Monotypic and orig. desig. (=Megachile
htfragilis Cresson).
Cyphopyga Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 169.

Type-species: Megachile inontivaga Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Megalochila Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 64. Emend.

Megachile centuncularis (Linnaeus)
Holarctic, in America principally northern, but occurs south to Fla.
Mo., Colo., Nev., Ariz. Ecology: Nests both below and above ground in preexisting holes
or cavities. Parasite: Coelioxys modesta Sm., C. moesta Cress., C. octodentata Say,
Dibrachys sp., Melittobia chalybii, M. megachilidis (Pack.), M onodontomerns
montivagns Ashm., Ptinns sp. nr. hirtellns Sturm. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits a
wide variety of flowers, especially Compositae and Leguminosae; visitation records
include Althaea rosea, Aster, Cardnns undulatus, Centaurea cyanns, C.jacea,
Epilobinm angustifolin^n, Fendlera, Gladiolus, Grindelia squarrosa, Helianthus
annuus, H. maximillianus, Inula heleuium, Medicago sativa, Melilotus alba, M.
officinalis, Psoralea, Pyracantha, Sedum, Solidago, Taraxacum taraxacum, Trifolium,
Vemo7iia fasciculata. Zinnia.

Apis centuncularis Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, p. 575. ♀.

Apis rotundata Fabricius, 1787. Mantissa Insectorum, v. 1, p. 303. ♂.

Megachile infragilis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 127. ♂.

Megachile leoni Titus, 1906. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 7: 150. ♀.

Perezia maura Ferton, 1914. Soc. Ent. France, Ann. 83: 233. Intersex.

Taxonomy: Kurd, 1967. Ent. Medd. 35: 5-6 (synonymy). — Pasteels, 1969. Soc Ent. France,
Bui. 74: 248 (intersex, synonymy).

Biology: Gentry, 1874. Canad. Ent. 6: 171-175 (nest, supersedure). —Packard, 1874. Guide to
the study of insects, 4th ed., pp. 136-137 (nest). —Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ. Studies 15: 231
(nest, as infragilis). — Michelbacher and Kurd, 1954. Pan-Pacific Ent. 20: 146 (nest,
parasite). — Medler, 1959. Canad. Ent. 91: 113-115, 1 fig. (nest). — Krombein, 1967.
Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 325-326 (life history, nest architecture, parasite).
— Medler and Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 20-21 (life history, parasite).
—Holm and Skou, 1972. Ent. Scand. 3: 169-180, 6 figs., 8 tables (life history, nest
architecture, sex ratio, rate of emergence, parasite, diseases).

Megachile inermis Provancher
N. S. to Ga., west to B. C, south to Calif., Utah., Colo., N. Mex. and Tex.
Ecology: Nests in decaying poplar and in borings in wood. Parasite: Coelioxys fu7teraria
Sm., Dibrachys ntaculipennis Szelenyi, Leucospis affinis Say. Pollen: Apparently




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polylectic, especially Compositae and Leguminosae; visitation records include Baptisia
tinctoria, Carduus undulatus, Inula helenium, Lathynis i/enosHS, Medicago satiim,
Nepeta cararia, Penstemon, Polyvinia uvedalia, Rhododendron, Rubus strigosus, R.
villosiis, Sanicula marylandica, Taraxacinii officinale, Tephrosia virginiana, Vemonia.

Megachile simplex Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 229. ♂. Preocc.

Megachile inermis Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada, Hym., p. 323. ♂.

Megachile simplicissima Dalla Torre, 1896. Cat. Hym., v. 10, p. 449. N. name.

Megachile sapellonis Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 7. ♀.

Megachile temporalis Friese, 1903. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 3: 247. ♂ (♀ misdet.).

Megachile decipiens Lovell and Cockerell, 1907. Psyche 14: 19. ♂.

Taxonomy: Titus, 1906. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 7: 150 (synonymy).

Biology: Stephen, 1955. Econ. Ent., Jour. 48: 543 (effectiveness as polHnator of alfalfa).
— Stephen, 1956. Pan-Pacific Ent. 32: 98-101 (nest). — Koerber and Medler, 1958. Wis.
Acad. Sci., Arts and Letters 47: 56 (life history). -Medler, 1958. Canad. Ent. 90: 325-327, 1
fig. (life history). —Medler, 1958. Ent. News 66: 21 (parasite). — Fye, 1965. Canad. Ent. 97:
874-875, tables 2-4 (life history, nest architecture, sex ratio, parasite). —Medler and
Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 22-23 (life history, parasite).

Megachile montivaga Cresson
N. S. to N. C, west to B. C. and Calif.; Mexico. Ecology: Uses petals of
Clarkia for nest construction. Parasite: Coelioxys insita Cress., C. rufitarsis Sm.,
Leucospis affinis Say, Nemognatba dubia LeC, Phaenaera sp. Pollen: Polylectic,
especially Compositae, visits flowers of Argemone intermedia, A. platyceros, Asclepias,
Aster parishii, Blephilia, Brauneria, Campanula, Carduus undulatus, Centaurea jacea,
C. solstitialis, Chaenactis artemisiaefolia, Chilopsis linearis, Chrysopsis villosa,
Chrysothamnus, Cirsium californicuyn, C. lanceolatum, Clarkia amoena huntiana, C.
biloba, C. cylindrica, C. dudleyana, C. elegans, C. rubicunda, C. unguiculata, C.
viminea, C. williamsoni, Cleome, Convolvulus occidentalis. Coreopsis stellata,
Cryptantha intermedia, Dianthera, Echinacea, Epilobium, Euphorbia albomarginata.
Geranium maculatum, Gilia, Grindelia camporum, G. hallii, Gutierrezia, Haplopappus
bloomeri var. angustatus, Hedonia, Helenium bigelovii, Helianthus annuus, H.
gracilentus. Iris hartwegii, Lactuca, Lotus scoparius, Marrubium vulgare, Medicago
sativa, Melilotus, Monarda, Monardella, Oenothera, Opuntia, Palafoxia linearis,
Parthenium, Penstemon, Phacelia, Polymnia uvedalia, Rosa, Rudbeckia, Salix, Salvia
carduacea, S. mellifera, Scrophularia, Senecio douglasii, Sidalcea, Silphimn, Solidago,
Trifolium, Verbena lasiostachys, Verbesina encelioides, Vemonia, Viguiera laciniata, V.
multiflora.
Megachile montivaga Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 124. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ. Studies 15: 232 (nest).

Megachile nivalis Friese
Alaska, south to Oreg., east to Que. and Maine. Parasite: Anthrax irroratus
Say. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers oi Elaeagnus, Taraxacum.
Megachile nivalis Friese, 1903. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 3: 246. 9 {i misdet.).
Megachile (Anthemois) santiamensis Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 311. ♀.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1942. Pan-Pacific Ent. 18: 115. cJ, 9.

Megachile relativa Cresson
Mackenzie to Newfoundland, south to Calif., Ariz., Ill, Tenn., and Ga.

Ecology: Nests in borings in wood. Parasite: Coelioxys banksi Cwfd., C.funeraria Say,
C. modesta Sm., C. moesta Cress., C. porterae Ckll., Dibrachys macnlipennis Szelenyi,
Leucospis affinis Say, Melittobia chalybii Ashm., Pteromalus venustus Walker. Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Amorpha, Apocynum, Aster punicus, A.
untbellatus, Baptisia, Besseya plantagineae, Brassica, Chamaenerion angustifolium,
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Epilobium, Erigeron coulteri, Frasera, Geranium,
Gilia, Houstonia, Iris, Melilotus, Mertensia, Phacelia, Physalis, Prenanthes,
Ranu7iculus, Rhodora, Rosa, Rubus, Rudbeckia hirta, Senecio subyiudus, Solidago,
Trifolium, Valeriana.

Megachile relativa Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 126. ♀.

Megachile (Xanthosarus) exclamans Viereck, 1916. Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.
Survey, Bui. 22: 743. ♀.

Megachile aspera Mitchell, 1924. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 40: 158. ♀.




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Biology: Medler and Koerber, 1958. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 51: 337-344, 3 figs, (life history,
parasite). —Koerber and Medler, 1958. Wis. Acad. Sci., Arts and Letters 47: 56 (life
history, parasite).

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus EUTRICHARAEA Thomson

Megachile subg. Eutricharaea Thomson, 1872. Hym. Scand., v. 2, p. 228.

Type-species: Apis argentata Fabricius. Monotypic.
Megachile subg. Paramegachile Friese, 1898. Termesz. Fus. 21: 198.

Type-species: Apis argentata Fabricius. Desig. by Mitchell, 1934.
Megachile subg. Paramegalochila Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 71. Emend.
Androgynella Cockerell, 1911. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 313.

Type-species: Megachile detersa Cockerell. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Megachile subg. Neoeutricharaea Rebmann, 1967. Ent. Ztschr. (N. S.) 17: 36.

Type-species: Megachile rotundata (F.). Orig. desig. (name of type-species placed
originally in quotation marks).

Taxonomy: Rebmann, 1967. Ent. Ztschr. (n. s.) 77: 33-38. — Hurd, 1967. Ent. Medd. 35: 3-10.
— Rebmann, 1967. Deut. Ent. Ztschr. (n. s.) 15: 21-48. —Rebmann, 1967. Ent. Ztschr. 77:
169-171.

Biology: Parker, Torchio, Nye and Pedersen, 1976. Jour. Apicult. Res. 15: 89-92 (field-cage
studies).

Megachile apicalis Spinola
Canada, N. J., Va. Presumably introduced from Europe. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers of Centaurea cyanus.

Megachile apicalis Spinola, 1808. Insectorum Liguriae, v. 2, p. 259. ♀.

Megachile mixta Costa, 1863. Accad. delle Sci. Fis. e Mat. Napoli, Atti 1 (2): 44. ♀.

Megachile diitiidiati-ventris Dours, 1873. Rev. Mag. Zool. (3) 1: 300. ♀.

Megachile virginiana Mitchell, 1926. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 52: 113. ♀.

Megachile concinna Smith
Holarctic; Pa. and Ohio south to Fla. and Ala., Kans., Okla., Ariz., Nev., Calif.,
Utah, Wash.; Mexico. Ecology: Nests in borings in wood. Presumably introduced from
West Indies after World War II and was probably introduced from Africa into the West
Indies during the early part of the nineteenth century. Parasite: Anthrax cintalapa
Cole, Coelioxys moesta Cress., Nemognatha lurida LeC, Tetrastichus megachilidis
Burks. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a variety of native and introduced flowers including
Acacia, Asclepias, Aster, Bacchayis, Bidens, Centromadia pungens. Citrus, Croton
califomicus, Euphorbia albomarginata, Heliotropium curassavicmn, Hemizonia
pungens, Ipomoea, Lepidium, Lippia, Lotus purshianus, Medicago saliva, Melilotus
alba, M. indica, Onobrychis vicaefolia. Polygonum aubertii, Prosopis, Raphanus
sativus, Senecio, Sicyos, Tamanx, Trifolium repens, Veriionia, Wislizenia refracta.
Predator: Trogodenna sp.

Megachile concinna Smith, 1879. Descr. n. spp. Hym., p. 79. ♀.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 121-122, fig. 39
(redescription, other possible synonyms).

Biology: Butler and Wargo, 1963. Pan-Pacific Ent. 39: 201-206, 1 fig. (life history, nest
architecture, parasite, predator). —Butler and Ritchie, 1965. Pan-Pacific Ent. 41: 153-157
(life history, pollination). — Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 326-327 (life
history, nest architecture, predator).

Megachile pacifica (Panzer)
Holarctic; Mass. to Va., west to B. C, Wash., Oreg. and Calif. Ecology:

Nests in borings in wood as well as in a wide variety of native and artificial burrows.
Presumably introduced some time during or just after World War II; also adventive in
S. Amer. (Chile and Argentina). Parasite: Coelioxys funeraria Sm., C. gilensis Ckll, C.
moesta Cress., C. novomexicana Ckll., C. octodentata Say, C. sodalis Cress., Dibrachys
maculipennis Szelenyi, Melittobia acasta Walker, M. hawaiiensis Perkins,
Monodontomerus montivagus Ashm., M. obscurus Westw., Sapyga pujnila Cress.,
Tetrastichus albipes Crosby. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of both native and
introduced flowers and is an exceptionally valuable pollinator of alfalfa; visitation
records include Asclepias, Centromadia pungens, Cichorium intybus. Cosmos,




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Euphorbia albomarginata, Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatum, Lotus
comiculatus, Medicago sativa, Melilotus alba, Phacelia ramosissima, Polygonum
aubertii, Senecio douglasii, Solidago, Veronica. The name adopted by the International
Bee Research Association for this species is Megachile pacifica (Panzer); however, an
application pending before the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
requests that the Commission use its plenary powers to set aside all type selections for
Apis rotundata Fabricius, 1793, and to rule that the species is to be interpreted by
reference to a newly established neotype specimen. Thus, if the Commission rules
affirmatively on this application, the correct name for this species will be Megachile
rotundata (Fabricius) which is currently considered to be a synonym of Megachile

Megachile centuncularis (Linnaeus)
and is so treated in this catalog.

Apis pacifica Panzer, 1798. Faunae Ins. German., v. 55, p. 16. ♀.

Megachile imbecilla Gerstaecker, 1869. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 30: 359. ♀.

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1948. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 50: 14 (as rotundata). —Mitchell, 1962. N.
C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 122-124, figs. 38-39 (redescription, possible identity, as
rotundatai). — Hurd, 1967. Ent. Medd. 35: 3-10 (tax. status of rotundata Fabr.).
— Rebmann, 1967. Ent. Ztschr. 77: 169-171 (tax. status of rotundata Fabr. and pacifica
Panz.). —Holm and Skou, 1972. Ent. Scand. 3: 169-170 (review of tax. status of rotundata
Fabr. and pacifica Panz.). —Roberts, 1974. Zool. Nomencl., Bui. 30: 190-192 (proposed
suppression of lectotype and designation of neotype in accord with Megachile rotimdata
auct). —Anonymous, 1975. Bee World 56: 164 (identity problems, adoption by
International Bee Research Association of Megachile pacifica (Panzer) as correct name for
this species).

Biology: Daly, 1952. Ent. News 63: 210-211 (geogr. and floral records in midwest. U. S.).
—Hurd, 1954. Ent. News 65: 93-95 (geogr. and floral records in Calif.). —Stephen and
Torchio, 1961. Pan-Pacific Ent. 37: 85-93 (nest sites, emergence, cells, adult behavior,
leaf-cuttings, larval development, historical notes). —Stephen, 1961. Econ. Ent., Jour. 54:
989-993 (artificial nest sites and propagation for alfalfa pollination). — Bohart, 1962. Utah
Agr. Expt. Sta., Circ. 144: 1. (management for alfalfa pollination). —Stephen, 1962. Oreg.
Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 586, 16 pp., 9 figs, (propagation for alfalfa seed production).
— Johansen, Jaycox and Hutt, 1963. Wash. Agr. Expt. Sta., Circ. 418:1. (effect of
pesticides). —Torchio, 1963. Utah Farm Home Sci. 24: 70-71 (parasite). —Nye and Bohart,
1964. Utah State Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta., Circ. 145: 1-7, 6 figs, (equipment for making
nesting holes). —Stephen, 1965. XII. Int. Congr. Ent. London, Proc. p. 350 (circadian
rhythms). —Stephen and Osgood, 1965. Econ. Ent., Jour. 58: 284-286, 1 table (induction of
emergence). —Bacon, Barton, MacSwain, Marble and Stanger, 1965. Calif. Univ. Agr. Ext.
Serv., AXT 160: 1-13 (management for alfalfa pollination). — Hobbs, 1965. Canada Dept.
Agr., Pub. 1209: 1-11, 5 figs, (importation and management for alfalfa pollination).
—Stephen and Osgood, 1965. Econ. Ent. Jour. 58: 965-968 (effect of tunnel size on sex
ratio). —Johansen and Eves, 1966. Wash. State Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta., Circ. 469: 1-12
(parasites and nest destroyers). —Hobbs, 1967. Canada Dept. Agr., Pub. 1313: 1-19
(domestication). —Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 327-329 (life history,
nest architecture). —Bohart and Knowlton, 1967. Utah. Ext. Serv., EL 104 (rev): 1-7, 1 pi.
(management for higher alfalfa seed yields). — Medler and Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ.
Res. Bui. 274: 29-30 (life history, parasites). —Waters, 1968. Idaho Agr. Expt. Sta.,
Current Information Series 97: 1-4 (beetle excluder trap). —Williams, 1968. Idaho Coll.
Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sci., Station Note 10: 1-4 (nesting boards). —Hobbs, 1968.
Canad. Ent. 100: 781-784 (control of insect enemies). —Johansen and Eves, 1969. Wash.
Agr. Ext. Series, EM 2631 (rev.): 1-10 (control of natural enemies). — Klostermeyer and
Gerber, 1969. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 62: 1321-1325 (nesting behavior monitored by an event
recorder). —Eves, 1970. Melanderia 4: 1-18, 7 figs., 11 tables (parasite). —Torchio, 1970.
Ark. Agr. Ext. Serv., Mis. Publ. 127: 84-90 (parasite). —Johansen and Eves, 1971. Wash.
Agr. Ext. Serv., EM 2631 (rev.): 1-10 (control of natural enemies). —Waters, 1971. Idaho
Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta., Current Information Ser. 163: 1-4 (insect enemies and their control).
—Hobbs and Krunic, 1971. Canad. Ent. 103: 674-685 (parasites). —Holm and Skou, 1972.
Ent. Scand. 3: 169-180, 6 figs., 8 tables (life history, nest architecture, sex ratio). —Torchio,
1972. Melanderia 10: 1-22, 55 figs., 1 table {Sapyga pumila Cress., a parasite). —Torchio,




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1972. Melanderia 10: 23-30, 7 figs, (control of Sapyga piunila Cress.). —Telford, Johansen
and Eves, 1972. Mededel. Fakult. Landbouwwetensch. Gent 37: 776-783 (management
practices and insecticide poisoning). — Szabo and Smith, 1972. Apiculture Res., Jour. 11:
157-165 (influence of light and temperature on adult activity). — Hobbs, 1972. Bee World
53: 167-173 (beekeeping with alfalfa leafcutter bees in Canada). —Thorp and Briggs, 1972.
Environ. Ent. 1: 399-401 (mortality of immatures in relation to alfalfa saponins).
— Klostermeyer, Mech and Rasmussen, 1973. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 46: 536-548 (se.x and
weight of progeny with provision weights). — Santis, 1973. Cienc. e Abejas 2: 15-19
(parasites). —Hobbs, 1973. Canada Dept. Agr., Publ. 1495: 1-30 (use in alfalfa pollination).
— Torchio, 1974. Utah State Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta., UMC 48, Res. Rept. 16: 1-13, 18 figs.
(biology and control of Sapyga pumila Cress., a parasite). —Parker and Pedersen, 1975.
Environ. Ent. 4: 103-104 (effect of alfalfa saponins on larval mortality). — Tasei, 1975.
Apidologie 6: 1-57 (adaptation of N. Amer. population introduced into France). —Davis,
Johansen, and Eves, 1975. Apiculture Research, Jour. 14: 101-104, table (synthetic
attractants). —Stephen and Undurraga, 1976. Jour. Apicult. Res. 15: 81-87, 4 figs.
(x-radiography, an analytical tool in population studies). —Hobbs and Richards, 1976.
Canad. Ent. 108: 165-167 (selection for univoltine strain). — Batra, 1976. Kans. Ent. Soc,
Jour. 49: 18-22, tables 1-2 (comparative efficiency in alfalfa pollination).

Morphology: Gerber and Akre, 1969. Melanderia 1: 1-36 (external). — Wachmann, Richter and
Schricker, 1973. Ztschr. f. Morph. Tiere 76: 109-128 (fine structure of compound eye).

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus DELOMEGACHILE Viereck

Megacbile subg. Delomegachile Viereck, 1916. Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey,
Bui. 22: 745.

Type-species: Megachile frigida Smith. Monotypic. (=Megachile vidua Smith).

Megachile addenda Cresson
Que., Ont. and N. H. to Fla., west to Mich., Kans., Tex., and Calif. Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Amorpha canescens, Asclepias, Baptisia
tinctoria, Coreopsis, Dianthera, Encelia califomica, Gillenia, Hieracium, Hypericum,
Oenothera, Opuyitia vulgaris, Penstemon, Polycodium, Psoralea floribiinda, Rosa,
Rubus, Teplirosia virginiana, Vacciniuyn.

Megachile addenda Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 124. ♀, ♂.

Megachile 7nanu7uuskin Viereck, 1902. Canad. Ent. 34: 328. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Graenicher, 1905. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. 3: 160-162 (nest).

Megachile frigida
***authority mismatch
appalachensis Mitchell. N. Y. to Ga. in the Appalachian Mts. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers of A pocynum, Baptisia, Coreopsis, Galax, Koellia, Penstemon,
Pycnanthemum, Rhododendron catawabiense, Venionia glauca.
Megachile {Delomegachile) vidua var. appalachensis Mitchell, 1935. Amer. Ent. Soc,
Trans. 61: 205. ♀, ♂.

Megachile frigida
***authority mismatch
frigida Smith. Alaska and Canada, south to Pa., Mich., and Nebr. and in the mts. to N.
Mex., Ariz, and cent. Calif. Ecology: Nesting in decaying poplar and also in borings in
wood. Parasite: Coelioxys funeraria Sm., C. moesta Cress., C. porterae Ckll., C. sodalis
Ckll. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of A pocynum. Astragalus, Campanula,
Castilleia, Chamaenerion angustifolium, Epilobium, Iris, Malvastru7)t, Marrubium
vulgare, Medicago sativa, Melilotus, Mimulus, Monarda, Penstemon, Phacelia,
Polemonitim, Robiiiia, Rosa. Symphoricarpos, Trifolium, Verbena, Vicia.
Megachile frigida Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus.," v. 1, p. 193. ♂.
Megachile monardarum Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 11. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1905. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 338. —Cockerell, 1905. Amer. Ent.
Soc, Trans. 31: 337. —Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 133-134, figs.
43-45 (redescription).

Biology: Stephen, 1956. Pan-Pacific Ent. 32: 95-98 (life history). — Medler and Lussenhop,
1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 21-22 (life history, parasite).

Megachile gemula
***authority mismatch
cressonii Dalla Torre. Wash., Nev., Ariz.

Megachile carboiiaria Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 208. 9. Preocc
Megachile cressonii Dalla Torre, 1896. Cat. Hym., v. 10, p. 427. N. name.
Megachile vandykei Cockerell, 1925. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc (4) 14: 205. ♀.




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Megachile gemula
***authority mismatch
gemula Cresson. MacKenzie to N. S., south to Ga., west to 111., Nebr., N. Mex., and
Calif, north to B. C. and N. W. T., principally montane in south, part of range. Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers of Apocynum androsaemifoUum, Asclepias speciosa,
Baptisia tinctoria, Campanula rotundifolia, Chrysanthemum leucanthemuyn, Clematis,
Coreopsis, Geranium macutata, Gerardia, Hydrangea, Philadelphus, Pycnanthemum,
Rhododendron catawabiense, Rubus, Rudbeckia, Solidago lanceolata, Trifolium,
Vaccinium, Vicia.

Megachile gemula Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 118. ♂ (♀ misdet.).

Megachile avaria Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 123. ♂.

Megachile Vancouveriensis Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada, Hym., p.
424. ♂.

Megachile albula Lovell and Cockerell, 1907. Psyche 14: 18. ♂.

Megachile (Delomegachile) gemula xnr.fulvogemula Mitchell, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc,
Trans. 61: 185. ♀.

Taxonomy: Titus, 1906. Ent. Soc Wash., Proc 7: 151 (synonymy).

Biology: Fye, 1965. Canad. Ent. 97: 876-877, fig. 6, tables 2-4 (nest). — Medler and Lussenhop,

1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 22 (nest).

Megachile giliae Cockerell
Alaska, N. W. T., B. C, Alta., Colo. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Gilia.

Megachile giliae Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 22: 452. ♂.

Megachile ingenua Cresson
Pa. to Fla., west to 111. Pollen: Possibly oligolectic on Tephrosia including T.
virginiana, but also visits flowers of Lupinus and Vacciyiium presumably for nectar.

Megachile ingenua Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 122. ♂.

Megachile tephrosiana Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 179. ♀.

Megachile melanophaea
***authority mismatch
calogaster Cockerell. B. C. and Idaho to mts. of cent. Calif. Pollen: Apparently
polylectic, visits flowers of Astragalus, Hackelia jessicae, Haplopappus aparagoides,
Horkelia fusca, Lotus oblongifolius, Lupiyius lyallii lyallii, L. superbus, Mimulus
moschatus, M. tillingi, Pedicularis frigida, P. groenlandica, Phyllodoce breweri,
Polemonium occidentale, Streptanthus tortuosus.

Megachile calogaster Cockerell, 1898. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 50: 55. ♂, ♀.

Megachile melanophaea
***authority mismatch
melanophaea Smith. MacKenzie to Newfoundland, south to Calif., Ariz., Colo.,
Penn. and Ga.? Parasite: Coelioxys rufitarsis Sm., C. sodalis Cress. Pollen: Apparently
polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Agastache occidentaiis, Apocynum,
Astragalus bisulcatus. Azalea, Campanula rotundifolia, Chamaenerion angustifolium,
Cypripedium reginae, Epibolium angustifolium, Helianthus, Hemilobus tenellus,
Lupinus argenteus, L. rootkatensis, Medicago sativa, Mimulus, Nolina, Phacelia,
Psoralea argophylla, Ranu7iculus, Raphanus, Rhodora, Robiiiia, Rosa, Rubus,
Rudbeckia, Solidago, Symphoricarpos occidentaiis. Sisymbrium, Taraxacu^n, Vicia
eracea.

Megachile melanophaea Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 191. ♀, ♂.

Megachile canadensis Friese, 1903. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 3: 248.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1905. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 336 (synonymy).

Biology: Graenicher, 1905. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 3: 162-163 (life history, parasite).

Megachile melanophaea
***authority mismatch
rohweri Cockerell. Colo., Utah, Ariz., N. Mex. Ecology: Uses pieces of

Symphoricarpos leaves for nesting material. Pollen: Presumably polylectic, visits
flowers of Cirsium, Erysimum, Lupinus, Nolina, Robinia, Sisytnbrium, Trifolium.
Megachile wootoni rohiveri Cockerell, 1906. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.. Bui. 22: 453. ♀.
Megachile pseudolatimanus Strand, 1917. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 83 (abt. A, h. 11): 65. ♂.
Megachile tuala Strand, 1917. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 83 (abt. A, h. 11): 66. ♀.

Megachile melanophaea
***authority mismatch
submelanophaea Mitchell. South. Calif., mts., Maine, Mich. Pollen: Presumably
polylectic, visits flowers of Dicentra chrysantha, Lupinus.
Megachile (Delomegachile) ynelanophaea var. submelanophaea Mitchell, 1935. Amer. Ent.
Soc, Trans. 61: 197. ♀.




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Megachile melanophaea
***authority mismatch
wootoni Cockerell. Mont., Nebr., Colo., N. Me.x. Parasite: Coelioxys sodalis
Cress., C. rufitarsis Sm. Pollen: Presumably polylectic, visits flowers of Astragalus,
Medicago sativa.
Megachile wootoni Cockerell, 1898. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 1: 125. ♂.

Megachile mucida Cresson
N. J., N. C, Ga., Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers o{ Litpinus,
PolycodiuDi, Rubus, Tephrosia virginiana.
Megachile mucida Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 118. ♂ (♀ misdet.).
Megachile mucida semimucida Cockerell, 1909. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 4: 26. ♀, ♂.
Megachile audax Mitchell, 1924. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 40: 161. ♂.

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus PHAENOSARUS Mitchell

Megachile subg. Phaenosarus Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 303, 309.
Type-species: Megachile fortis Cresson. Orig. desig.

Megachile agustini Cockerell
Colo., N. Mex., Utah, Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Baileya,
Helianthus, Heterotheca, Verbesina, Viguiera, Zexmenia.
Megachile agustini Cockerell, 1905. Ent. News 16: 82. ♂.

Megachile (Phaenosarus) subfortis Mitchell, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 145. ♂.

Megachile fortis Cresson
111., Iowa, Wis., S. Dak., Nebr., Kans., La., Tex., Colo., N. Mex., Ariz. Parasite:
Coelioxys rufitarsis Sm. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Dicrophyllum
marginatum, Helianthus peliolaris, H. subrhomboideus, Silphium integrifolium,
Solidago canadensis, Vemonia fasciculata.
Megachile fortis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 262. ♂.
Megachile emoryi Cockerell, 1904. Entomologist 37: 7. ♀.
Megachile fortis var. vestali Cockerell, 1913. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 11: 530. ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ. Studies 15: 229 (nest, parasite).

Morphology: Fischer, 1957 (1956). Canad. Ent. 88: 657-673, 9 figs, (musculature of male
metasoma and genitalia).

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus MEGACHILOIDES Mitchell

Megachiloides Mitchell, 1924. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 40: 154.
Type-species: Megachiloides oenotherae Mitchell. Monotypic

The bees of this subgenus appear to be specialists of the Onagraceae, collecting pollen espe-
cially from the large flowered species of the genus Oenothera. Apparently the species also
differ in that some excavate their own nesting burrows while at least one species appropriates
preexisting tunnels of other bees.

Taxonomy: Bohart and Youssef, 1972. Royal Ent. Soc London, Trans. 124: 18 (biol.
characters).
arnica Cresson. Kans., Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Anogra pallida, Monarda
punctata, Opuntia, Verbesina encelioides.
Megachile aniica Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 265. ♂.

Megachile oenotherae (Mitchell)
N. J., N. C, Okla., Tex. Ecology: Nests in preexisting burrows of

Andrena macro Mitchell in sandy loam soil, using cut leaves for cells and caps them
with cut piecies of petals from Oenothera laciniata. Parasite: Coelioxys piercei Cwfd.?.
Pollen: Collects pollen from the flowers of Oenothera laciniata, but also visits flowers of
Ceanothus americaiius, Meriolex drunimoyidiana, Penstemon.
Megachiloides oenotherae Mitchell, 1924. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 40: 154. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Sivik, 1954. Ent. News 65: 256 (nest, parasite).

Megachile umatillensis (Mitchell)
Wash., Utah, Colo. Ecology: Excavates nesting burrows in partially
stabilized sand dunes, uses Oenothera petals for cell walls and folds cell walls over at
top to cap the cell. Parasite: Coelioxys mesae Ckll., Neniognatha lutea LeC. Pollen:
Collects pollen from flowers of Oenothera pallida.
Megachiloides umatillensis Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 118. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Bohart and Youssef, 1972. Royal Ent. Soc London, Trans. 124: 1-19, 23 figs, (life
history, foraging behavior, nest architecture, parasites).




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Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus DEROTROPIS Mitchell

Megachile subg. Dewtropis Mitchell, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 119, 156.
Type-species: Megachile pascoeiisis Mitchell. Orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1944. Pan-Pacific Ent. 20: 142-144 (Key to spp.).

Megachile alamosana Mitchell
Oreg., Wyo., Colo.

Megachile {Xeromegachile) alamosana Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 329. ♂.

Megachile anograe Cockerell
Mont., Wyo., Nebr., Colo., Kans., Tex., Oreg., Calif. Ecology: Excavates
nesting burrows in sandy soil. Pollen: Collects pollen from flowers of Opuntia and
Oenothera albicaulis, but visits other flowers presumably for nectar including Anogra
coronopifolia. Astragalus.
Megachile anograe Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 261. ♀.

Megachile astragali Mitchell
Calif. (Mojave Desert). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Astragalus
lentiginosus var. fremontii.
Megachile (Derotropis) astragali Mitchell, 1938. Pan-Pacific Ent. 14: 174. ♂, ♀.

Megachile gravita Mitchell
Wash., Oreg., Calif. Pollen: Collects pollen from flowers of Clarkia including
C. amoena amoena, C. amoena huntiana, C. cylindrica, C. dudleyana, C. gracilis
albicaulis, C. purpurea quadrivuhiera, C. rubicunda, C. speciosa nitens, C. speciosa
polyantha, C. speciosa speciosa, C. unguiculata, C. viniinea, C. williamsonii, but visits
other flowers for nectar including Chaenactis glabriuscula, Malacothamnus densiflorus.
Megachile {Xeromegachile) gravita Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 322. ♂.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) astata Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 345. ♀.

Biology: MacSwain, Raven and Thorp, 1973. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 70: 20-23 (floral
relationships).

Megachile laurita Mitchell
Wash., Oreg., Utah. Pollen: Collects pollen from flowers of Oenothera pallida,
0. trichocalyx.
Megachile laurita Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 115. ♀.

Biology: Linsley, MacSwain and Raven, 1963. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 33: 41 (floral

relationships).

Megachile melanderi Mitchell
Tex., Calif. (Inyo Co.).

Megachile (Derotropis) melanderi Mitchell, 1944. Pan-Pacific Ent. 20: 140. ♀.

Megachile pascoensis Mitchell
Mont., Idaho, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Parasite: Lines cells with pieces of
petals cut from flowers of Clarkia cylindrica and C. speciosa. Pollen: Oligolege of
Clarkia including C. amoena, C. biloba, C. bottae, C. cylindrica, C. dudleyana, C.
elegans, C. gracilis albicaulis, C. pulchella, C. purpurea, C. rkomboidea, C. rubicunda,
C. speciosa, C. unguiculata, C. xantiana, but also visits other flowers for nectar
including Chamaebatia foliolosa, Convolvubis villdsus, Cordylanthus pilosus, Sidalcea
malvaeflora, Trifolium, Wyethia angustifolia.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) bakeri Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 316. ♂.
Preocc.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) pascoensis Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 320. ♂.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) gabrielensis Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 346. ♀.

Biology: MacSwain, Raven and Thorp, 1973. Calif. Univ. Pubs. Ent. 70: 23-26 (floral
relationships).

Megachile semilaurita Mitchell
Utah.

Megachile laurita semilaurita Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 116. ♀.

Megachile subanograe Mitchell
Tex., Wyo., Utah, Nev., east. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Sphaeralcea anibigua.
Megachile (Megachiloides) subanograe Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 344. ♀.

Megachile sublaurita Mitchell
Utah.

Megachile laurita sublaurita Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 117. ♀.

Megachile xerophila Cockerell
South. Calif., deserts., Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of

Baileya, Chaenactis stevioides, Encelia, Geraea canescens, Helianthus niveus, Larrea




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tridentata, Melilotus, Oenothera deltoides, Palafoxia linearis, Sphaeralcea ambigiia, S.

emoryi, S. rosacea.
Megachile xerophila Cockerell, 1933. Pan-Pacific Ent. 9: 27. ♀.

Megachile yumensis Mitchell
Ariz. (Wickenburg).

Megachile (Derotropis) yumensis Mitchell, 1944. Pan-Pacific Ent. 20: 141. ♀.

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus XEROMEGACHILE Mitchell

Megachile subg. Xeromegachile Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 302, 309.
Type-species: Megachile Integra Cresson. Orig. desig.

Megachile alata Mitchell
South, and east. Calif., Ariz.; Mexico (Baja California). Pollen: Unknown, but
visits principally flowers of the Compositae including Bebbia juncea, Chrysothamnus,
Encelia californica, E.farinosa, Eschscholzia, Helianthus gracilentus, Prosopis,
Viguiera parishii.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) alata Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 324. ♂.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) redlandica Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 331. ♀.

Megachile boharti Mitchell
South. Calif., Ariz.; Mexico (Sonora). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Cercidium, Prosopis.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) boharti Mitchell, 1942. Pan-Pacific Ent. 18: 74. ♀.

Megachile bradleyi Mitchell
Utah, Nev., Calif. (Antioch).

Megachile (Xeromegachile) bradleyi Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 340. ♀.

Megachile brimleyi Mitchell
N. C, Fla. Pollen: Unknown, visits principally flowers of Galactia, but has
also been found at flowers of Erigeron volubilis.
Megachile brimleyi Mitchell, 1926. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 52: 114. ♂.

Megachile bruneri Mitchell
Colo., east. Calif.; Mexico (Baja California). Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Chrysothantnus.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) bruneri Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 328. ♂.

Megachile casadae Cockerell
S. Dak., Nebr., Okla., Tex., Wyo., Colo., N. Mex., Utah, Calif., Ariz. Pollen:
Unknown, but visits flowers of Helianthus, Opuntia, Populus.
Megachile casadae Cockerell, 1898. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 1: 127. ♂.
Megachile populi Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 17. ♀.
Megachile opuiitiarmn Cockerell, 1906. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 17: 229. ♀.
Megachile anstinensis Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 105. ♀.

Megachile coloradensis
***authority mismatch
Mitchell. Colo.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) colorade^isis Mitchell, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 379. ♀.

Megachile dakotensis Mitchell
Minn., Iowa, 111., Mont., N. Dak., S. Dak., Nebr., Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers of Amorpha canescens, Cleome serrulata, Helianthus, Kuhnistera
Candida, K. oligophylla, Petalostemon violaceus. Verbena.
Megachile dakotensis Mitchell, 1926. Psyche 33: 164. ♂, ♀.

Megachile deflexa Cresson
N. C, Fla., Nebr., Kans., Okla., Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but^visits flowers of
Bidens, Clethra, Coreopsis, Erigeron, Gaillardia amblydon, Geobanu's pallidus,
Petalostemon, Phaseolus, Rubus, Strophostyles.
Megachile deflexa Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 125. ♂.
Megachile megagyna Cockerell, 1909. Canad. Ent. 41: 394. ♀.
Megachile indianorum Cockerell, 1913. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 11: 533. ♂.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) coreopsana Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 319. ♂.

Megachile dulciana Mitchell
South. Calif.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) dulciana Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 343. ♀.

Megachile fucata Mitchell
Colo., N. Mex., Utah, Ariz., Calif., deserts. Pollen: Possibly polylectic, is known
to collect pollen from Larrea tridentata, but visits other flowers including Argemo7ie
platyceros. Aster abatus, A. tortifolius, Baileya, Cercidium, Encelia fndescens,
Palafoxia li7iearis, Prosopis, Senecio douglasii var. longilobus.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) fucata Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 323. ♂.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) histrata Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 334. ♀.

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 38 (floral relationships).




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Megachile hilata Mitchell
Colo., Utah, east. Calif.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) hilata Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Sec, Trans. 59: 332. ♀.

Megachile hookeri Cockerell
Colo., Utah.

Megachile hookeri Cockerell, 1915. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 15: 533. ♀.

Megachile impartita Mitchell
Colo., east. Calif.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) impartita Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 333. ♀.

Megachile instita Mitchell
N. Mex., Calif., Ariz.; north. Mexico. Pollen: Possibly an oligolege of the
Leguminosae, visits flowers of Acacia, Cercidiiim, Cirsium, Prosopis.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) iyistita Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 326. ♂.
Integra Cresson. N. J. to Fla., West to 111., Kans., and Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Erigeron, Galactia, Glycina, Koellia, Phaseolus, Pycnanthem.um., Strophostyles
umbellata.
Megachile Integra Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 121. ♂.
Megachile strophostylis Robertson, 1904. Canad. Ent. 36: 277. ♀.

Megachile integrella Mitchell
N. C, Fla. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Hypericum,
Oxydendrum.
Megachile integrella Mitchell, 1926. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 52: 116. ♀.

Megachile inyoensis Mitchell
Calif., Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Encelia.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) inyoensis Mitchell, 1942. Pan-Pacific Ent. 18: 117. ♀.

Megachile laguniana Mitchell
South. Calif.

Megachile {Xeromegachile) laguniana Mitchell, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 419. ♀.

Megachile latita Mitchell
Wyo., Colo.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) latita Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 335. ♀.

Megachile legalis Cresson
Colo., Nev., Ariz., Wash., Oreg., east. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Cirsium, Encelia farinosa. Iris, Senecio.
Megachile legalis Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 209. ♂.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) couleeana Mitchell, 1938. Pan-Pacific Ent. 14: 171. ♀.

Megachile macneilli Mitchell
Calif. (Riverside Co.).

Megachile (Xeromegachile) macneilli Mitchell, 1957. Pan-Pacific Ent. 33: 24. ♂.

Megachile manifesta Cresson
Alta., Mont., N. Dak. to N. Mex., Ariz., south. Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers oi Aster, Chrysothamnus 7iauseosus speciosus, Cleome, Grindelia
squarrosa, G. sarothrae, Haplopappus, Helianthus, Viguiera.
Megachile manifesta Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 122. ♂.
Megachile chrysothamni Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 262. ♀.

Megachile maurata Mitchell
Wyo., east. Calif., Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Encelia,
Sphaeralcea. This is probably the male of M. (Derotropis) subanograe Mitchell.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) maurata Mitchell, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 369. ♂.

Megachile micheneri Mitchell
Colo., Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Viguiera multiflora.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) micheneri Mitchell, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 373. ♂.

Megachile mojavensis Mitchell
South, and east. Calif., Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Aster,
Chaenactis, Encelia, Phacelia.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) mojavensis Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 340. ♀.

Megachile mucorosa Cockerell
Nebr., Kans., Tex., Wyo., Colo., N. Mex., Utah, Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers oi Eu stoma issenianum, Helianthus, Monarda, Ratibida coiumnaris.
Megachile mucorosa Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 265. ♂.
Megachile (Argyropile) nebraskana Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 347. ♀.

Megachile nelsoni Mitchell
Colo.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) nelsoni Mitchell, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 381. ♀.

Megachile nevadensis Cresson
Mont, and Wyo. to N. Mex., west to Wash, and Calif., La. (Winnfield).

Pollen: Apparently an oligolege of autumnal flowering Compositae, including Chrysopsis
villosa, Chrysothamnus bernardina, C. 7iauseosus, C. n. consimilis, C. n. mohavensis, C.
n. speciosus, C. pumilis, C. viridulus, C. viscid if lorus typicus, Grindelia camporum,
Haplopappus acradenius, H. bloomeri var. angustatus, H. linearifolius, H. vemonioides,
Helianthus, Heterotheca grandiflora, Pluchea camphorata, Senecio douglasii, Solidago




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califomica, S. cotifinis, but also visits flowers of Cleome and Melilotus presumably for
nectar.
Megachile nevadensis Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Sec, Trans. 7: 209. ♀, ♂.

Megachile oslari Mitchell
Colo.

Megachile (Xeroviegachile) oslari Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 330. ♀.

Megachile pagosiana Mitchell
Colo.

Megachile (Xeroviegachile) pagosiana Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 333. ♀.

Megachile palmensis Mitchell
South. Calif., Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Bebbia juncea,
Cirsiinn, Echinocactus engelmannii, Echinocereus, Encelia farinosa, Sphaeralcea
rosacea, Viffuiera.
Megachile {Xeroviegachile) palmensis Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 317. ♂.
Megachile {Xeroviegachile) sinithi Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 337. ♀.

Megachile parksi Mitchell
Tex.

Megachile {Xeroviegachile) parksi Mitchell, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 346. ♀.

Megachile pseudolegalis Mitchell
Calif. (Riverside Co.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Lan-ea
tridentata.
Megachile {Xeroviegachile) pseudolegalis Mitchell, 1957. Pan-Pacific Ent. 33: 22. ♂.

Megachile pseudonigra Mitchell
Oreg., Calif., Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Chaenactis
glabriuscula, Cirsiiivi, Oenothera campestris.
Megachile pseudonigra Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 112. ♀.

Megachile rubi Mitchell
N. C. to Fla. Ecology: Nests in sandy loam. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Crataegus, Cuscuta, Ilex, Rubus, Senecio.
Megachile rubi Mitchell, 1924. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 40: 159. ♀.
Megachile neglecta Mitchell, 1924. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 40: 160. ♂.

Biology: Sivik, 1954. Ent. News 65: 255-256 (nest).

Megachile seducta Mitchell
Calif. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Lotus.

Megachile {Xeroviegachile) seducta Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 342. ♀.

Megachile soledadensis Cockerell
Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., south. Calif. Parasite: Coelioxys soledadensis Ckll.
Pollen: Apparently an oligolege of Compositae, visits flowers of Baccharis, Baileya
viitltiradiata, Bebbia juncea, Chrysothavinus, Encelia, Haplopappus, Heterotheca,
Hymenothrix, Verbesi7ia, Viguiera.
Megachile soledadensis Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 12. ♂, ♀.

Megachile stoddardensis Mitchell
Calif. (San Bernardino Co.)., Ariz.

Megachile {Xeroviegachile) stoddardensis Mitchell, 1957. Pan-Pacific Ent. 33: 25. ♂.

Megachile subnigra
***authority mismatch
angelica Mitchell. Oreg., Calif., Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, although principally visits

flowers of the Compositae, records include Amsinckia intennedia, Achillea viillefoliuvi,
Aster, Baccharis viviinea, Balsamorrhiza deltoides, Bebbia juncea, Chaenactis
artemisiaefolia, C.fremontii, C. glabriuscula, Coreopsis layiceolata, Cryptantha
intermedia, Encelia actoni, E. califomica, E.fariyiosa, Eriogonuvi fasciculatum, E.
confertiflonivi, Erysivium, Ferrocactus acanthodes, Haplopappus cooperi, H.
linearifolius, H. pinifolius, Hesperochiron califomicus, Isovieris arborea, Lupinus
7ianus, Oenothera caynpestris, Salvia, So7ichus oleraceus, Swertia parryi, Viguiera
laciniata.

Megachile {Xeroviegachile) angelica Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 318. ♂.

Megachile {Xeroviegachile) blaisdelli Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 336. ♀.

Megachile {Xeroviegachile) moschata Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 338. ♀.

Megachile subnigra
***authority mismatch
subnigra Cresson. Mont., Wyo., Colo., Utah, Idaho, Nev., B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif.,
restricted to high mts. in south, part of range. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Lupinus 'densiflorus.

Megachile subnigra Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 208. ♀, ♂.

Megachile toscata Mitchell
Colo.

Megachile {Xeroviegachile) toscata Mitchell, 1934, Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 341. ♀.

Megachile victoriana Mitchell
Tex. (Victoria).

Megachile {Xeroviegachile) victoriana Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 315. ♂.




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Megachile wheeleri Mitchell
Sask., N. Dak., Colo, to B. C. and mts. of Calif, and Ariz. Pollen: Unknown,
but visits flowers oi Aster foliaceus, Chaenactis glabriuscida, Chenopodium,
Chrysopsis, Chrysotliaviniis naiiseosus speciosus, Cryptantha, Encelia, Grmdelia
maritmia, G. squarrosa, Lasthenia, Layia glandidosa, Lygodesmia juncea, Medicago
sativa, Solidago, Sphaeralcea awbigua.

Megachile wheeleri Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 107. ♀.

Megachile spokane^isis Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 109. ♂.

Megachile wyomingensis Mitchell
Wyo.

Megachile (Xeromegachile) wyomingensis Mitchell, 1934. Amer.Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 327.
6.

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus ARGYROPILE Mitchell

Megachile subg. Argyropile Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 302, 308.
Type-species: Megachile parallela Smith. Orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1943. Pan-Pacific Ent. 19: 16 (Key to spp.).

Megachile asterae Mitchell
Utah. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Aster.

Megachile (Argyropile) asterae Mitchell, 1943. Pan-Pacific Ent. 19: 13. ♀.

Megachile parallela Smith
Transcont. U. S., south. Canada; Mexico. Ecology: Nests in ground, uses

leaf-cuttings from Spiraea and Trifolium, but also accepts trap-nests for nesting. Pollen:
Unknown, but visits a wide variety of flowers, notably of the family Compositae,
including Agoseris, Asclepias, Aster, Baccharis, Boltonia, Brassica geniculata,
Calycadenia multiglandulosa, Ceanothus, Centaurea melitensis, C. solstitialis,
Cephalanthus, Chrysanthemum, Chrysotham7iHs, Cirsiu7n, Clarkia williamsonii.
Coreopsis grandiflora, C. lanceolata, C. tinctoria, Corethrogyne, Encelia farinosa,
Ericameria parishii, Erigeron pygmaeus, Eriophyllnm confertiflorum, Gaillardia
pulchella, Gilia, Gossypium, Grindelia camporum, Gutierrezia califomica, G. sarothrae,
Haplopappus squarrosus, H. vemonioides, Helenium bigelovii, Heliayithus annuiis, H.
atrorubens, H. gracilentus, H. nuttallii, H. petiolaris, Heliopsis, Hemizonia lobbii, H.
wrightii, Heterotheca grandiflora, H. subaxillaris, Hypericum, Lepachys, Lotus
scoparius, Malacothrix tenuifolia, Medicago sativa, Melilotus alba, Palafoxia linearis,
Phaseolus, Petalostemon, Ratibida, Rudbeckia, Senecio douglasii, silphium,
Stephanomeria exigua, Verbena, Verbesina, Viguiera, Xanthocephalum, Zexmenia.

Megachile parallela Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 191. ♂.

Megachile facunda Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 266. ♂. N. syn.

Megachile sexdentata Robertson, 1895. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 22: 125. ♂.

Megachile verbesinae Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 264. ♀.

Megachile (Argyropile) parallela var. rita Mitchell, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 53. ♀.

Biology: Fischer, 1951. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 24: 49-50 (nest). — Medler and Lussenhop, 1968.
Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 26 (nest).

Megachile rossi Mitchell
Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Aster, Bidens, Cercidium, Encelia,
Verbesina, Viguiera.
Megachile (Argyropile) rossi Mitchell, 1943. Pan-Pacific Ent. 19: 14. ♀.

Megachile sabinensis Mitchell
Ariz., Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Aster, Baileya,
Eriogonum, Haplopappus, Helianthus.
Megachile (Argyropile) sabinensis Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 348. ♀.
Megachile (Xeromegachile) pararubi Mitchell, 1957. Pan-Pacific Ent. 33: 21. ♀.

Megachile subparallela Mitchell
Ariz. Ecology: Nests in ground under Brayulinea densa, uses entire
leaves of Desmodium for cell construction. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Eriogonum, Haplopappus, Heterotheca.
Megachile (Argyropile) subparallela Mitchell, 1944. Pan-Pacific Ent. 20: 132. ♂.

Megachile townsendiana Cockerell
N. C. to Fla., west to Okla., Tex., Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., and southeast.
Calif., Mexico. Ecology: Nests in sandy soil. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Actinella, Baileya pleniradiata, Chrysopis, Encelia frutescens, Geraea canescens,
Helianthus debilis, Hoffmanseggia, Medicago sativa, Melanthera parviflora, Prosopis,
Verbesina, Wislizenia refracta.
Megachile townsendiana Cockerell, 1898. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 1: 129. ♂.




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Megachile bishoppi Cockerell, 1915. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 15: 535. ♂.

Megachile tulariana Mitchell
Calif. (Lemon Cove).

Megachile (Argyropile) parallela var. tulariana Mitchell, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63:
53. ♀.

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus XANTHOSARUS Robertson

Xanthosarus Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 168.

Type-species: Megachile lativianus Say. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Megachile cochisiana Mitchell
N. Mex., Ariz., Nev., south, and east. Calif., Mexico. Ecology: Uses pieces
cut from leaves of grape for nest construction. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Cercidium, Lotus ainericaiius, Medicago satiim.
Megachile {Xanthosarus) cochisiana Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 313. ♂.
Megachile (Xanthosarus) pallidiana Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 314. ♀.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1942. Pan-Pacific Ent. 18: 116. ♀.

Megachile comata Cresson
Kans., Tex., Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., Calif.; Mexico. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Asclepias, Gilia, Lotus, Marrubium vulgare, Phacelia, Senecio.
Megachile comata Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 262. ♂.
Megachile annata Smith, 1879. Descr. New Species Hym. Brit. Mus., p. 80. ♂.
Megachile paratexana Mitchell, 1930. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 56: 226. ♀.

Megachile dentitarsus Sladen
Alta., Wash., Mont., N. Dak., S. Dak., Wyo., Nebr., Colo., Utah, N. Mex.,
Ariz. Ecology: Cuts pieces of grape leaves for nesting material. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers of Aster, Cleome serrulata, Grindelia squarrosa, Gutierrezia sarothrae,
Helianthus petiolaris, Medicago sativa, Melilotus, Solidago, Trifolium pratense,
Verbena.
Megachile diligens Sladen, 1918. Agr. Gaz. Canada 5: 125. ♂, ♀. Preocc.
Megachile dentitarsus Sladen, 1919. Canad. Ent. 51: 85. N. name.

Taxonomy: Sladen, 1918. Canad. Ent. 50: 303.

Megachile innupta Cockerell
Colo.

Megachile innupta Cockerell, 1915. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 15: 534. ♀.

Megachile latimanus Say
Alta. to N. S., south to Ga., Kans., Wyo. and Colo. Parasite: Coelioxys

funeraria Sm., C. rufitarsis Sm. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers
including Abutilon, Agastache, Althaea rosea, Amorpha, Apocynum androsaeynifolium,
Arabis, Asclepias, Aster, Astragalus, Baptisia, Bidens, Blephilia, Boltonia, Campanula
petiolata, Carduus, Cassia, Cephalanthus, Chamaenerion, Chrysopsis, Cirsium, Cleome,
Convolvulus, Coreopsis, Epilobium angustifolium, Eupatorium, Gaillardia, Gerardia,
Grindelia, Helenium, Helianthus, Hieracium, Hydrophyllum, Kuhnistera, Lactuca,
Lepachys, Lespedeza, Liatris, Maivastrum, Medicago sativa, Melilotus alba, Mentzelia,
Monarda, Penstemon cyanthus, Petalostemon, Physostegia, Polemonium, Potentilla,
Psoralea, Pycnanthemum, Rosa, Rudbeckia, Ruellia, Solidago, So7ichus, Stachys,
Strophostyles, Taraxacum, Teucrium, Traumeria, Trifolium repens. Verbena,
Verbesina, Vemo^iia, Vicia.

Megachile latimanus Say, 1823. West. Quart. Rptr. 2: 81. ♂.

Megachile femorata Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 188. ♂.

Megachile acuta Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 192. ♀.

Megachile vidua Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 192. ♀.

Biology: Graenicher, 1905. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 3: 162-163, figs. 4, 4a, 5 (life history, nest
architecture, parasite). — Medler and Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 24 (nest,
parasite).

Morphology: Mitchell, 1932. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 47: 52-54, pi. 4 (gynandromorph).

Megachile perihirta Cockerell
Alta. to Nebr. and Tex., west to B. C. and Calif., Mich.?; Mexico. Parasite:
Coelioxys grindeliae Ckll., C. octodentata Say, C. rufitarsis Sm., Dasymutilla fulvohirta
(Cress.) Nemognatha lutea LeC, Physocephala fronto (Will.). Pollen: Polylectic, visits
flowers of many families, especially those of the family Compositae; visitation records
include Arnica, Asclepias galioides. Aster adscendens, A. canescens, A. foliaceus,




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Astragalus parishii, Bidens laevis, Castilleia mmiata, Calendula, Centaurea
solsiitialis, Chrysopsis villosa, Chrysothamnus 7iauseosus, C. n. speciosus, C.
viscidiflorus typicus, Cirsium anderso7iii, C. califoniicum, C. lanceolatum, C.
tioganum, Clarkia viviinea, Cleome serrulata, Coreopsis lanceolata, Cosmos
bipinyiatus, Dicentra chrysantha, Encelia farinosa, Epilobium angustifolium, Erigeron
glaucus, Eriogonum fasciculatum, E.f. var. polifolium, E. latifolium var. nudum,
Eschscholzia califomica, E upatorium occidentale, Gormania obtusata, Grindelia
platyphylla, G. stricta var. procumbens, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Haplopappus
apargioides, H. venionioides, Helenium bigelovii, Helianthus an7iuus, H. petiolaris,
Horkelia bemardina, Lathyrus odoratus, Lotus argophyllus, L. glaber, L. oblongifolius,
Lotus scoparius, Lupiiius paynei, Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis, Microseris
nutans, Mimulus tillingii, Phacelia frigida, P. ramosissi7na, Pluchea caynpliorata,
Pote7itilla, Robinia, Rosa californica, Se^iecio douglasii, S. ijitegerriynus, Solidago
califomica, S. confinis, S. tnultiradiata, S. occidentalis, Spiraea deiisiflora,
Stephaiiomeria virgata, Syynphoricarpos, Taraxacum officinale, Trichostema
lanceolatum, T. i7ivolucratu7n, Ve7-be7ia, Vicia, Wyethia.

Megachile perihirta Cockerell, 1898. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 1: 126. ♂.

Megachile latima7ius gri7ideliaru7n Cockerell, 1904. Ent. News 15: 33. ♀.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ. Studies 15: 233 (nest, parasite). —Hicks, 1936. Canad. Ent.
68: 49 (nest, parasite). — Hobbs, 1957 (1956). Canad. Ent. 88: 625-631 (life history,
parasites).

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus LEPTORACHIS Mitchell

Megachile subg. Leptorachis Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 301, 308.
Type-species: Megachile petu!a7is Cresson. Orig. desig.

Megachile petulans Cresson
N. J. to Fla., west to N. Dak., Nebr., and Ariz., Mexico. Pollen: Polylectic,
visits many flowers, especially Compositae, Labiatae, Leguminosae; visitation records
include flowers of Achillea, Apocy7iuyn, Asclepias, Aster, Baptisia, Bideiis, Blephilia,
Buddleia, Brau7ieria, Ca7Hpa7iula rotu7idifolia. Cassia, Cephalanthus, Cha7naecrista,
Chrysa7ithe7>ium Ieuca7ithe7num, Cicuta, Cirsium, Coreopsis sfellata, Crotalaria,
Desmodium, Eryngium, Flaveria, Galactia, Gerardia, Gri7idelia, Hele7iiu7n, Helia7ithus
atrorube7is, Houstonia purpurea, Hydrolea, Hypericu7n, Hyptis, Ilex, Koellia, Lespedeza
repe7is, Liatris, Lobelia, Ludwigia, Lycopus, LythTiim, Melilotus alba, Nepeta,
Pasti7iaca, Phaseolus, Polygonum, Psoralea, Pyc7ia7ithe7nu7n, Rhodode7idro7i, Rhus,
Rubus, Rudbeckia, Se7iecio, Silphiu7n, Solidago, Strophostyles, Tephrosia, Trifolitim,
Verbe7ia, Verbesiyia, Veni07iia glauca, Vicia.

Megachile petula7is Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 127.
Megachile ynexicana Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 127. ♀, ♂.

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus PSEUDOCENTRON Mitchell

Megachile subg. Pseudocentron Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 303, 307.
Type-species: Megachile pruina Smith. Orig. desig.

Megachile bidentata (Fabricius)
Supposedly North American, but probably Neotropical.
Andre7ia bide7itata Fabricius, 1775. Syst. Ent., p. 377. ♂.

Megachile morio Smith
"North America."

Megachile 7iiorio Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 189. 9. Probably a form of
prui7ia.

Megachile pruina
***authority mismatch
nigropinguis Mitchell. Tex.

Megachile (Pseudoce7itro7i) prui7ia var. 7iigropinguis Mitchell, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc,
Trans. 63: 68. ♀.

Megachile pruina
***authority mismatch
pruina Smith. N. C, Ga., Fla., Bermuda. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of

Asclepias tuberosa, Crotalaria, Croto7i li7iearis, Cuscuta, Dalbergia ecastophylluyn,
Gaillardia, Galactia floridana, Helia7ithus, Melaiithera parviflora, Ocitnum, Rhus,
Strophostyles, Vento7iia blodgettii.
Megachile pnii7ia Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 190. ♀.
Megachile piuguis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 125. ♂.




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Megachile floridana Robertson, 1895. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 22: 125. ♂.
Megachile shennani Mitchell, 1924. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 40: 163. ♂.
Megachile pruina var. bermudensis Mitchell, 1929. Psyche 36: 93. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1905. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 337.

Megachile sidalceae Cockerell
Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., south. Calif., Mexico. Ecology: Uses pieces of leaves
cut from Amaraiithus, Boerhaavia, Fraxinus, alfalfa, chinaberry, cotton, cottonwood,
rose, and umbrella tree for nesting material. Parasite: Coelioxys novomexicana Ckll.
Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Acacia, Aloysia, Asclepias,
Asparagus, Baccharis, Cephalanthus, Cercidium, Cleome, Condalia, Croton
califomicus, Encelia, Eriogonum, Ferocactus, Franseria, Funastrum, Gutierrezia,
Haplopappus, Helianthus, Hoffmanseggia, Hymenothrix, Kallstroemia grandiflora,
Larrea tridentata, Lepidium, Lotus, Medicago sativa, Melilotus, Mimosa, Mortonia,
Olneya tesota, Opuntia, Pedis papposa, Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa,
Psilostrophe cooperi, Salix, Salsola, Sapindus, Senecio douglasii, Sidalcea malvaeflora,
Tamarix, Verbesina, Wislizenia.

Megachile sidalceae Cockerell, 1897. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 158. ♂.

Megachile abducta Mitchell, 1926. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 52: 111. ♂.

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 38 (floral relationships with
Larrea).

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus ACENTRON Mitchell

Megachile subg. Acentron Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 303, 307.
Type-species: Megachile albitarsis Cresson. Orig. desig.

Megachile albitarsis Cresson
Mich., Ind., N. C, Ga., Fla., Ala., Miss., La., Tex., N. Mex., Ariz.; Mexico.
Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Asclepias, Aster, Bidens, Cassia,
Cephalanthus, Chrysopsis, Coreopsis, Cyrilla, Eryngium, Flaveria, Gaillardia,
Galactia, Helenium, Helianthus, Ilex, Ipomoea, Kallstroemia grandiflora, Lespedeza
repeals, Liatris, Melilotus, Phaseolus, Pycnanthemum hypsopifolia, Rhus, Rudbeckia,
Solidago, Stokesia, Verbena, Xyris caroliana.

Megachile albitarsis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 263. ♂.

Megachile optiva Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 268. ♀.

Megachile newelli Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 262. ♀.

Megachile kallstroemiae Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 264. ♀.

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus MELANOSARUS Mitchell

Megachile subg. Melanosams Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 303, 307.
Type-species: Megachile xylocopoides Smith. Orig. desig.

Megachile bahamensis Mitchell
Fla.; Bahamas. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Bidens leucantha,
Flaveria, Melanthera brevifolia, Poinsettia cyathophora.
Megachile bahamejisis Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 47. ♀.

Megachile (Melanosarus) floridensis Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 349.

Megachile xylocopoides Smith
Md., N. C, Ga., Fla., Ala., Miss., La., Tex. Parasite: Coelioxys dolichos
Fox, Leucospis affinis Say, Melittobia possibly megachilis (Pack.), Tetrastichus
niegachilidis Burks. Pollen: Polylectic, visits flowers of Bidens leucantha, Borrichia,
Cephalanthus, Citrus limonum, Elephantopus carolinianus, Gaillardia, Helenium,
Helianthus, Ilex, Ilea, Mikania, Oxypolis, Phaseolus, Poinsettia cyathophora.
Polygonum, Rhus, Rubus, Rudbeckia hirta, Senecio, Solidago, Trifolium, Vertwnia.
Megachile xylocopoides Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 189. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 329-331, pi. 20, fig. 98 (life
history, nest architecture, supersedure, parasites).

Genus MEGACHILE Subgenus SAYAPIS Titus

Gnathocera Provancher, 1883. Nat. Canad. 13: 232. Preocc.

Type-species: Megachile pugnatus Say. Monotypic (=Gnathocera cephalica
Provancher).




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Ceratias Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 168. Preocc.
Type-species: Megachile pugnatus Say. Orig. desig.

Sayapis Titus, 1905. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 7: 154. Proposed to replace Gnathocera
Provancher and Ceratias Robertson.

Megachile dentipes Vachal
South. Tex. to Paraguay.

Megachile dentipes Vachal, 1909. Rev. de Ent. 28: 12. ♂.

Megachile poculifera Cockerell, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 217. ♂.

Megachile fidelis Cresson
Mont, and S. Dak., Nebr., N. Mex., west to Idaho, Oreg., Calif. Pollen:

Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers, notably those of the family Compositae;
visitation records include Aster canescens, A. delectabilis, Calycadenia multiglandulosa,
Ceanothus leucodermis, Chrysopsis fastigiata, C. villosa, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, C.
viscidiflorus typicus, Cirsium, Cleome serrulata, Cleomella, Coreopsis lanceolata,
Croton califomicus. Cosmos, Daucus carota, Erigeron divergens, E. stenophylliis,
Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium, E. latifolium var. nudum, E. subscaposiim, E.
wrightii, Grindelia camporum, G. stricta var. procumbens, Gutierrezia califomica, G.
sarothrae, Haplopappus arborescens, H. bloomeri var. angustatus, Helenium bigelovii,
H. puberulum, Helianthus gracilentus, H. petiolaris, Heliopsis, Heterotheca, Lotus
scoparius, Lupinus, Marrubium vulgare, Mentha pulegium, Monarda, Phacelia,
Rhamnus califomica, Rudbeckia califomica, Senecio douglasii, Solidago califomica, S.
confinis. Verbena, Viguiera.

Megachile fidelis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 120. ♀, ♂.

Megachile fidelis var. concinnula Cockerell, 1899. Entomologist 32: 158. ♂.

Megachile frugalis
***authority mismatch
frugalis Cresson. Pa. and N. J., to Fla., west to Calif.; Mexico. Pollen: Polylectic, visits
flowers of Croton, Erigeron, Eriogoniun fasciculatum, Helianthus, Lotus, Marrubium
vulgare, Opuntia, Perezia microcephala, Tephrosia virginiana.

Megachile frugalis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 266. ♂.

Megachile frugalis
***authority mismatch
pseudofrugalis Mitchell. Ariz., Calif. Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of
flowers including Acacia greggii, Asclepias erosa. Aster spinosus, Bebbia juncea,
Cercidium, Chaenactis, Chilopsis linearis, Clarkia, Cirsium vulgare, Cissus, Cleome
serrulata, Croton califomicus, Cryptantha, Dalea emoryi, Encelia califomica, E.
farinosa, Eriodictyon crassifolium, Eriogonum. elongatum, E. fasciculatum, E.f var.
polifolium, E. wrightii, Grindelia, Gutierrezia camporum, G. sarothrae, Haplopappus
squarrosus, Helianthus gracilentus, Hemizonia fasciculata, Hyptis emoryi, Lotus
hamatus, L. scoparitis, Marrubiimi vulgare, Melilotus, Perezia microcephala,
Penstemon, Petalonyx thurberi, Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyanum, P. pubescens.
Salvia clevelandii, Sapindus, Senecio douglasii, Tamarix gallica, Trichostema parishii,
Verbesina encelioides, Wislizenia refracta.

Megachile (Sayapis) frugalis var. pseudofrugalis Mitchell, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans.
63: 186. ♂, ♀.

Megachile helianthi Cockerell
Colo. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Helianthus lenticularis.

Megachile helianthi Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 259. ♀.

Megachile inimica
***authority mismatch
inimica Cresson. Fla. to Tex., Ariz.; Mexico south to Guatemala. Ecology: Nests in

holes in mesquite trees and mesquite fence posts, and uses leaves of Monisia pallida to
line their nests; also nests in trap nests which were plugged with 5mm. of firmly
agglutinated sand by this species. Parasite: Melittobia chalybii Ashm. Pollen: Polylectic,
visits flowers of Achyranthes, Avice^inia, Bidens leucantha, Borrichia frutescens,
Coccoloba, Crotalaria pumila, Helenium, Heliopsis, Heterotheca, Lacinaria punctata,
Melilotus, Ocimum, Salvia ballotaeflora, Sphaeralcea, Vitex negundo var. incisa,
Ximensia encelioides.

Megachile iniynica Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 267. ♀.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 331-332 (life history, nest
architecture, parasite).

Megachile inimica
***authority mismatch
jacumbensis Mitchell. Calif.; Mexico (Baja California). Pollen: Apparently polylectic,
visits flowers oi Chrysothamnus, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Haplopappus arborescens,
Heterotheca grandiflora, Grindelia camporum, Seyiecio douglasii, Solidago.
Megachile inimica \ar. jacumbensis Mitchell, 1927. Psyche 34: 109.




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Megachile inimica
***authority mismatch
sayi Cresson. Pa. to Fla., west to Idaho and Calif.; Mexico. Ecology: Nests in borings,
and closing plug is 5mm. thick consisting of leaf cuttings, pebbles, and leaf pulp. Pollen:
Polylectic, especially on flowers of the family Compositae (Heliantheae, Cynarieae,
Eupatorieae), visits a wide variety of these and other flowers including Arctiinn, Anter,
Bidens, Blephilia, Braimeria, Cephalanthus, Chrysopsis mariana, Ckrysothamnus
nauseosus co7isimilis, Cleome, Coreopsis stellata, Gilia, Gutierrezia califoniica,
Haplopappiis, Heleniuvi, Helianthus petiolaris, Heliopsis helianthoides, Heterotkeca,
Kallstroemia grandiflora, Lepachys, Liatris, Lythrum, Marrubium vulgare, Melilotus
alba, Penstemon, Petalostemon, Pycnanthemum, Rudbeckia, Senecio, Silphium,
Solidago, Strophostyles, Teucrium, Verbena, Verbesina encelioides, Vemoyiia
fasciculata, V. glauca, Vicia, Viguiera, Zexmenia.

Megachile sayi Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 119. ♂, ♀.

Megachile heterodonta Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Hist. (7) 6: 18. ♀.

Megachile sayi paludicola Cockerell, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 254. ♀.

Megachile sayi var. sancta Cockerell, 1912. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 10: 487. ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 332-334 (life history, nest

architecture, supersedure). — Medler and Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 23-24

(life history, nest).

Megachile mellitarsis Cresson
B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif., Nev., Colo., N. Mex., Ariz. Pollen: Apparently
polylectic, visits flowers of Aster, Ckrysothamnus, Encelia, Eriogonum, Phacelia,
Solidago multiradiata.

Megachile mellitarsis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 121. ♂.

Megachile terrestris Cockerell, 1908. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 260. ♀. Preocc.

Megachile geophila Cockerell, 1908. Canad. Ent. 40: 460. N. name.
newberryac Cockerell. N. Mex., Ariz., Calif., Mexico, deserts. Ecology: Nests in holes in
Prosopis and uses pieces of leaves cut from Celtis for cell construction. Pollen:
Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Acacia greggii, Asclepias, Aster, Cercidium
torreyanuyyi, Encelia, Funastrum, Helenium, Larrea tridentata, Melilotus alba, Olneya
tesota, Opuntia, Pittosporum, Prosopis glayidulosa var. torreyanum, P.juliflora, P.
pubescens, Senecio douglasii, Verbesiyia encelioides.

Megachile newberryac Cockerell, 1900. Entomologist 33: 244. ♂.

Megachile howardi Cockerell, 1919. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 55: 216. ♂ (♀ misdet.).

Biology: Butler, 1965. Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bui. 187: 14 (nest).

Megachile policaris Say
Fla., La., Nebr., Kans., Okla., Tex., Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., Calif.; Mexico. Ecology:
Uses leaflets from Eysenhardtia polystachya. Mimosa biuncifera, and Prosopis for plug
construction; nests in trap nests, the larvae develop amicably in a single large brood cell
with no apparent cannibalism. Parasite: Coelioxys texana Cress., Leucospis affinis Say,
Melittobia chalybii Ashm. Pollen: Polylectic, especially flowers of the Compositae
(Heliantheae), but in some localities uses pollen solely from Prosopis for nest provision;
visitation records include Acacia, Amorpha fruticosa, Asclepias, Bacchaiis, Bidens,
Brauneria pallida, Chrysothamnus, Condalia, Coreopsis lanceolata, Croton
califomicus, Encelia califomica, Erigeroyi, Eriogonum inflatum, Gutierrezia sarothrae,
Haplopappus acradenius, Helianthus, Larrea tridentata, Melilotus, Oenothera, Opuntia,
Palafoxia linearis, Petalostemon, Salsola, Salvia ballotaeflora, Senecio douglasii,
Silphium, Solidago, Tamarix, Verbeyia, Verbesina encelioides, Viguiera multiflora.
Predator: Pyemotes ventricosus (Newport).

Megatchile policaris Say, 1831. Descr. New Spp. No. Amer. Ins. Found in La. by J.
Barabino, p. 17. ♀.

Megachile pollicaris Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 406. S. Emend.

Megachile grandis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 268. ♀. Preocc.

Megachile pollicaris var. perexima Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 12. ♂.

Megachile vallorum Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 18. ♀.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 334-337, pi. 19, figs. 92-97 (life
history, nest architecture, larval food, supersedure, parasite). — Hurd and Linsley, 1975.
Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 38 (floral relationships).




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Megachile pugnata
***authority mismatch
pomonae Cockerell. Nev., Calif., Ariz. Pollen: Presumably polylectic, visits flowers of
Arctium, Chrysothamnus, Cirsium, Dicentra chrysantha, Mimiilus, Raillardella
scaposa, Senecio, Solidago, Sphenosciadium capitellatum, Symplwricarpos, Taraxacum
officinale, Viguiera multiflora, Wyethia 77iollis.

Megachile pugnata var. pomonae Cockerell, 1916. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 17: 278. ♀.

Megachile pugnata
***authority mismatch
pugnata Say. U. S. and south. Canada except lower Mississippi Valley, Gulf Coast,
and Calif., principally at moderate to high altitudes in southern part of range. Ecology:
Nests in borings in sumac twigs. Parasite: Coelioxys altei~nata Say. Pollen: Polylectic,
especially flowers of Compositae (Hehantheae; Cynarieae), visits flowers of Achillea
lanulosa, Arctium mimis, Asclepias, Aster, Besseya plantaginea, Blephilia, Brauneria
pallida, Carduus plattinus, C. undulatus, Chrysanthemuyn leucanthemum, Cicuta,
Cirsium califomicum, Cleome, Coreopsis, Dianthera, Erigeron, Helianthus tuberosus,
Lepachys, Marrubium vulgare, Melilotus, Nepeta, Phacelia, Rudbeckia liirta, R.
occidentalis, Senecio, Silphium, Solidago, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium repens.
Verbena, Verbesina, Vernonia.

Megachile pugnatus Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 408. ♂, ♀.

Megachile scobiculata Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 191. ♂.

Megachile bucephala Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 193. ♀.

Megachile disparilis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 264. ♂.

Megachile lucrosa Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 267. ♀.

Gnathocera cephalica Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 233. ♀.

Megachile temporalis Friese, 1903. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 3: 247. ♀ (♂ misdet.).

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1905. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 337.

Biology: Medler, 1964. Canad. Ent. 96: 918-921, 1 fig. (life history, nest architecture,
parasite). —Medler and Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 27 (nest, parasites).

Nomina Nuda in Megachile

Megachile coloradensis Uhler, 1877. U. S. Geol. Geog. Survey, Bui. 3: 784.
Megachile consiviilis Evans, 1896. Canad. Ent. 28: 13.

Genus CHALICODOMA Lepeletier

This genus, which is represented in North America by two subgenera, contains a number of
subgenera in the Old World and one subgenus is present in South America. The bees of this
Genus do not use pieces of leaves or petals in the construction of their nests, but rather use
resin, mud and other such materials.

Revision: Mitchell, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 381-426, pis. XXVI-XXIX (Part VIII,
treats Nearctic spp. of the subgenus Chelostomoides; addenda and index to previous
parts).

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1956. Pan-Pacific Ent. 32: 129-138 (Key to Nearctic and Neotropical
spp.). — Michener, 1962. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 70: 17-29 (classification). —Mitchell, 1962. N.
C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 181-190, figs. 59-62, table 6 (eastern U. S. spp.).
— Pasteels, 1965. Mus. Royal 1' Afrique Centr., Ann. Sci. Zool. 137: ix and 579 pp.
(classification). —Butler, 1965. Ariz. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 187: 1-19 (Ariz. spp.).
—Michener, 1965. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui. 130: 185-186 (classification). —Stephen,
Bohart and Torchio, 1969. The biology and external morphology of bees, pp. 53-54
(classification).

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 337-344 (life histories, nests,
associates). — Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 38-39, fig. 16 (Larrea
visiting spp.).

Genus CHALICODOMA Subgenus CHALICODOMA Lepeletier

Chalicodoma Lepeletier, 1841. Hist. Nat. Ins., Hym. 2: 309.

Type-species: Apis muraria Fabricius. Desig. by Girard, 1879.

The typical subgenus does not occur in North America.




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Genus CHALICODOMA Subgenus CHELOSTOMOIDES Robertson

Chelostomoides Robertson, 1901. Canad. Ent. 33: 231.

Type-species: Chelostoma rugifrons Smith. Monotypic and orig. desig. (.=Megachite
rufima7ius Robertson).
Oligotropus Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 168.

Type-species: Oligotropus campanulae Robertson. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Gnathodon Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 168. Preocc.

Type-species: Megachile georgica Cresson. Monotypic and orig. desig.
Sarogaster Robertson, 1918. Ent. News 29: 92. Proposed to replace Gnathodon Robertson.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1059, figs. 162-164 (larva.) —Mitchell,
1956. Pan-Pacific Ent. 32: 134-138 (revised key to spp.). — Medler and Lussenhop, 1968.
Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 30-32 (Wis. spp.).

Chalicodoma adelphodonta (Cockerell)
Ariz.; Mexico (Baja California). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers
of Allionia, Kallstroemia grandiflora.
Megachile adelphodonta Cockerell, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 548. ♂.
Megachile (Chelostomoides) tucsonensis Mitchell, 1956. Pan-Pacific Ent. 32: 133. ♀.

Chalicodoma angelarum (Cockerell)
B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif., Nev., Ariz. Parasite: Sapyga angustata
(Cress.). Pollen: Polylectic, visits a wide variety of flowers including Achillea
millefolium, Adenostegia villosa, Amorpha califomica, Aster adscendens, A. canescens,
Astragalus parishii, Brassica incana, Calycadenia multiglandulosa, Centaurea
solsitialis, Cercidium torreyanum, Chaynaenerion aiignstifolium, C lirysopsis fastigiata,
C . fremontii, C. villosa, Chrysothaynnus nauseosus, Clarkia uyiguiculata, Cirsium
vulgare, Colliyisia tiyictoria, Cordylayithus filifolius, C. yieviyiii, C. pilosus, C. rigidus,
Corethrogyyie filagiyiifolia, Cryptayitha ambigua, C. deyiticulata, C. intermedia, Diceyitra
chrysantha, Eyicelia fariyiosa, Eriodictyon, Eriogoyium fasciculata, E.f. var. polifoliuyn,
E. latifolium var. yiudtmi, E. subscaposuyn, E. wrightii, Erysiynum asperum, Frayiseria,
Gerayiium richardsoyiii, Gilia capitata, Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Griyidelia camponiyn, G.
hallii, Haplopappus arboresceyis, Heliayithus gracilentiis, Heliotropium cun'assavicum,
Horkelia bemardiyia, H. bolayideri var. parryi, Lathyrus, Lessiyigia leptoclada, Loyiicera
interr^ipta, Lotus americayius, L. argophyllus, L. crassifolius, L. davidsoyiii, L. glaber, L.
huynistratus, L. nevadensis, L. obloyigifolius, L. scopariiis, L. torreyi, Lupinus
aiistromoyitayius, L. loyigipes, Marrubivm vulgare, Melilotus alba, M. officiyialis,
Meyitzelia laevicaulis, Monardella layiceolata, M. liywides, M. styicta, Peyistemoyi
bridgesii, P. griyiyiellii, P. palmeri, P. rothrocki, Perideridia gairdneri, Phacelia
heterophylla, P. imbricata, P. raynosissiyna, Poteyitilla bemardiyia, P. glayidulosa,
rayiuyiculus, Rhaynyius califomica, Rudbeckia califomica. Salvia apiayia, S.
pachyphylla, Solidago califomica, S. confiyiis, S. occideyitalis, Stachys albeyis, S.
pycyiantha, Swertia parryi, Symphoricarpos, Trichostema laxum, T. parishii, Trifolium
variegatum, Verbeyia califomica, V. prostrata, Vitex.

Megachile ayigelanmi Cockerell, 1902. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 1: 70. ♀.

Chalicodoma browni (Mitchell)
Ariz., south. Calif.; Mexico (Baja California). Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers of Acacia greggii, Asclepias, Canotia, Dalea, Frayikenia palmeri, Opuyitia,
Prosopis juliflora.

Megachile (Chelostomoides) browyii Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 53: 354. ♂.

Megachile (Chelostomoides) felipiayia Mitchell, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 405. ♀.

Taxonomy: Timberlake, 1957. Pan-Pacific Ent. 33: 132 (synonymy).

Chalicodoma campanulae
***authority mismatch
campanulae (Robertson). Que. and Mass. to Fla., west to Iowa, Wis., Minn.,

Nebr., Kans. and Tex. Ecology: Nests in borings. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
AsclepiaSf Baptisia tiyictoria, Caynpanula aynericayia, C. campayiulae, C. rotundifolia,
Desynodiinn cayiadeyise, Epilobium ayigustifolium, Galactia, Heliayithus, Lobelia,
Lythruyn, Malva sylvestris, Melilotus, Nepeta, Oeyiothera, Psoralea, Pycnayitheynum,
Rudbeckia, Solidago, Strophostyles, Syynphoricarpos, Verbeyia, Veroyiica stricta.
Oligotropus caynpanulae Robertson, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 171. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Rau, 1926. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 25: 202 (nest). — Krombein, 1967.
Trap-nesting wasps and bees, p. 341 (life history, nest architecture). —Medler and
Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 31 (nest).




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Chalicodoma campanulae
***authority mismatch
wilmingtoni (Mitchell). Fla. to Va., coastal. Ecology: Nests in borings. Parasite:
Coelioxys modesta Sm. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Galactia, Melilotus,
Pontederia, Solidago, Strophostyles.
Oligotropus wilmingtoni Mitchell, 1924. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 40: 156. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 341-342 (life history, nest

architecture, parasite).

Chalicodoma chilopsidis (Cockerell)
Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., Calif., Mexico, deserts. Parasite: Nemognatha
snitellaris Lee. Pollen: Apparently polylectic, visits flowers of Acacia greggii,
Cercidiiim floridum, C. microphyllum, C. torreyayium, Chilopsis linearis, Cirsium,
Dalea catifomica, D. spinosa, Encelia farinosa, Helianthus, Heliotropium
curassavicum, Hoffmanseggia, Larrea tridentata, Marrubium vulgare, Medicago saliva,
Melilotus alba. Mimosa, Olneya tesota, Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyanum, Sapindus,
Senecio, Vauquelinia, Verbesi^ia encelioides.

Lithurgus oblongus Fox, 1893. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (2) 4: 20. ♀. Preocc.

Megachile chilopsidis Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Hist. (7) 6: 17. ♀.

Megachile longula Fox, 1902. Ent. News 13: 137. N. name.

Megachile pratti Cockerell, 1913. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 11: 541. ♂ (♀ misdet.).

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1956. Pan-Pacific Ent. 32: 129-130 (synonymy). — Timberlake, 1957.
Pan-Pacific Ent. 33: 132 (synonymy).

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 38 (floral relationships).

Chalicodoma davidsoni (Cockerell)
South. Calif., Ariz. Pollen: Possibly oligolectic on Dicentra including D.
chrysantha, but visits other flowers including Fremontia, Lupinus austromontanus,
Penstemon, Senecio.
Megachile davidsoni Cockerell, 1902. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 1: 70. ♀.
Megachile occidentalis var. leucotricha Cockerell, 1902. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 1: 137.
(J.

Chalicodoma discorhina (Cockerell)
Calif., Ariz., N. Mex.; Mexico (Baja California). Parasite: Leucospis
affinis Say. Pollen: Polylectic, visits flowers of Acacia greggii, Baileya, Cercidium
floridum, C. torreyanum, Coursetia, Dalea schottii, Encelia farinosa, Hyptis emoryi,
Larrea tridentata, Lepidium, Medicago saliva, Melilotus, Prosopis glandulosa var.
torreyanum, Se^iecio, Sphaeralcea ambigua.
Megachile discorhina Cockerell, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 549. ♀.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1956. Pan-Pacific Ent. 32: 131 (tax. status).

Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 38-39, fig. 16 (floral
relationships).

Chalicodoma exilis
***authority mismatch
exilis (Cresson). Tex., N. Mex., Ariz. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Baptisia

tinctoria, Chilopsis, Coreopsis, Dalea, Lespedeza repeats, Melilotus, Polygala, Tephrosia
virginiana.
Megachile exilis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 265. ♂.
Megachile studiosa Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 269. ♀.

Chalicodoma exilis
***authority mismatch
parexilis (Mitchell). Md., Va., N. C, Ga., Fla., Ind., Ala., Miss., Ark., Tex., Ariz. Ecology:
Nests in borings. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of Asclepias, Baccharis, Baptisia,
Ceanothus, Chilopsis, Condalia, Crotalaria, Erigeron, Galactia, Hydrolea, Ilex,
Melilotus, Mentha, Monarda, Oenothera, Phaseolus, Rhus, Tephrosia, Trifolium,
Vaccinium, Vicia.
Megachile (C helostomoides) exilis var. parexilis Mitchell, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63:
393. ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 339-340 (life history, nest
architecture).

Chalicodoma georgica (Cresson)
N. J. to Fla., west to Ark. and Tex. Ecology: Nests in borings. Parasite:
Coelioxys modesta Sm., Leucospis affinis floridana Cress. Pollen: Unknown, but visits
flowers oi Afzelia cassinoides, Amorpha, Baptisia tinctoria, Chrysopsis, Clethra
alnifolia, Crotalaria, Desmodium, Erigeron, Galactia, Helenium, Hypericum, Lobelia,




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Melilotus, Penstemon, Phaseolus, Psoralea, Pycnanthemum hypsifolia, Stachys,

S trap host yles, Tephrosia virgiyiiana, Vaccinium.
Megachile georgica Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 123. ♀, ♂.
Megachile penicillata Cockerell, 1915. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 15: 536. ♀.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 337-339 (life history, nest

architecture, supersedure, parasite).

Chalicodoma lobatifrons (Cockerell)
N. Mex., Ariz., south, and east. Calif., Mexico. Pollen: Unknown, but

visits flowers of Acacia greggii, Cercidium, Dalea emoryi, Eriogonum fasciculatum, E.
trichopes, Larrea tridentata, Ohieya tesota, Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyanum, P.
pubescens, Wislizenia refracta.

Megachile lobatifrons Cockerell, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 547. ♀, ♂.

Chalicodoma manni (Mitchell)
Ariz.

Megachile (Chelostomoides) manni Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 355. ♀, ♂.

Chalicodoma occidentalis (Fox)
Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., south. Calif.; Mexico; deserts. Ecology: Nests in adobe
and brick walls as well as in dead wood of a pepper tree and trap nests. Parasite:
Nemognatha litrida LeC. Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers o{ Caleopsis, Cercidium
torreyanum, Chilopsis li7iearis, Cleome, Croton califoniicus, Duranta plumieri, Geraea
canescens, Helianthus, Hoffmanseggia densiflora, Larrea tridentata, Lotus, Marrubium
vulgare, Medicago sativa, Nolina parryi, Phacelia, Phyla nodiflora, Pluchea
camphorata, Prosopis, Schinus molle, Ruellia, Senecio, Taniarix gallica, Verbesina,
Veni07iia, Vicia cracca, Wislizenia refracta.

Megachile occidentalis Fox, 1894. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (2) 4: 117. ♂.

Megachile prosopidis Cockerell, 1900. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 16. ♀.

Megachile prosopidis var. testudinis Cockerell, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 550. ♀.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 343-344 (life history, nest

architecture, supersedure). — Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 39

(floral relationships).

Chalicodoma odontostoma (Cockerell)
N. Mex., Ariz., south. Calif., Mexico, deserts. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers oi Acacia greggii, Asclepias, Baileya, Cercidium floridum, Chaenactis
stevioides, Encelia farinosa, Helianthus, Heliotropium, Lepidium, Medicago sativa,
Melilotus, Palafoxia linearis, Prosopis glayidnlosa var. torreyayium, Senecio, Verbesina
encelioides.

Megachile odontostoma Cockerell, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 27: 550. ♀.

Megachile (Chelostomoides) duplexa Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 353. ♂.

Taxonomy: Mitchell, 1956. Pan-Pacific Ent. 32: 131 (synonymy).

Chalicodoma rugifrons (Smith)
N. C, Ga., Fla., Mich., 111., Nebr., Kans., Ark., Tex. Pollen: Unknown, but
visits flowers of Apocynum, Blephilia, Coreopsis, Erigeron, Hypericum, Lobelia,
Nepeta, Pontederia, Psoralea, Tephrosia, Vacciyiium, Verbena, Vero7iicastrum
virginiciim.
Chelostoma rugifrons Smith, 1854. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 220. ♀.
Chelostomoides rugifrons Cockerell, 1904. Canad. Ent. 36: 301. ♀.
Megachile rufimanus Robertson, 1891. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 18: 65. ♀, ♂.

Chalicodoma spinotulata (Mitchell)
Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., south. Calif. Parasite: Leucospis affinis Say.
Pollen: Polylectic, visits flowers of Adenostegia filifolia, Allionia, Asclepias erosa,
Boerhaavia spicata, Calochortus splendens, Cercidium, Chrysopsis fastigiata,
Cordylanthus filifolius, C. nevinii, C. rigidus, Croton califoniicus, Cryptantha, Dalea
califomica, Eriodictyon, Eriogonum fasciculatum, E. inflatum, E. subscaposum, E.
trichopes. Geranium, Helianthus, Lotus americanus, L. argophyllus, L. Hamatus, L.
scoparius, Marrubium vulgare, Mentzelia laevicaulis, Phacelia ramosissima, Robinia,
Senecio, Sapindus, Swertia parryi.
Megachile (Chelostomoides) spinotulata Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 357. ♀.
d.
Biology: Hurd and Linsley, 1975. Smithsn. Contrib. Zool. 193: 39 (floral relationships).

Chalicodoma subexilis (Cockerell)
Nebr., Colo., N. Mex., Utah, Ariz., Nev., Calif. Ecology: Nests in adobe

wall and also in borings. Parasite: Coelioxys gilensis Ckll., Dioxys pomonae Ckll. Pollen:




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Unknown, but visits flowers of Amorpha, C hamaebatia millefolium, Geranium,
Helianthus, Lathyriis odoratus, Lotus, Marrubium vulgare, Medicago saliva, Melilotus,
Monarda, Opuntia, Phacelia, Phaseolus, Psoralea tenuiflora. Salvia, Trifolium,
Verbesina encelioides, Vicia.

Megachile subexilis Cockerell, 1908. Entomologist 41: 292. ♀.

Megachile semiexilis Cockerell, 1908. Entomologist 41: 292. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1927. Ent. News 38: 17-21 (nest architecture, parasite). — Hurd, 1958. Calif.
Univ. Pubs. Ent. 14: 273 (parasite). — Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, p. 343
(life history, nest architecture).

Chalicodoma subspinotulata (Mitchell)
Ariz.

Megachile (C helostomoides) subspinotidata Mitchell, 1934. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 59: 360.
9.

Chalicodoma texensis (Mitchell)
Tex. (Southmost in Cameron Co.). Pollen: Unknown, but visits flowers of
Parkinsonia.
Megachile (C helostomoides) texensis Mitchell, 1956. Pan-Pacific Ent. 32: 132. ♀.

Genus CHALICODOMA Subgenus PSEUDOMEGACHILE Friese

Megachile subg. Pseudomegachile Friese, 1899. Die Bienen Europas 5: 36.

Type-species: Megachile ericetorum Lepeletier. Desig. by Alfken, 1933.
Megachile subg. Archimegachile Alfken, 1933. Konowia 12: 56.

Type-species: Megachile flavipes Spinola. Orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Pasteels, 1965. Mus. Royal I'Afrique Cent., An. ser. 8, Zool. 137: 377 (synonymy).

Chalicodoma lanata (Fabricius)
Fla. (Miami). Ecology: Builds clay cells in cavities. An Indian species,
probably introduced into U. S. from Cuba, where it is also adventive.
Apis la7iata Fabricius, 1775. Systema Ent., p. 385. ♀.
Apis purpurea Christ, 1791. Naturgesch. Insekt. Bienen, Wespen u. Ameisengeschl., p. 168,

pi. 13, fig. 7.
Megachile Martindalei Fox, 1891. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 18: 344. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Moure, 1960. Studia Ent. 3: 108-109 (notes on type). —Pasteels, 1965. Mus. Royal
I'Afrique Cent., An. ser. 8, Zool. 137: 402-404 (synonymy).

Biology: Home, 1870. Zool. Soc. London, Trans. 7: 176-177, pi. 19, figs. 11, 11a, lib. —Bodkin,
1918. Ent. Soc. London, Trans, p. 303.

Genus COELIOXYS Latreille

These bees are primarily cleptoparasitic in the nests of Megachile, but some species have been
reared from the nests of Chalicodoma as well as other bees including Xylocopa in India.

Revision: Mitchell, 1973. N. C. State Univ., Contrib. Dept. Ent. 129 pp., 61 figs., frontis.
(subgenera of Western Hemisphere). —Baker, 1975. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 50: 649-730, 49
figs., 1 table (Nearctic spp. of subg. Boreocoelioxys, Coelioxys, Schizocoelioxys,
Xerocoelioxys).

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1905. Psyche 12: 87. -Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 168.
—Crawford, 1914. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 7: 148. — Sladen, 1915. Canad. Ent. 47: 205
(Ontario spp.). —Cockerell, 1921. Amer. Mus. Novitates 21: 7. —Cockerell, 1925.
Pan-Pacific Ent. 1: 150. -Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 192-232, figs.
1, 63-66, table 7 (eastern U. S. spp.). -Baker, 1971. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 44: 225-235, 40
figs; 1 table (larval development and sexual dimorphism).

Biology: Graenicher, 1927. Ent. News 38: 231-235, 273-276 (life history)

Morphology: Pasteels and Pasteels, 1971. Acad. Sci. Paris, Compt. Rend. 273: 1580-1581
(structure of tergal plates).

Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus COELIOXYS Latreille

Coelioxys Latreille, 1809. Gen. Crust. Ins., v. 4, p. 166.




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Type-species: Apis quadridentata Linnaeus. Desig. by Latreille, 1810.
{=Anthoplwra conica Fabricius = Apis conica Linnaeus).
Coelioxys subg. Paracoelioxys Gribodo, 1884. Soc. Ent. Ital, Bol. 16: 274.

Type-species: Coelioxys 7)iontando7ii Gribodo. Monotypic.
Paracoelioxys Radoszkowski, 1893. Soc. Ent. Rossica, Horae 27: 53. Preocc.

Type-species: Paracoelioxys barrei Radoszkowski. Desig. by Sandhouse, 1943.
Coelioxys subg. Liothyrapis Cockerell, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 246.

Type-species: Coelioxys apicata Smith. Monotypic. {=Coelioxys decipiens Spinola).
Coelioxys subg. Hemicoelioxys Pasteels, 1968. Mus. Roy. 1' Afr. Centr., Ann. Sci. Zool. (8)
167: 133.

Type-species: Coelioxys (Hemicoelioxys) gracilis Pasteels. Monotypic and orig.
desig.

Coelioxys hirsutissima Cockerell
Tex. to Calif.

Coelioxys hirsiitissiyna Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 168. ♂.

Coelioxys immaculata Cockerell
Mass. to Fla., Ind., Kans., Okla., Ark., Tex.
Coelioxys immaculata Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 165. ♂.
Coelioxys sculptifrons Crawford, 1914. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 7: 153. ♀.

Coelioxys mitchelli Baker
N. C, Fla., Kans., Nev., Calif.

Coelioxys {Coelioxys) mitchelli Baker, 1975. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 50: 726, figs. 42B, 43,
46H-I. 9,6.

Coelioxys serricauda Baker
Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Coelioxys {Coelioxys) serricauda Baker, 1975. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 50: 728, figs. 45B, F,
H, 46J, 49. ♀, ♂.

Coelioxys sodalis Cresson
Alaska and N. W. T., south to Calif., Ariz, and N. Mex. in the west and Great
Lakes and New England states in the east. Host: Megachile frigida Sm., M.
melanophaea Sm., M. melanophaea wootoni Ckll., M. pacifica (Panz.), M. texana Cress.
Coelioxys sodalis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 99. ♂.
Coelioxys ribis Cockerell, 1900. Canad. Ent. 32: 301. ♀.
Coelioxys ribis var. kincaidii Cockerell, 1904. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 13: 33. ♀.

Biology: Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 226 (searching behavior, as quadrideyitata).
— Graenicher, 1927. Ent. News 38: 233, 273 (host, as ribis). — Graenicher, 1935. Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 28: 300, 304 (life history, as ribis). — Medler and Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ.
Res. Bui. 274: 58 (host). — Hobbs, 1968. Canad. Ent. 100: 781 (host).

Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus BOREOCOELIOXYS Mitchell

Coelioxys subg. Boreocoelioxys Mitchell, 1973. N. C. State Univ., Contrib. Dept. Ent. p. 37.
Type-species: Coelioxys rufitarsis Smith. Orig. desig.

Coelioxys banksi Crawford
Que. to N. C, west to B. C, south to N. Mex., Ariz, and Calif. Host:
Megachile relativa Cress.
Coelioxys banksi Crawford, 1914. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 7: 155. ♀.
Coelioxys angulifera Cockerell, 1916. Pomona Col. Jour Ent. Zool. 8: 61. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Medler and Koerber, 195k Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 51: 343 (life history, host).

Coelioxys insita Cresson
Nebr. to Tex., west to Colo., N. Mex. and east. Ariz.
Coelioxys insita Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 273. ♀.
Coelioxys mdis Cockerell, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 732: 3. ♀, ♂.

Coelioxys moesta Cresson
N. S. south to Va., west to N. W. T. and Alaska, south to Calif., Ariz., and N.
Mex. Host: Megachile centuncularis (Linn.), M. concinna Sm., M. frigida Sm., M.
pacifica (Panz.), M. relativa Cress., M. texana Cress.
Coelioxys moesta Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 403. ♀.
Coelioxys tristis Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 241. ♀.
Coelioxys ^naestaV-) Dalla Torre, 1896. Cat. Hym., v. 10, p. 488.
Coelioxys lutzi Cockerell, 1921. Amer. Mus. Novitates 21: 5. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Bohart, 1970. Utah State Univ. 41st Faculty Honor Lecture, p. 9 (immatures).




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Biology: Graenicher, 1927. Ent. News 38: 233, 274 (life history, host). — Medler and Koerber,
1958. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 51: 337, 343 (life history, host). —Medler, 1959. Canad. Ent. 9:
114-115 (life history, host). —Medler and Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 54
(host). — Hobbs, 1968. Canad. Ent. 100: 781 (host).

Coelioxys novomexicana Cockerell
Tex. west to Calif, and Oreg.; Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango, Nuevo
Leon and Tamaulipas). Host: Megachile brevis Say, M. gentilis Cress., M. pacifica
(Panz.), M. sidalceae Ckll.
Coelioxys sayi var. novomexicana Cockerell, 1909. Ent. News 20: 9. ♀.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1921. Amer. Mus. Novitates 21: 1. ♂.

Biology: Bechtel, 1958. Pan-Pacific Ent. 34: 12-13 (host).

Coelioxys octodentata Say
Transcont. U. S. and south. Canada; Mexico. Host: Megachile brevis Say, M.

centuncularis (Linn.), M. mendica Cress., M. onobrychidis Ckll., M. pacifica (Panz.), M.

perihirta Ckll., M. texana Cress.
Coelioxys 8-dentata Say, 1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped., v. 2, p. 353. ♂.
Coelioxys brevis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 2: 402. ♀, ♂. Preocc.
Coelioxys altilis Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 219. N. name for brevis Cresson.
Coelioxys cressoni Dalla Torre, 1896. Cat. Hym., v. 10, p. 485. N. name for brevis Cresson.
Coelioxys coquilletti Crawford, 1914. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 7: 157, fig. 9.
Coelioxys megatricha Cockerell, 1916. Pomona Col. Jour. Ent. Zool. 80: 60. ♂.
Coelioxys crassula Cockerell, 1919. Canad. Ent. 51: 27. ♀.
Coelioxys mediata Cockerell, 1925. Pan-Pacific Ent. 1: 146. ♀, ♂.
Coelioxys catalinica Cockerell, 1940. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 38: 136. ♂.
Coelioxys atlantica Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 198, fig. 65. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1060, figs. 159-161, 165, 166 (larva).
—Stephen, Bohart and Torchio, 1969. The biology and external morphology of bees, p. 29
(immatures). —Baker, 1971. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 44: 225-235, figs, (immatures).

Biology: Fox, 1900. Ent. News 11: 553 (host). —Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 227 (life
history, host). —Robertson, 1926. Psyche 33: 116 (host). —Graenicher, 1935. Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 28: 300, 304 (host). —Michener, 1953. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 35: 1737-1742, figs.
24-26 (life history, host, immature stages). — Linsley, 1958. Hilgardia 27: 582 (ecology).
—Medler, 1965. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 67: 113-115 (life history, host). —Medler and
Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 55 (hosts).

Coelioxys porterae Cockerell
Newfoundland, south to N. C, west to B. C, south to Calif., Ariz, and N.
Mex. Host: Megachile frigida Sm., M. relativa Cress.
Coelioxys porterae Cockerell, 1900. Canad. Ent. 32: 298. ♀.
Coelioxys dubitata var. melanopoda Viereck, 1917 (1916). Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist.

Survey, Bui. 22: 747. ♂.
Coelioxys hypodonta Cockerell, 1925. Pan-Pacific Ent. 1: 150. ♂.

Coelioxys pratti Crawford
Tex. (Kerrville); Mexico and Cent. Amer.

Coelioxys pratti Crawford, 1914. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 7: 159. ♀.

Coelioxys rufitarsis Smith
Transcont. U. S. and south. Canada; Mexico. Host: Megachile fortis Cress., M.
latimanus Say, M. melanophaea Sm., M. m. wootoni Ckll, M. montivaga Cress., M.
perihirta Ckll, M. texana Cress.
Coelioxys nifitarsus Smith, 1854. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 271. ♂.
Coelioxys dubitata Smith, 1854. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 272. ♀.
Coelioxys comstockii Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 96. ♀.
Coelioxys coloradensis Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 98. ♂.
Coelioxys rufitarsis rhois Cockerell, 1903. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 12: 452. ♀.
Coelioxys rufitarsis claripes Cockerell, 1925. Pan-Pacific Ent. 1: 146. ♂.

Biology: Graenicher, 1905. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 3: 162-163 (host). —Graenicher, 1906.
Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 4: 138 (life history, host). —Robertson, 1926. Psyche 33: 116
(host). —Hicks, 1926. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 230, 233 (as coloradensis and rufitarsis).
—Graenicher, 1927. Ent. News 38: 233 (life history, host). —Graenicher, 1935. Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 28: 300, 304 (host, as dubitata). —Medler and Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ.
Res. Bui. 274: 57 (life history).




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Coelioxys salinaria Cockerell
Utah. Host: Megachile brevis Say.

Coelioxys salinaria Cockerell, 1925. Pan-Pacific Ent. 1: 148. ♂.

Coelioxys sayi Robertson
N. Y. to Fla., west to Nebr., Colo, and Ariz. Host: Megachile brevis Say, M.
mendica Cress.

Coelioxys sayi Robertson, 1897. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 7: 346. ♀, ♂.

Coelioxys mendacina Cockerell, 1921. Amer. Mus. Novitates 21: 3. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, p. 483 (host).

Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus XEROCOELIOXYS Mitchell

Coelioxys subg. Xerocoelioxys Mitchell, 1973. N. C. State Univ., Contrib. Dept. Ent. p. 44.
Type-species: Coelioxys edita Cresson. Grig, desig.

Coelioxys aperta Cresson
Colo., N. Mex., Ariz.; Mexico (Jalisco).

Coelioxys aperta Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 95, fig. 9.

Taxonomy: Cockerell, 1921. Amer. Mus. Novitates 21: 4. ♂.

Coelioxys bisoncornua Hill
Nebr., Minn., Kans.

Coelioxys bisoncornua Hill, 1936. Ent. News 47: 205. ♀, ♂.

Coelioxys boharti Mitchell
Fla. (Cocoa and Labelle), Tex. (College Station).

Coelioxys boharti Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 206. ♀.

Coelioxys edita Cresson
Fla., HI, Mo., Ark., and Tex., west to Alta., Wash., Greg, and Calif.; Mexico.

Coelioxys edita Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 272. ♂.

Coelioxys deplanata Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 96. ♀.

Biology: Linsley, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 160-161, fig. 7 (sleep).

Coelioxys galactiae Mitchell
N. C, Fla., 111.

Coelioxys galactiae Mitchell, 1962. N. C. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bui. 152: 204, figs. 65, 66. ♀.

6.

Coelioxys grindeliae Cockerell
N. Dak. to N. Mex., west to B. C, Wash., Greg, and Calif. Host:
Megachile perihirta Ckll.
Coelioxys grindeliae Cockerell, 1900. Canad. Ent. 32: 300. ♀, ♂.
Coelioxys grindeliae denverensis Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 166. ♂.
Coelioxys lamellicauda Cockerell, 1921. Amer. Mus. Novitates 21: 6. ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1925. Colo. Univ., Studies 15: 237 (host).

Coelioxys mesae Cockerell
Colo., Utah, Idaho, Greg, and Wash. Host: Megachile umatillensis Mitchell.
Coelioxys mesae Cockerell, 1921. Amer, Mus. Novitates 21: 6. ♂.

Coelioxys flagrata Baker, 1972. In Bohart and Youssef, Royal Ent. Soc. Lond., Trans. 124:
1, 13-16, 19, figs. 2, 16-19. ♀. N. syn.
Biology: Bohart and Youssef, 1972. Royal Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 124: 1, 13-16, 19, figs. 2,
16-19 (host, life history, immature stages, as flagrata).

Coelioxys nodis Baker
111., Kans. and Nebr.

Coelioxys (Xerocoelioxys) nodis Baker, 1975. Kans. Univ. Sci. BuL 50: 716. ♂.

Coelioxys piercei Crawford
Tex. (Cotulla).

Coelioxys piercei Crawford, 1914. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 7: 152, fig. 9.

Coelioxys soledadensis Cockerell
N. Mex., Ariz. Host: Megachile soledadensis Cockerell?

Coelioxys soledadensis cockerell, 1909. Ent. News 20: 9. ♂.

Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus SCHIZOCOELIOXYS Mitchell

Coelioxys subg. Schizocoelioxys Mitchell, 1973. N. C. State Univ., Contrib. Dept. Ent. p.

50.

Type-species: Coelioxys funeraria Smith. Grig, desig. and monotypic

Coelioxys funeraria Smith
Alaska, Yukon and B. C, east to N. S., south to 111., Ind. Pa. and Ga. in the

east, and south to Calif., Utah, and N. Mex. in the west. Host: Megachile fngida Sm., M.
inermis Prov., M. latimaniis Say, M. pacifica (Panz.), M. relativa Cress.
Coelioxys funeraria Smith, 1854. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 272. ♂.
Coelioxys lateralis Cresson, 1864. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 2: 405. ♂.




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Coelioxys iucrosa Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 97. ♀.
Coelioxys hicksi Cockerell, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 732: 3. ♀.

Biology: Graenicher, 1905. Nat. Hist. Soc. Wis., Bui. 3: 160 (host, as Iucrosa). — Graenicher,
1927. Ent. News 38: 233 (host, life history, as iucrosa). —Graenicher, 1935. Ent. Soc.
Amer., Ann. 28: 300, 304 (host, life history, as Iucrosa). — Medler, 1958. Canad. Ent. 90:
326-327 (host, life history, as iucrosa). —Medler and Koerber, 1958. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann.
51: 343 (host, life history, as iucrosa). — Hobbs, 1968. Canad. Ent. 100: 783 (host).

Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus SYNOCOELIOXYS Mitchell

Coelioxys subg. Synocoelioxys Mitchell, 1973. N. C. State Univ., Contrib. Dept. Ent. p. 57.
Type-species: Coelioxys texana Cresson. Orig. desig.

Coelioxys alternata Say
Que. to N. C, west to B. C, Wash., Utah and Ariz. Host: Megachile pugnata
Say.
Coelioxys alternata Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 401. ♀, ♂.
Coelioxys texana vegayia Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 41: 166. ♂.
Coelioxys cockerelli Crawford, 1915. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 3: 108. ♀.
Coelioxys wisconsinensis Cockerell, 1925. Pan-Pacific Ent. 1: 145. ♀.

Biology: Medler and Lussenhop, 1968. Wis. Univ. Res. Bui. 274: 51-52 (host, life history).

Coelioxys apacheorum Cockerell
B. C. to Calif., east to S. Dak., Colo., and Tex.
Coelioxys apacheorum Cockerell, 1900. Canad. Ent. 32: 299. ♀.
Coelioxys fragariae Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 167. ♂.
Coelioxys quercina Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 167. ♂.

Coelioxys erysimi Cockerell
B. C, Idaho, Oreg., Calif., Nev. and Colo.

Coelioxys erysimi Cockerell, 1912. Canad. Ent. 44: 166. ♂.

Coelioxys hunteri Crawford
N. Y. to Fla., west to Oreg., Utah and Ariz.; Mexico. Possibly this is the
female oi C . floridana Cress.
Coelioxys hunteri Crawford, 1914. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 7: 151, figs. 9.

Coelioxys texana Cresson
Fla., Mo., Kans., Okla. and Tex., west to south. Calif.; Mexico and Cent. Amer.
Host: Megachile policaris Say.
Coelioxys texana Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 272. ♀.
Coelioxys texana sonorensis Cockerell, 1914. Entomologist 47: 116. ♂.

Biology: Schwarz, 1896. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 4: 24 (sleep). —Banks, 1902. N. Y. Ent. Soc,
Jour. 10: 212 (sleep). —Robertson, 1926. Psyche 33: 177 (phenology). — Krombein, 1967.
Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 483-484 (host, life history).

Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus NEOCOELIOXYS Mitchell

Coelioxys subg. Neocoelioxys Mitchell, 1973. N. C. State Univ., Contrib. Dept. Ent. p. 64.
Type-species: Coelioxys assumptionis Schrottky. Orig. desig.

Coelioxys menthae Cockerell
N. Mex., Ariz.; Mexico to El Salvador.

Coelioxys me^ithae Cockerell, 1897. Canad. Ent. 29: 120. ♂.

Coelioxys slossoni
***authority mismatch
arenicola Crawford. N. C. to Ga., west to Tex.; Mexico to El Salvador.

Coelioxys slossoni var. arenicola Crawford, 1914. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 7: 156. ♀, ♂.

Coelioxys slossoni
***authority mismatch
slossoni Viereck. Fla.

Coelioxys slossoni Viereck, 1902. Canad. Ent. 34: 327. ♀, ♂.

Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus MELANOCOELIOXYS Mitchell

Coelioxys subg. Melanocoelioxys Mitchell, 1973. N. C. State Univ., Contrib. Dept. Ent. p.
78.

Type-species: Coelioxys tolteca Cresson. Orig. desig.

Coelioxys dolichos Fox
N. C. to Fla. Host: Megachile xylocopoides Sm.
Coelioxys dolichos Fox, 1890. Ent. News 1: 107. ♀.

Biology: Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 482-483 (host, life history).




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Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus HAPLOCOELIOXYS Mitchell

Coelioxys subg. Haplocoelioxys Mitchell, 1973. N. C. State Univ., Contrib. Dept. Ent. p. 85.
Type-species: Coelioxys mexicana Cresson. Orig. desig.

Coelioxys mexicana Cresson
N. C. to Fla., west to Tex.; Mexico.

Coelioxys mexicana Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 99. ♀, ♂.
Coelioxys asteris Crawford, 1914. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 7: 156, fig. 9.

Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus GLYPTOCOELIOXYS Mitchell

Coelioxys subg. Glyptocoelioxys Mitchell, 1973. N. C. State Univ., Contrib. Dept. Ent. p.
92.

Type-species: Coelioxys vidua Smith. Orig. desig.

Coelioxys germana Cresson
111. to N. J., south to Fla.

Coelioxys gemiana Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 102. ♀.

Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus CYRTOCOELIOXYS Mitchell

Coelioxys subg. Cyrtocoelioxys Mitchell, 1973. N. C. State Univ., Contrib. Dept. Ent. p.
106.

Type-species: Coelioxys costaricensis Cockerell. Orig. desig.

Coelioxys angelica Cockerell
Calif.

Coelioxys angelica Cockerell, 1905. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 15: 201. ♀.

Coelioxys deani Cockerell
Colo., Calif.

Coelioxys deani Cockerell, 1909. Ent. News 20: 8. ♂.

Coelioxys floridana
***authority mismatch
Cresson. Ind. to Fla., west to Tex. This- is possibly the male of C. hunteri Cwfd.

Coelioxys floridana Cresson, 1878. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: 98. ♂.

Coelioxys gilensis Cockerell
Ariz., Calif., Utah. Host: Chalicodoma subexilis (Ckll.).

Coelioxys gilensis Cockerell, 1896. N. Mex. Univ., Bui. 1: 62. ♂.

Biology: Hicks, 1927. Ent. News 38: 17 (host).

Coelioxys gonaspis Cockerell
Calif.; Mexico (Baja California).

Coelioxys gonaspis Cockerell, 1924. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 560. ♀.

Coelioxys modesta Smith
Que. and New England States, west to Nebr., south to Fla. and Tex. Host:
Chalicodoma campamdae wilmingtoni (Mitchell), C. georgica (Cress.), Megachile
ceyituncularis (Linn.), M. relativa Cress.
Coelioxys modesta Smith, 1854. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 2, p. 271. ♀.

Biology: Graenicher, 1927. Ent. News 38: 233, 274 (host). — Fye, 1965. Canad. Ent. 97: 876

(host). — Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 484-486 (host, vahdity of

previously published host records, life history).

Coelioxys obtusiventris Crawford
Fla.

Coelioxys obtusiventris Crawford, 1914. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 7: 150. ♀.

Coelioxys scitula Cresson
Tex.

Coelioxys scitula Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 273. ♀, ♂.

Genus COELIOXYS Subgenus UNASSIGNED

Coelioxys asclepiadis Cockerell
Ariz. Possibly belongs to the subgenus Cyrtocoelioxys.
Coelioxys asclepiadis Cockerell, 1925. Pan-Pacific Ent. 1: 149. ♂.


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