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Superfamily SPHECOIDEA
Family NYSSONIDAE

All members of this large cosmopolitan family nest in the ground. They are commonly called
sand wasps.

Taxonomy: Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 59: 404 (key to tribes). —Pate, 1938. Amer.
Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 119-120 (key to tribes). —Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc,
Trans. 82: 35-66, 13 pis. (larvae). —Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 149-156, figs.
36-42, 60, 62, 63, 71-73 (larvae). —Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 253-273, figs.
26-58 (larvae).

Biology: Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, 526 pp., 215 figs., 47
tabs.

Subfamily ALYSSONINAE

Revision: Handlirsch, 1895. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 104: 830-839 (world
spp.).

Genus ALYSSON Panzer

Alysson Jurine, 1801. Intell. Blatt. Litt.-Ztg. Erlangen, v. 1, p. 164. Name suppressed by

Internatl. Comn. Zool. Nomencl., Op. 135, 1939.
Alysson Panzer, 1806. Krit. Rev. Insektenf. Deutschlands, v. 2, p. 169.

Type-species: Pompilus spinosus Panzer. Desig. by Morice and Durrant, 1915.
Alyson Jurine, 1807. Nouv. Meth. Class. Hym. Dipt, p. 195.

Type-species: Pompilus spinosus Panzer. Monotypic




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These wasps are primarily Holarctic in distribution, but a few species occur in the Ethiopian
and Oriental Regions. They nest gregariously, often in cool, moist sand, usually make multicellu-
lar nests, and prey primarily on nymphal and adult leafhoppers although spittle bugs and
planthoppers are used occasionally.

Revision: Fox, 1894. Ent. News 5: 86-89 (N. Amer. spp.).

Alysson conicus Provancher
N. B., Ont, N. H., N. Y., Md., D. C, Va., Mich.

Alyson{\) coniciis Provancher, 1889. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 271. ♀.

Alysson flavomaculatus Cameron
N. Mex. (Santa Fe Mts.).

Allyson{\) flavomaculatus Cameron, 1901. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 27: 314. ♂.

Alysson guignardi Provancher
Transcont., Que. and Ont. to N. C. and Mo., west to Mich., Iowa, Calif,
and N. Mex. Predator: Dioctria haumhaueri Meig.
Alyson{\) Guignardi Provancher, 1887. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 271. ♀.

3.
AlysoiiO.) petiolatus Cameron, 1902. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 28: 374. ♂.
AlysonC.) interstitialis Cameron, 1902. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 28: 375. ♂.

Alysson melleus Say
U. and L. Austr. Zones east of 100th meridian. Ecology: Nests in damp sand or
sandy loam, makes 1-5 cells per nest, stores 3-23 prey per cell. Parasite: Phrosinella
fiitviconiis (Coq.) ? Prey: Aceratagallia sp., Agallia co^istricta Van D., Agalliopsis
novella (Say), Balclutha sp., Chlorotettix sp., Cimi7iins hartii Ball, Colladonus
clitellarius (Say), Deltocephalus flavicosta Stal, Draeculacephala antica (Wlkr.), D.
mollipes (Say), D. paludosa B. and C, D. portola Ball, D. spp., Enipoasca fahae (Harr.),
Exitianus exitiosus Uhl., Gmviivella nigrifrons (Fbs.), G. pallidula Osb., G. sp.,
Hortensia siniilis (Wlkr.), Keonolla dolobrata (Ball), Macrosteles fascifrons (Stal),
Neokolla hieroglyphica (Say), Paraphlepnius irroratiis (Say), Sancta7uis sp.,
Scaphytopiiis sp., Tylozygus bifidus (Say), Cicadellinae spp.; Delphacodes basivifta (Van
D.), Delphacidae sp.; both nymphs and adults are stored; cicadellids are preferred prey
and delphacids are used rarely.
AlysonO) melleus Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 380. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 41, figs. 1-7 (larva). —Evans,
1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 150, fig. 60 (larva).

Biology: Hartman, 1905. Tex. Acad. Sci., Trans. 7: 56-57 (nest, prey transport). — Rau and
Rau, 1918. Wasp studies afield, pp. 140-144, fig. 33 (nest, prey). —Evans, 1966. Compar.
ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 17-28, figs. 9-20 (nest, prey, mating, egg, life
cycle, parasite ?). —Evans, 1968. Ent. Soc Amer., Ann. 61: 1343 (prey). — Kurczewski and
Kurczewski, 1971. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 44: 335 (prey).

Alysson oppositus Say
Transit, and U. Austr. Zones east of Rocky Mts., N. B. and Ont. to Ga. and
Tenn., west to Mich,, Iowa and Colo. Prey: Draeculacephala mollipes (Say).
Alyso7iC.) oppositus Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 380. ♀, ♂.
Alyson(\) oppositus var. a Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 380.

Biology: Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, p. 28 (prey).

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1941. Smithsn. Inst., Misc. Collect. 99 (14): pi. 20, figs. F-H (male

genitalia).

Alysson radiatus Fox
Colo., Nev., Calif., Wash.

AlysonV.) radiatus Fox, 1894. Ent. News 5: 87. ♀, ♂.

Alysson striatus Fox
D. C, N. Y.,

AlysonC) striatus Fox, 1894. Ent. News 5: 88. ♂.

Alysson triangulifer
***authority mismatch
shawi Bradley. Nev., B. C, Calif.

Alysson shawi Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 130. ♂.

Alysson triangulifer
***authority mismatch
triangulifer Provancher. Ont. and Que. south to Md., Mich, and Ky. west to N.
Dak. and Colo., Idaho, Alaska.

Alyson(,\) triangulifer Provancher, 1887. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 272. ♂.

Genus DIDINEIS Wesmael

Didineis Wesmael, 1852. Acad. Roy. Belg., Bui. 19: 109.




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Type-species: Alyson(l) limicomis of Vander Linden. Monotypic.

The European lunicomis (F.) makes a unicellular nest in the ground and preys upon nymphal
and adult Cicadellidae and Delphacidae.

Revision: Fox, 1894. Ent. News 5: 126-128 (N. Amer. spp.). — Malloch and Rohwer, 1930. U.

S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 77 (14): 1-7, 8 figs. (N. Amer. spp.).

Didineis dilata Malloch and Rohwer
Wis., Nebr.

Didineis dilata Malloch and Rohwer, 1930. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 77 (14): 6. ♂.

Didineis latimana Malloch and Rohwer
N. H. to Va., 111., Iowa, Mo.

Didineis latimana Malloch and Rohwer, 1930. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 77 (14): A. 9 , 6 .

Didineis nodosa Fox
Colo., Utah, Idaho, Wash, to Calif.; Mexico (Baja California).

Didineis nodosa Fox, 1894. Ent. News 5: 127. ♂.

Didineis sajictacritcae Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 129. ♀.

Didineis 7iodosa var. clypeata Malloch and Rohwer, 1930. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 77 (14): 6.
6.

Didineis peculiaris Fox
Iowa, Mont., Calif.; Mexico (Baja California).

Didineis peculiaris Fox, 1894. Ent. News 5: 128. ♀, ♂.

Didineis stevensi Rohwer
N. Dak. (Sheldon).

Didineis stevensi Rohwer, 1923. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 25: 98. ♀.

Didineis texana (Cresson)
Mostly U. and L. Austr. Zones, Pa. and N. J. to Fla., west to Kans., Mo. and
east. Ariz.; Mexico (Nuevo Leon). Prey: Cixius stigmatus Say.

Alysond) texanus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 226. ♂.

Biology: Strandtmann, 1945. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 38: 312 (prey).

Didineis vierecki Rohwer
Kans., N. Mex.

Didineis crassiconiis Viereck, 1906. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 32: 204. ♂. Preocc.
Didineis vierecki Rohwer, 1911. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 13: 4. N. name.

Subfamily NYSSONINAE

The wasps of this subfamily are cleptoparasites in the nests of other ground-nesting aculeates.
The more primitive genera have as their hosts wasps belonging to the closely allied Gorytinae.
Two of the more highly specialized genera appear to have as hosts Larrinae (Larridae) and Cer-
cerinae (Philanthidae), and a third may have an andrenid bee as its host.

Revision: Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 273-284. —Fox, 1896. N. Y. Ent. Soc,
Jour. 4: 10-16. —Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 121-127 (key to gen.).

Taxonomy: Maidl and Klima, 1939. Hym. Cat., Pars 8, Sphecidae i, pp. 115-150 (world
catalog).

Biology: Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 83-90, figs. 46-51
(compar. behavior and host relationships).

Genus NYSSON Latreille

Nysso Latreille, 1796. Precis Caract. Gen. Ins., p. 125. No species included. Printer's error

for Nysson/
Nysson Latreille, 1802-1803. Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins., v. 3, p. 340.

Type-species: Crabro spijiosus Fabricius. Desig. by Shuckard, 1837.
Nysson IIS Rafinesque, 1815. Analyse Nature ou Tabl. Univers, Palermo, p. 124. Emend.

Taxonomy: Menke, Bohart and Richards, 1974. Bui. Zool. Nomencl. 30: 217-218 (petition to
suppress Nysso Latr., 1796, designate Spliex spinosus Forst. as type-species, and place
Nysson Latr., 1802-1803, and spinosus Forst. on Official Lists of Generic and Specific
Names).

Nysson argenticus Bohart
South. Calif, and Ariz.

Nysson argenticus Bohart, 1968 (1967). Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 315, figs. 1, 10, 13, 22. ♂, ♀.

Nysson aridulus Bohart
South. Calif.

Nysson aridulus Bohart, 1968 (1967). Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 317, figs. 9, 26. ♂, ♀.




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Nysson bakeri Bohart
South. Calif.

Nysson bakeri Bohart, 1968 (1967). Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 318, figs. 7, 27. ♂, ♀.
chutnash Pate. Calif.

Nysson (Nysson) chumash Pate, 1940. Notulae Nat. 63: 1. ♂.

Nysson compactus Cresson
Wash.

Nysson compactus Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 278. ♀, ♂.

Nysson daeckei Viereck
Mass., N. Y., N. J., Pa., Mich., Iowa, Alta. Host: Gorytes canaliculatus Pack.,
Hoplisoides nebulosus (Pack.).
Nysson daeckei Viereck, 1904. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 30: 238. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 42, figs. 8-12 (larva). —Evans,
1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 150 (larva).

Biology: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 43 (host). —Evans, 1966. Compar.

ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 44, 46, 64-65, fig. 36 (behavior, host, egg).

Nysson euphorbiae Bohart
South. N. Mex., Ariz., Calif.; Mexico (Sinaloa).

Nysson euphorbiae Bohart, 1968 (1967). Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 319, figs. 2, 25. cJ, 9.

Nysson fidelis Cresson
Wis., Colo., Mont., Wash., Oreg. Host: Gorytes canaliculatus Pack.

Nysson fidelis Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 282. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Barth, 1907. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 5: 145, 147-148 (host).

Nysson gagates Bradley
B. C, N. Y., Miss.

Nysson (Brachystegus) gagates Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 123. ♂.

Nysson hesperus Bohart
B. C, Oreg., Calif., Nev., Idaho, Wyo.

Nysson hesperus Bohart, 1968 (1967). Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 320, figs. 8, 14, 18, 23. cJ, 9.

Nysson lateralis Packard
Chiefly Transit. Zone east of Rockies. Host: Gorytes canaliculatus Pack.?
Nysson laterale Harris, 1835. In Hitchcock, Rpt. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool. Mass., p. 68.

Nom. nud.
Nysson laterale Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 6: 440. ♂.

Biology: Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, p. 65 (host ?).

Nysson neorusticus Bohart
Calif., Nev., Oreg., Wash., Utah, Wyo.

Nysson neorusticus Bohart, 1968 (1967). Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 321, figs. 4, 12, 24. ♂, ♀.

Nysson pumilus Cresson
Nev., Calif. Host: Hoplisoides kantatus (Handl.)?

Nysson pu7nilus Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 283. ♂.

Nysson (Brachystegus) pu7nilis(l) Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 125. ♀.

Biology: Powell and Chemsak, 1959. Pan-Pacific Ent. 35: 200 (host ?).

Nysson recticornis Bradley
Wash., Idaho, Calif.

Nysson (Nysson) recticornis Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 127. ♂.

Nysson rufiventris Cresson
Colo., Mont.

Nysson rufiventris Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 283. ♀.

Plenoculus pnnctatus Ashmead, 1897. Psyche 8: 338. ♀.

Nysson rufoflavus Bohart
Calif. (Mt. Diablo).

Nysson rufoflavus Bohart, 1968 (1967). Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 322, figs. 5, 21. ♂.

Nysson rusticus
***authority mismatch
rusticus Cresson. Colo., Idaho, Wash., Oreg., Calif. Host: Hoplisoides hamatus
(Handl.)?

Nysson rusticus Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 282. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Powell and Chemsak, 1959. Pan-Pacific Ent. 35: 200 (host ?). —Evans, 1970. Mus.

Compar. Zool., Bui. 140: 494 (host ?).

Nysson rusticus
***authority mismatch
sphecodoides Bradley. Calif. (Claremont).

Nysson (Nysson) sphecodoides Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 126. ♂.

Nysson schlingeri Bohart
Calif.

Nysson schlingeri Bohart, 1968 (1967). Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 323, figs. 6, 15, 16, 20. ♂, ♀.

Nysson simplicicornis Fox
N. Y., Pa., Md., D. C, Va., W. Va., Mich., Iowa, Nebr., Mo.

Nysson simplicicornis Fox, 1896. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 4: 15. ♂.

Brachystegus maculipes Mickel, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 42: 400. ♀.




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Nysson (Nysson) minimus Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 59: 408. 9, {S misdet.).
Preocc.

Nysson (Nysson) kaskaskia Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. See, Trans. 64: 130. N. name.

Nysson subtilis Fox
N. Y., N. J., Pa., Md., D. C, W. Va.

Nysson subtilis Fox, 1896. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 4: 14. ♂.

Nysson timberlakei Bohart
South. Calif., Nev., N. Mex.

Nysson timberlakei Bohart, 1968 (1967). Pan-Pacific Ent. 43: 324, figs. 3, 19, 28. ♂, ♀.

Nysson trichrus (Mickel)
Que., N. Y., N. J., Pa., D. C, Va., Iowa, Nebr., Kans., Tex., Ala.

Nysson nigripes Provancher, 1887. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 269. "cJ" =
9. Preocc.

Brachystegus trichrus Mickel, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 42: 400. ♀.

Nysson (Nysson) melanopus Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 130. N. name.

Nysson tristis Cresson
B. C, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Nysson tristis Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 281. ♂.

Genus HYPONYSSON Cresson

Hyponysson Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 273.

Type-species: Hyponysson bicolor Cresson. Monotypic

Revision: Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 131-135, fig. 23. (N. Amer. spp.).

Hyponysson bicolor Cresson
Idaho, Wash., Oreg., Calif.

Hyponysson bicolor Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 284. ♀.

Hyponysson raui (Rohwer)
Fla., Ala., Tenn., Mo., Ark., Okla., Tex. Host: Calliopsis nebrascensis Cwfd.?
Nysson (Hyponysson) raui Rohwer, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 176. ♀.

Biology: Rau, 1922. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Proc. 24: 18 (host ?).

Genus SYNNEVRUS Costa

Synnevrus Costa, 1859. Fauna Regn. Napoli, Imen. AcuL, Nyssonid., p. 16.

Type-species: Synnevrus procerus Costa. Monotypic
Synneurus Gerstaecker, 1867. Naturforsch. Gesell. Halle 10: 79. Emend.

These wasps occur in the Holarctic Region.

Synnevrus aequalis (Patton)
Mass. south to Fla., La., Wis., 111., Iowa, S. Dak.

Nysson aequalis Patton, 1879. Canad. Ent. 11: 212. ♂.
aurinotus (Say). Ga., Ohio, Ind., Ill, Wis., Minn., Iowa, S. Dak., Nebr., Tex., Colo.

Nysson aurinotus Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 368.

Nysson Freyi-Gessneri Handlirsch, 1887. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 95:
355. ♂.

Nysso7i ayignlaris Smith, 1908. Nebr. Univ. Studies 8: 340. ♂.

Nysson (Nysson) marlafti Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 59: 408. ♀.
intermedius (Viereck). Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., Calif.

Nysson intermedius Viereck, 1907. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 33: 409. ♀.

Nysson (Nysson) coyotero Pate, 1940. Notulae Nat. 63: 3. ♀, ♂.

Synnevrus maderae Bohart
Ariz. (Santa Rita Mts.).

Sy7ineurus(l) maderae Bohart, 1968. Pan-Pacific Ent. 44: 233, fig. 13. ♂.

Synnevrus plagiatus (Cresson)
U. S., east of Rockies. Host: Spliex ichneumoneus (L.)?

Nysson plagiatus Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 276. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Ristich, 1953. Canad. Ent. 85: 380 (host ?).

Genus EPINYSSON Pate

Nysson subg. Epinysson Pate, 1935. Ent. News 46: 250.

Type-species: Nysso7i basilaris Cresson. Orig. desig.

Authenticated hosts for this genus are all in the genus Hoplisoides (Gorytinae). Epinysson oc-
curs only in the New World.




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Taxonomy: Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 122-123 (key to spp.).

Epinysson albomarginatus (Cresson)
Nev.

Nysson albot)nirgi7iatus Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 278. ♀, ♂.

Epinysson arentis Bohart
South. Calif., Nev., Ariz.

Epinysson arentis Bohart, 1968. Pan-Pacific Ent. 44: 229, figs. 16-18. ♂, ♀.

Epinysson basilaris
***authority mismatch
basilaris (Cresson). Va., S. C, Ga., Fla.

Nysson basilaris Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 281. ♀.

Epinysson basilaris
***authority mismatch
tuberculatus (Handlirsch). N. H., Conn., N. Y., N. J., Pa., Md., D. C, Va., S. C, Wis.,
N. Dak. Host: Hoplisoides nebnlosus (Pack.).
Nysson tuberculatus Handlirsch, 1887. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 95: 363.

6.
Nysson tramosericus Viereck, 1904. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 30: 237. ♂.
Ny.sso7i (Bracliystegus) opulentus var. dakotensis Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 59:
411. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 150-151, figs. 36-38 (larva; misdet. as

Epinysson opulentus
***authority mismatch
Gerst.).

Biology: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 151 (host; misdet. as opulentus Gerst.).
— Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 42-44, figs. 34-85
(behavior, host, egg).

Epinysson bellus (Cresson)
Kans., Okla., N. Dak., Colo., Mont., Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., Calif. Host:
Hoplisoides tricolor (Cr.)?
Nysson bellus Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 280. ♀.
Nysson clarconis Viereck, 1906. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 32: 204. ♂.

Biology: Evans, Lin and Yoshimoto, 1954. Ent. News 65: 10 (behavior in host? nest).

Epinysson desertus Bohart
South. Calif., N. Mex.; Mexico (Sinaloa).

Epinysson desertus Bohart, 1968. Pan-Pacific Ent. 44: 231, figs. 19, 20. ♂, ♀.
guatemalensis hoplisivora (Rohwer). D. C. to Fla. Host: Hoplisoides costalis (Cr.). Typical
guatenialensis (Roh.) occurs in Cent. America.
Nysson (Bracliystegus) hoplisivora Rohwer, 1923. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 25: 96. ♀.

Biology: Reinhard, 1925. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 15: 172-177 (host, egg, larval behavior, life
cycle, cocoon). —Reinhard, 1929. The witchery of wasps, pp. 262-271, text fig. (host, larval
behavior, cocoon).

Epinysson mellipes (Cresson)
N. H. to Fla., La., Minn., Iowa, N. Dak., Colo., Mont., Calif., B. C.

Ny.sson mellipes Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 279. ♀, ♂.

Nysson submellipes Viereck, 1904. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 30: 237. ♂.

Epinysson metathoracicus (Smith)
Nebr. (Sioux Co.).

Bracliystegus metathoracicus Smith, 1908. Nebr. Univ. Studies 8: 338. ♀.

Epinysson moestus (Cresson)
Wash., Calif. Host: Hoplisoides ha7)iatus (Handl.)?

Nysson moestus Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 280. ♂.

Nysson (Brachystegus) barberi Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 59: 410. ♂.

Biology: Powell and Chemsak, 1959. Pan-Pacific Ent. 35: 200 (host ?).

Epinysson opulentus (Gerstaecker)
Canada and U. S. in U. Austr., and Sonor. Zones; Panama?

Nysso7i opulentus Gerstaecker, 1867. Naturhist. Gesell. Halle, Abhandl. 10: 114. ♂.

Nysson (Brachystegus) seminole Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 125. ♂.

Nysson (Brachystegus) foxii Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 59: 409. ♂.

Nysson (Epinysson) maiae Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 137, fig. 26. ♂.

Epinysson pacificus (Rohwer)
Calif. (Santa Barbara).

Nysson (Brachy.'itegu.'i) pacificus Rohwer, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 53: 249. ♂.

Epinysson torridus (Bohart)
South. Calif., Nev.

Epinysson torridus Bohart, 1968. Pan-Pacific Ent. 44: 232, fig. 21. cJ, 9.

Genus ZANYSSON Rohwer

Nysson subg. Zanysson Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 59: 404.
Type-species: Nysson texanus Cresson. Orig. desig.




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The genus is known only from the New World. Circumstantial evidence suggests that species
of Tachytes may serve as hosts.

Revision: Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 59: 404-407 (N. Amer. spp.).

Zanysson mexicanus (Cresson)
Tex. (Brownsville); Mexico.

Paranysson Mexicanus Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 275. ♀, ♂.
Nysson longispinis Cameron, 1905. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 374. ♀.

Zanysson plesius (Rohwer)
N. Y., N. J., Md., D. C, Va., N. C, Fla., Ala., Miss., La., Mo., Kans., Tex.,
Ariz. Host: Tachytes d. distinctus Sm.?, T. chrysocercus Roh.?
Nysso7i (Zanysson) plesia Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 59: 406. ♀, ♂.
Zanysson matinecoc Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 163. ♀, ♂.
Zanysson tonto Pate, 1940. Notulae Nat. 63: 6. ♂.

Biology: Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 89-90 (hosts ?).

Zanysson texanus
***authority mismatch
fuscipes (Cresson). West. U. S.

Paranysson fuscipes Cresson, 1882. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 9: 274. ♀, ♂.

Nysson aureobalteatiis Cameron, 1901. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 27: 313. ♂.

Zanysson texanus
***authority mismatch
texanus (Cresson). U. S. Host: Tachytes exoniatus Fox?

Nysson texanus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 223. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Cockerell, 1903. Entomologist 36: 100 (host ?).

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1941. Smithsn. Inst., Misc Collect. 99 (14): pi. 20, figs. I-K (male
genitalia).

Genus FOXIA Ashmead

Foxia Ashmead, 1898. Ent. News 9: 187.

Type-species: Foxia pacifica Ashmead. Monotypic

This genus is confined to the New World. Its hosts are unknown.

Revision: Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 143-153, figs. 1, 6, 7, 13-16, 21, 22 (N. Amer.

spp.).

Foxia navajo Pate
Okla., Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., Calif.

Foxia navajo Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 146. ♀, ♂.

Foxia pacifica Ashmead
Calif.

Foxia pacifica Ashmead, 1898. Ent. News 9: 187. ♀, ♂.

Foxia secunda
***authority mismatch
(Rohwer). Ariz., Calif.

Nysson (Foxia) secunda Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 59: 407. ♂.

Genus METANYSSON Ashmead

Metanysson Ashmead, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 326.

Type-species: Nysson solani Cockerell. Orig. desig.
Metanysson subg. Huachuca Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 185.

Type-species: Metanysson {Huachuca) arivaipa Pate. Orig. desig.

The genus occurs only in the New World. Circumstantial evidence suggests that species of
Cerceris may be the hosts.

Revision: Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 170-188, figs. 2, 3, 5, 9-12, 18-20 (N. Amer.
spp.).

Metanysson arivaipa Pate
Ariz. Host: Cerceris graphica Sm.?

Metanysson (Huachuca) arivaipa Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 186. ♂.

Biology: Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, p. 90 (host ?).

Metanysson coahuila Pate
Calif., Ariz., Tex. Host: Cerceris conifrons Mick.?

Metanysson (Metanysson) coahuila Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 183. ♀.

Biology: Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, p. 90 (host ?).

Metanysson lipan Pate
Tex. (Hudspeth Co.).

Metanysson (Metanysson) lipan Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 176. ♂.




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Metanysson solani (Cockerell)
N. Mex., Ariz.

Nysson solani Cockerell, 1895. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 22: 294. ♀.

Metanysson yavapai Pate
Ariz.

Metanysson (Metanysson) yavapai Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 178. ♀, ♂.

Subfamily GORYTINAE

This large subfamily of ground-nesting wasps is cosmopolitan in distribution. So far as
recorded the species prey upon nymphal and adult Homoptera.

Revision: Handlirsch, 1888. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 97: 316-565, 3 pis. (spp.
of world). -Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc, 47: 517-539 (N. Amer. spp.).
— Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 59: 412 (key to gen.).

Taxonomy: Maidl and Klima, 1939. Hym. Cat., Pars 8, Sphecidae 1, pp. 43-114 (world catalog).

Genus OCHLEROPTERA Holmberg

Ochleroptera Holmberg, 1903. Buenos Aires Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat., An. (3) 2: 487.

Type-species: Ochleroptera oblita Holmberg. Monotypic.
Paramellinns Rohwer, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 41: 469.

Type-species: Gorytes bipiiHctatus Say. Orig. desig.

The species of this small genus occur only in the New World.

Taxonomy: Pate, 1947. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 42: 65-70.

Ochleroptera bipunctata (Say)
U. and L. Austr. Zones of U. S. Ecology: Nests in sandy to heavier soil,

makes several cells per nest, stores 6-18 prey per cell. Parasite: Miltogrammini sp. Prey:
Aceratagatlia sangitinolenta (Prov.), Coelidia olitoria (Say), Colladonus clitellarius
(Say), Japananus hyalinus (Osb.), Macrosteles fascifrons Stal, M. sp., Orientus ishidae
Mats., Paraphlepsius irroratits (Say), Prescottia lobata (Van D.), Scaphytophis sp.,
Strangania apicalis Osb. and Ball; Clastoptera obtusa Say, Philaenus leucophthalmus
L., P. lineatita L.; Cyrtolobiis acutus Van D.; Haplaxius radicis Osb.; Psylla annulata
F.; adults are stored more commonly than nymphs.
Gorytes bipunctatus Say, 1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped., v. 2, p. 338.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 47, figs. 23-29 (larva). —Evans,
1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 152 (larva).

Biology: Strandtmann, 1945. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 38: 312 (nest, prey). —Evans, 1966.
Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 75-77, fig. 42 (nest, prey transport, life
cycle, cocoon, parasite). —Evans, 1968. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 61: 1344 (prey).
— Kurczewski and Kurczewski, 1971. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 44: 335 (prey).

Genus ARGOGORYTES Ashmead

Argogorytes Ashmead, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 324.

Type-species: Gorytes carbo7iarius Smith. Orig. desig.
Argogorytes subg. Archarpactus Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 9: 4, 10.

Type-species: Sphex viystacea Linnaeus. Orig. desig. Replacement name proposed
unnecessarily for Arpactits Jurine which was suppressed in Op. 135, 1939,
Internatl. Comn. Zool. Nomencl.

Two Palaearctic species nest in the ground, make 6-9 cells per nest, and store 19-27 nymphal
spittlebugs {Aphropliora) per cell.

Argogorytes nigrifrons (Smith)
N. S., south to Ga., Wis., Iowa, Kans., Tex.

Gorytes nigrifrons Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 368. ♀.

Gorytes Bollii Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 225. ♀.

Gorytes (Gorytes) neglect ns Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 40: 567. ♀.

Argogorytes sapellonis (Baker)
N. Mex. (Sapello Canyon).

Gorytes sapelloiiis Baker, 1907. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 161. ♀.




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Genus DIENOPLUS Fox

Arpacfiis Jurine, 1807. Nouv. Meth. Class. Hym. Dipt., p. 192. Preocc.

Type-species: Arpactits formosus Jurine. Desig. by Shuci Harpactus Shuckard, 1837. Essay on Indig. Fossor. Hym., p. 221. Emend.
Harpactes Dahlbom, 1843. Hym. Europaea, v. 1, p. 147. Emend. Preocc.
Dienoplus Fox, 1894 (1893). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc, 45: 548.

Type-species: Dienoplus pictifrons Fox. Orig. desig.

Most species occur in the Holarctic Region, but a few have been recorded from the Ethiopian
and Oriental Regions. A European species makes 2-15 cells per nest in sandy soil. Recorded prey
are leafhoppers and spittlebugs, both nymphs and adults.

Dienoplus citipes Krombein
Fla., (Orlando, Arcadia). Ecology: Nests in flat sandy areas.

Dienoplus citipes Krombein, 1954. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 80: 20, figs. 9, 11, 13. cJ, 9.

Dienoplus gyponae (Williams)
Kans., N. Mex., Alta. Ecology: Nests in sand, makes more than 2 cells per
nest, stores 4 prey per cell. Prey: Prairiana cinerea (Uhl.) adults and nymph.

Harpactus gyponae Williams, 1914 (1913). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 8: 223. ♀.

Biology: Williams, 1914 (1913). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 8: 225-226, pi. 33, fig. 5 (nest, prey
transport).

Dienoplus mendicus (Handlirsch)
B. C, Idaho.

Gorytes mendicus Handlirsch, 1893. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus., Ann. 8: 278. ♀.

Dienoplus pictifrons Fox
Idaho, Wash., Calif. Predator: Philanthus pulcher D. T.

Dienoplus pictifrons Fox, 1894 (1893). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc, 45: 549. ♀, ♂.
Harpactus liowardi Ashmead, 1899. Ent. News 10: 9. ♀.

Genus HAPALOMELLINUS Ashmead

Hapalomellinus Ashmead, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 300.

Type-species: Gorytes exiniius Provancher. Orig. desig.

This small genus occurs only in the desert areas of southwestern North America.

Taxonomy: Bohart, 1971. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 83: 452 (key to spp.).

Hapalomellinus albitomentosus (Bradley)
Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., Calif. Ecology: Nests in level, dry sandy soil,
makes 1-2 cells per nest, one of which may be just a storage cell, and stores 14-15
leafhoppers per cell. Parasite: Senotainia sp. in trilineata (Wulp) complex? Prey:
Stragania robusta Uhl., mostly adults, but a few nymphs.
Gorytes exirnius Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 274. ♀.

Preocc.
Gorytes (Arpactus) albitomentosus Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 121. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Cazier and Mortenson, 1965. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 22: 261-276 (nest, prey, parasite
?).

Hapalomellinus pulvis Bohart
South. N. Mex., Ariz, and Calif.

Hapalomellinus pulvis Bohart, 1971. Biol. Soc Wash., Proc. 83: 451. ♀, ♂.

Hapalomellinus teren Pate
Ariz., Calif.

Hapalomellinus teren Pate, 1946. Ent. News 57: 237. ♀.

Genus TRICHOGORYTES Rohwer

Trichogorytes Rohwer, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 41: 469.

Type-species: Trichogorytes argenteopilosus Rohwer. Orig. desig.

The two known species occur in the southwestern deserts.
Revision: Pate, 1946. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 41: 15-17.

Trichogorytes argenteopilosus Rohwer
Ariz., Calif.

Trichogorytes argenteopilosus Rohwer, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 41: 470. ♀.




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Trichogorytes cockerelli (Ashmead)
N. Mex. (Mesilla). Ecology: Makes up to 2 cells per nest in fine-grained
sand in dunes, stores 8-10 prey per cell. Prey: Exitiaiius exitiosus (Uhl), Circtdifer
tenellns (Baker), Norvellina sp.; stores mostly adults.
Harpactus cockerelli Ashmead, 1899. Ent. News 10: 10. ♀.

Biology: Evans, 1976. Ent. News 87: 33-37, 4 figs, (nest, prey).

Genus GORYTES Latreille

Gorytes Latreille, 1804. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., v. 24, Tabl. Meth., p. 180.

Type-species: Mellinus quinqiiechictus Fabricius. Monotypic.
Arpactus Panzer, 1805. Faunae Ins. German., heft 98, No. 17.

Type-species: Mellinus quadrifasciatus Fabricius. Monotypic.
Arpactus Panzer, 1806. Krit. Rev. Insektenf. Deutschlands, p. 164. Preocc.

Type-species: Mellinus quadrifasciatus Fabricius. Desig. by Pate, 1937.
Euzonia Stephens, 1829. System. Cat. Brit. Ins., p. 363.

Type-species: Mellinus quinquecinctus Fabricius. Desig. by Pate, 1937.
Hoplisus Lepeletier, 1832. Soc. Ent. France, Ann. 1: 61.

Type-species: Hoplisus quinquecinctus of Lepeletier. Desig. by Westwood, 1839.
Euspongus Lepeletier, 1832. Soc. Ent. France, Ann. 1: 66.

Type-species: Euspongus laticinctus Lepeletier. Desig. by Westwood, 1839.

This genus occurs in the Holarctic and Ethiopian Regions. Prey records include CicadelHdae,
Fulgoridae, Cercopidae and Membracidae. The multicellular nests may contain up to four cells,
and 4-19 prey may be stored per cell.

Gorytes albosignatus Fox
N. Dak., S. Dak., Nebr., Colo., Mont., Idaho.

Gorytes albosignatus Fox, 1892. Canad. Ent. 24: 152. ♀, ♂.

Gorytes angustus (Provancher)
Nev., Calif., Wash., B. C.

Hoplisus aiigustus Provancher, 1895. Nat. Canad. 22: 141. "♀"=♂.

Hoplisus angustatus{\) Ashmead, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 328.

Gorytes atricornis Packard
Transcont. in Transit, and U. Austr. Zones. Prey: Aphrophora parallela
(Say); Cyrtolobus tuberosus (Fairm.); adults.

Ody7ierus(l) atricornis Harris, 1835. In Hitchcock, Rpt. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool. Mass., p.
68. Nom. nud.

Gorytes atricornis Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 428. ♀, ♂.

Gorytes rugosus Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 427. ♂.

Gorytes decorus Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc, 45: 535. ♀, ♂.

Hoplisus elegantulus Smith, 1908. Nebr. Univ. Studies 8: 346. ♂.

Biology: Pate, 1946. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 41: 99 (prey). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology

and evolution of sand wasps, p. 67 (prey).

Gorytes atrifrons Fox
Colo., Nev., Calif.

Gorytes atrifrons Fox, 1892. Canad. Ent. 24: 151. ♀, ♂.

Gorytes canaliculatus Packard
Transcont. in Transit, and U. Austr. and Sonor. Zones. Ecology: Nests
both in sand and compacted soil, makes 1-4 cells per nest, stores 6-26 prey per cell.
Parasite: Metopia argyrocephala (Meig.), Senotainia trilineata (Wulp)?, Phrosinella
fulviconiis (Coq.)?, P. funiosa Allen?; Tiniulla leona (Bl.)?; Nysson fidelis Cr., A^.
daeckei Vier., A'^. lateralis Pack. Prey: Idiocerus apache Ball and Prkr., /. ci^ictus
DeLong and Caldw., /. lachrynialis Fitch, /. pallidus Fitch, /. perplexus Gill, and Baker,
/. populi suturalis Fitch, /. snowi Gill, and Baker, /. stigviaticalis Lewis, /, spp.,
Macropsis viridis (Fitch), M. sp., Norvellina helenae Ball, 07icopsis sp., Orientus ishidae
Mats., Paraphlepsius sp., Stragania alabaniensis Baker; Haplaxius picfifrons Stal;
nymphs and adults.

Gorytes canaliculatus Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 6: 428. ♀.

Gorytes ge7ninus Handlirsch, 1888. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 97: 478. ♀.
6.

Gorytes asperatus Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc, 45: 534. ♀, ♂.

Hoplisus corrugis Mickel, 1918 (1917). Nebr. Univ. Studies 17: 319. ♂.

Gorytes (Hoplisus) carrugisO) Maidl and Klima, 1939. Hym. Cat., Pars 8, Sphecidae, v. 1, p.
101.




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Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 43-44, figs. 13-22 (larva).

Biology: Barth, 1907. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 5: 141-149, 3 figs, (nest, prey, parasite;

observations probably based on both caymliculatns and Hopiisoides nebulosiis (Pack.)).

— Krombein, 1964 (1963). Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 58: 119 (nest, prey). —Evans, 1966.

Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 58-66, figs. 38, 39 (nest, prey, egg, life

cycle, parasites). —Evans, 1968. Ent. Soc Amer., Ann. 61: 1344 (prey). —Evans, 1970. Mus.

Compar. Zool., Bui. 140: 494 (nest, prey, parasites). — Kurczewski and Kurczewski, 1971.

Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 44: 335-336 (prey). — Alcock, 1973. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 31: 332-333,

figs. 6, 10 (nest, prey transport). —Powell, 1974. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 47: 1-7, 3 figs, (nest,

prey transport, life cycle).

Gorytes cochisensis Bohart
South. Ariz.

Gorytes cochisensis Bohart, 1971. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc 83: 450. ♀, ♂.

Gorytes deceptor Krombein
N. H. south to Va., west to Ont, Minn., Nebr., Kans. Prey: Spissistylus
constans (Wlk.) adult.

Gorytes (Gorytes) deceptor Krombein, 1958. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 60: 62. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1958. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 60: 64 (prey).

Gorytes dorothyae
***authority mismatch
dorothyae Krombein. Md., N. C, La.

Gorytes (Gorytes) dorothyae Krombein, 1950 (1949). Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 65: 269.
6.
Taxonomy: Krombein, 1953. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 10: 335. ♀.

Gorytes dorothyae
***authority mismatch
russeolus Krombein. Fla.

Gorytes (Gorytes) dorothyae russeoius Krombein, 1954. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 80: 23. ♂.
9.

Gorytes flagellatus Bohart
Calif., Nev., Wash., B. C. Idaho, Wyo. ^

Gorytes flagellatus Bohart, 1971. Biol. Soc Wash., Proc 83: 448. ♂, ♀.

limbellus Bohart. Calif.

Gorytes limbellus Bohart, 1971. Biol. Soc Wash., Proc. 83: 447. ♂, ♀.

Gorytes mcateei Krombein and Bohart
N. Y., Pa., Md., D. C, Va.

Gorytes (Gorytes) mcateei Krombein and Bohart, 1962. Biol. Soc Wash., Proc. 75: 15. ♀.

Gorytes nevadensis Fox
Nev., Colo., Idaho.

Gorytes nevadensis Fox, 1892. Canad. Ent. 24: 150. ♀, ♂.

Gorytes prosopis Bohart
Calif., Oreg.

Gorytes prosopis Bohart, 1971. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 83: 449. ♀.

Gorytes provancheri Handlirsch
Wash., Oreg., Calif., Nev., Utah.

Gorytes laticinctus Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 274. ♂.

Preocc.
Gorytes Provancheri Handlirsch, 1895. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 104: 945.

N. name.

Gorytes simillimus Smith
N. S. to B. C. south to Ga., Ill, Kans. and Colo. Ecology: Nests in sand.

Prey: Gyponana flavolineata (Fitch), G. melanota Spang., G. octolineata (Say), G. spp.,

Scaphoideus productus Osb.; mostly adults but a few nymphs.
Gorytes simillimus Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 367. ♀.
Gorytes ephippiatus Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc 6: 426. ♂.
Gorytes (Pseudoplisus) gyponacinus Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 40: 568. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 568 (prey). —Krombein, 1936. Ent. News
47: 93-94 (prey transport). —Krombein, 1952. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 78: 95 (nest, prey).
—Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, p. 66 (nest, prey).
—Kurczewski and Kurczewski, 1971. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 44: 336 (prey).

Gorytes umatillae Bohart
West. U. S.

Gorytes vicinus Handlirsch, 1893. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus., Ann. 8: 279. 9. Preocc
Gorytes umatillae Bohart, 1971. Biol. Soc Wash., Proc 83: 450. N. name.

Genus PSEUDOPLISUS Ashmead

Pseudoplisus Ashmead, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 323.




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Type-species: Gorytes floridanus Fox. Orig. desig.
Laevigorytes Zavadil, 1948. In Zavadil and Snoflak, Ent. Prirucky Ent. Listu, no. 13, p. 66.
Type-species: Gorytes kohlii Handlirsch. Monotypic.

Most of the species are Nearctic but a few have been described from the Ethiopian and
Palaearctic Regions. The only known prey record is of a spittlebug for one of the Ethiopian spe-
cies.

Taxonomy: Bohart, 1969 (1968). Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 41: 494-496 (key to spp. of Phaleratus

Group). —Bohart, 1969. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 392-394 (key to spp. of Montanus,

AbdominaHs, Fasciatus, Venustus and Smithii Groups).

Pseudoplisus abdominalis (Cresson)
Colo., Tex.

Gorytes abdominalis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 474. ♀, ♂.
apicalis (Smith). N. J., S. C, Tex., N. Mex., Nebr.

Gorytes apicalis Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 369. ♂.

Gorytes propinqmis Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 379. "♀"=♂.

Pseudoplisus butleri Bohart
Ariz.

Pseudoplisus butleri Bohart, 1969. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 397, figs. 1, 7. ♂.

Pseudoplisus californicus Bohart
Calif.

Pseudoplisus californicus Bohart, 1969. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 401, figs. 11, 12. ♂, ♀.

Pseudoplisus catalinae Bohart
Ariz. (Santa Catalina Mts.).

Pseudoplisus catalinae Bohart, 1969. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 395, figs. 13, 17. ♂, ♀.

Pseudoplisus claripennis Bohart
Ariz. (Santa Rita Mts.).

Pseudoplisus claripennis Bohart, 1969. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 403. ♂.

Pseudoplisus divisus (Smith)
Va. to Ga., La., Tex., Nebr.

Gorytes divisus Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 370. ♂.

Gorytes bipartitus Handlirsch, 1888. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber.-97: 521. ♀.
6.

Psejidoplisus varipunctus Smith, 1908. Nebr. Univ. Studies 8: 348. ♀.

Pseudoplisus fasciatus (Fox)
Colo., Ariz.

Gorytes fasciatus Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc, 45: 539. ♂.

Pseudoplisus flavidulus Bohart
South. Calif.

Pseudoplisus flavididus Bohart, 1969. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 402. ♂.

Pseudoplisus imperialis Bohart
Calif. (Imperial Co.).

Pseudoplisus imperialis Bohart, 1969. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 403. ♂.

Pseudoplisus nigricomus Bohart
South. Ariz.

Pseudoplisus nigricomus Bohart, 1969. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 398, figs. 5, 10. ♂, ♀.

Pseudoplisus ocellatus Bohart
South. Calif.; Mexico (Baja California).

Pseudoplisus ocellatus Bohart, 1969. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 401. ♂, ♀.

Pseudoplisus oraclensis Bohart
South. Ariz.

Pseudoplisus oraclensis Bohart, 1969 (1968). Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 41: 498, figs. 4, 8. cJ, 9.

Pseudoplisus phaleratus (Say)
Canada and U. S. in Transit, and Austr. Zones; P. E. I. west to N. Dak. and
Colo., south to Fla. and Ariz., south in Mexico to Guerrero.

Odynerusd) flavicomis Harris, 1835. In Hitchcock, Rpt. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool. Mass., p.
68. Norn. nud.

Gorytes phaleratus Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 367.

Gorytes fulvipennis Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 367. ♀.

Gorytes modestus Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 473. ♂.

Gorytes rufo-luteus Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc 6: 425. ♀, ♂.

Gorytes flavicomis Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc 6: 429. ♀, ♂.

Gorytes alticola Cameron, 1890. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 2, p. 81, pi. 5, fig. 21. ♂, ♀.

Gorytes alpestris Cameron, 1890. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 2, p. 83, pi. 5, fig. 22. ♂, ♀.

Gorytes subaustralis Viereck, 1908 (1907). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 33: 398. ♀.

Gorytes papagorum Viereck, 1908 (1907). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 33: 400. ♀, ♂.

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1941. Smithsn. Inst., Misc. Collect. 99 (14): pi. 21, figs. H-K (male
genitalia).




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Pseudoplisus rufomaculatus (Fox)
Nebr., Kans., Colo., Mont.

Gorytes rufomaculatus Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc, 45: 538. ♀, ♂.

Pseudoplisus smithii
***authority mismatch
floridanus (Fox). Fla.

Hoplisusfoveolata Fox, 1890. Ent. News 1: 106. ♀. Preocc.

Gorytes floridanus Fox, 1891. Ent. News 2: 196. N. name.

Pseudoplisus smithii
***authority mismatch
smithii (Cresson). Md., N. C, Fla., 111., Nebr., Kans., Okla., La.

Gorytes Smithii Cresson, 1880. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 8: Proc, p. xviii. "♀"=♂.

Pseudoplisus infumatus Mickel, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 42: 402. ♂.

Pseudoplisus tanythrix Bohart
Okla., Tex.

Pseudoplisus tanythrix Bohart, 1969. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 42: 399, figs. 6, 8, 14. ♂.

Pseudoplisus venustus (Cresson)
Tex., N. Mex., Ariz., Utah, Colo.; Mexico (Chihuahua).

Gorytes venustus Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 472. ♀, ♂.

Gorytes (Pseudoplisus) venustifoi~mis Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 568. ♂.

Pseudoplisus werneri Bohart
Ariz., Colo.

Pseudoplisus werneri Bohart, 1969 (1968). Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 41: 500, figs. 3, 11, 14. ♀.
6.

Genus LESTIPHORUS Lepeletier

Lestiphorus Lepeletier, 1832. Soc. Ent. France, Ann. 1: 70.

Type-species: Crabro bicinctus Rossi. Desig. by Internatl. Comn. Zool. Nomencl.,
Op. 675, 1963.
Lestophorus Agassiz, 1847. Nomencl. Zool., p. 208. Emend.
Hypomellinus Ashmead, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 299.

Type-species: Gorytes rufocinctus Fox. Orig. desig.
Mellinogastra Ashmead, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 300.

Type-species: Gorytes mellinoides Fox. Orig. desig.

Most species are Holarctic but one each is known from the Neotropical and Ethiopian Re-
gions. One European species is reported to prey upon spittlebugs.

Revision: Pate, 1946 (1945). Canad. Ent. 77: 210-213 (N. Amer. spp.).

Taxonomy: van der Vecht, 1961. Bui. Zool. Nomencl. 18: 340-341 (request to suppress Crabro

bicinctus F. and to place Lestiphorus Lep. and Crabro bicinctus Rossi on Official Lists of

Generic and Specific Names).

Lestiphorus cockerelli (Rohwer)
Mass., N. Y., Mich., S. Dak., Colo.

Gorytes cockerelli Rohwer, 1909. Ent. News 20: 371. ♂.

Mellinogastra williamsi Mickel, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 42: 402. ♂.

Lestiphorus mellinoides (Fox)
Tex. (? Bosque Co.).

Gorytes mellinoides Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 45: 524. ♀.

Lestiphorus piceus (Handlirsch)
N. Dak., Idaho, Wash., B. C.

Gorytes piceus Handlirsch, 1888. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 97: 455. ♂.

Gorytes rufocinctus Fox, 1892. Canad. Ent. 24: 153. ♀.

Genus ORYTTUS Spinola

Oryttus Spinola, 1836. Soc. Ent. France, Bui. 5: xxiii.

Type-species: Arpactus concinnus (Rossi). Monotypic
Agraptus Wesmael, 1852. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belg., Bui. 19: 108.

Type-species: Gorytes concinnus of Vander Linden. Monotypic.
Harpactostigma Ashmead, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 299.

Type-species: Hoplisus vetutinus Spinola. Orig. desig.
Harpactostigma subg. Arcesilas Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 60.

Type-species: Gorytes mirandus Fox. Orig. desig.

Most species of this small genus occur in the Holarctic Region, but a few are Ethiopian and
Neotropical. Several prey records are of Fulgoridae, but one European species also uses Cicadel-
lidae.

Revision: Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 57-77 (New World spp.).




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Taxonomy: Bohart, 1968. Biol. See. Wash., Proc. 81: 431-438, 17 figs, (synopsis of New World
taxa).

Oryttus gracilis
***authority mismatch
arapaho (Pate). Colo., Kans., Tex.

Harpactostigiiia (Arcesilas) arapaho Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 67. ♀.
Harpactostigma (Arcesilas) nitiliim Pate, 1938. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 69. ♂.

Oryttus gracilis
***authority mismatch
gracilis (Patton). U. S. in U. and L. Austr. Zones, east of 100th meridian.

Hoplisus gracilis Patton, 1879. Canad. Ent. 11: 210. ♀, ♂.

Oryttus laminiferus (Fox)
Calif., Wash., Idaho, Utah. Ecology: Nests in vertical clay bank, stores at
least 5 prey per cell. Prey: Scolops hesperius Uhl. ?, nymphs and adults.
Gorytes ruficoniis Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 273. ♀, ♂.

Preocc.
Gorytes laminiferus Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 45: 532. ♂.
Hypomellinus flavicomis Baker, 1907. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 162. ♂.
Gorytes (Hoplisiis) rufulicornis Maidl and Klima, 1939. Hym. Cat., Pars 8, Sphecidae, v. 1,
p. 102. N. name.

Biology: Gittins, 1958. Pan-Pacific Ent. 34: 142 (nest, prey).

Oryttus mirandus (Fox)
Nev., Calif., Wash.

Gorytes mirandus Fox, 1892. Canad. Ent. 24: 152. ♂.

Hoplisoides mirandas{\) Ashmead, 1899. Canad. Ent. 81: 328.

Oryttus umbonatus (Baker)
Calif.

Hoplisoides umbonatus Baker, 1907. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 163. ♂.

Gorytes (Hoplisoides) femoratus Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 119. ♂.

Oryttus yumae Bohart
South. Ariz.

Oryttus yumae Bohart, 1968. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc 81: 436, figs. 4, 9, 13, 17. ♂, ♀.

Genus PSAMMALETES Pate

Hoplisoides subg. Psammaletes Pate, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 49.
Type-species: Gorytes bigeloviae Cockerell and Fox. Orig. desig.

This small genus occurs only in the Nearctic Region.

Revision: Pate, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 49-56.

Psammaletes bigeloviae (Cockerell)
N. Mex., Ariz.; Mexico.

Gorytes bigeloviae Cockerell, 1897. In Cockerell and Fox, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49:
139. ♂.

Psammaletes crucis (Cockerell)
Iowa, Nebr., N. Mex.; north. Mexico.

Gorytes crucis Cockerell, 1897. In Cockerell and Fox, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 49: 140.

9.
Hypomellinus venustus Mickel, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 42: 403. ♂.
Hypomellinus tricinctus Mickel, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 42: 404. ♀.

Psammaletes mexicanus (Cameron)
N. Y., N. J., Md., D. C, Va., N. C, Ga., La., Ind.; Mexico (Yucatan).
Prey: Onnenoides venusta (Melichar).
Gorytes jnexicanus Cameron, 1890. Biol. Cent.- Amer., Hym., v. 2, p. 76, pi. 5, fig. 15. ♀.
Psammaletes pechumani Pate, 1936. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 62: 53. ♀.

Biology: Pate, 1946. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 41: 99 (prey).

Genus SPHECIUS Dahlbom
Taxonomy: Pate, 1936. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 31: 198-200 (key to subg.).
Genus SPHECIUS Subgenus SPHECIUS Dahlbom

Sphecius Dahlbom, 1843. Hym. Europaea, v. 1, p. 154.

Type-species: Sphecius speciosus Dahlbom. Monotypic
Hogardia Lepeletier, 1845. Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 3, p. 288.

Type-species: Hogardia rufescens Lepeletier. Type by tautonymy (=Stizus hogardii
Latreille).




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The typical subgenus occurs only in the New World. These large wasps are commonly called
cicada killers. They frequently nest gregariously and dig burrows which may be as long as 4
feet, have a number of branches each of which may terminate in a cluster of 3 cells. One to as
many as 4 prey may be stored per cell depending upon the size of the prey and the sex to be pro-
vided for.

Revision: Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 264-266 (N. Amer. spp.).

Sphecius convallis Patton
U. S. west of 100th meridian; Mexico (Baja California). Prey: Diceroprocta
apache (Davis), Tibicen pruinosa (Say).
Sphecius speciosus var. convallis Patton, 1879. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Survey, Bui. 5: 343.

9, (J.
Sphecius raptor Handlirsch, 1889. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 98: 461. ♀, ♂.
N. name.

Biology: Krombein, 1951. U. S. Dept. Agr., Monog. 2: 987 (prey). — Krombein, 1958. U. S.
Dept. Agr., Monog. 2, Sup. 1, p. 193 (prey).

Sphecius grandis (Say)
Tenn., Mo., Ark., Tex., Kans., N. Mex., Ariz., Utah, Nev., Wash., Calif., south to
Central America. Parasite: Dasymutilla kiiigii (Gray)? Prey: Tibicen dealbata (Davis).
Stizus grandis Say, 1823. West. Quart. Rptr. 2: 77.
Stizus fervidus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 223. ♀.
Stizus nevadensis Cresson, 1874. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 5: 99. ♂.

Biology: Bradley, 1908. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 1: 129 (sleeping aggregation). —Bradley, 1920.

Ent. News 31: 112-113 (nest, parasite ?). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of

sand wasps, p. 110 (prey transport). — Alcock, 1975. Jour. Nat. Hist. 9: 561-566, 3 figs.

(male territorial and mating behavior).

Sphecius hogardii
***authority mismatch
hogardii (Latreille). South Fla.; West Indies. Another subspecies occurs in the
Bahamas.

Stizus Hogardii Latreille, 1809. Gen. Crust. Ins., v. 4, p. 100, pi. 13. ♀.

Hogardia rufescens Lepeletier, 1845. Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 3, p. 289. 9. N. name,

Sphecius speciosus (Drury)
U. S. in U. and L. Austr. Zones east of Rockies, south into Mexico. Ecology:
Nests gregariously in light clay to sandy soil, the tunnel with several branches each
with one or more cells and with an average of 15.8 cells per nest, usually stores 1-2 prey
per cell. Parasite: Senotainia trilineata (Wulp), Metopia argyrocephala (Meigen). Prey:
Tibicen canicularis Harr., T. chloromera Wlkr., T. dorsata Say, T. linnei Sm. and
Grossb., T. lyricen DeG., T. marginalis Wlkr., T. pruinosa Say, T. robinsoniana Davis,
T. sayi (Grossb.), T. vitripennis Say. This is commonly known as the cicada killer.

Sphex speciosus Drury, 1773. Illus. Nat. Hist., v. 2, p. 71. ♀.

Vespa tricincta Fabricius, 1775. Systema Ent., p. 363.

Stizus vespiformis Latreille, 1818. Tabl. Encycl. et Meth., pt. 24, pi. 382, fig. 6.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 46, figs. 30-36 (larva).

Biology: Riley, 1892. Insect Life 4: 248-252 (nest, prey). —Davis, 1920. Brooklyn Ent. Soc,
Bui. 15: 128-129 (mating, prey transport). — Reinhard, 1929. The witchery of wasps, pp.
18-60, 4 pis. (nest, prey, cocoon, life cycle, mating, parasite). —Dow, 1942. Ent. Soc. Amer.,
Ann. 35: 310-317 (nest, prey). — Dambach and Good, 1943. Ohio Jour. Sci. 43: 32-41, figs. 1-6
(nest, prey, life history). —Lin, 1963. Behavior 20: 115-133, 6 figs, (territoriality of males).
—Lin, 1964 (1963). Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 58: 121-123 (fighting of nesting females).
—Lin, 1966. Anim. Behaviour 14: 130-131, pi. 6 (mating). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology
and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 92-110, figs. 52-58 (nest, prey, egg, life cycle, parasites).
—Lin, 1967. Science 157: 1334-1335, 1 fig. (sex roles in mating). —Lin, 1972. In Michener
and Lin, Quart. Rev. Biol. 47: 139-140 (communal nest possession by several females).

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1941. Smithsn. Inst., Misc Collect. 99 (14): pi. 18, figs. E-0 (male
genitalia).

Genus TANYOPRYMNUS Cameron

Tanyoprymnus Cameron, 1905. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 375.

Type-species: Tanyoprymmis longitarsis Cameron. Monotypic.
Ceratostizus Rohwer, 1921. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 59: 412.




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Type-species: Gorytes moneduloides Packard. Orig. desig.

Taxonomy: Pate, 1935. Ent. News 46: 249-250.

Tanyoprymnus moneduloides (Packard)
U. S. soutii into Mexico. Ecology: Nests in vertical sand banks. Prey:
Rhynchoniitra microrhina (Wlkr.) nymphs and adult; Scolops sidcipes (Say) adults, S.
sp.? nymph.
Gorytes moneduloides Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 431. ♂.
Gorytes Belfragei Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 224. ♀.
Tanyoprymnus longitarsis Cameron, 1905. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 31: 376. ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1959. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 61: 195 (nest, prey transport). —Evans, 1966.
Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, p. 80 (prey).

Genus ARIGORYTES Rohwer

Arigorytes Rohwer, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 41: 469.
Type-species: Gorytes Coquillettii Fox. Orig. desig.

This is a small genus occurring only in the deserts of western North America. Nothing is
known of the biology.

Revision: Pate, 1947. Canad. Ent. 79: 51-56.

Taxonomy: Bohart, 1971. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc 83: 447 (key to N. Amer. spp.).

Arigorytes coachellae Bohart
Calif., Ariz., Nev., Colo.; Mexico (Baja California).

Arigorytes coachellae Bohart, 1971. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 83: 445. ♂, ♀.

Arigorytes coquillettii (Fox)
Calif.

Gorytes Coquillettii Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc 47: 531. ♀.

Arigorytes insolitus (Fox)
Nev., Calif., Oreg.

Gorytes insolitus Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 532. ♂.

Hoplisoides clavatus Baker, 1907. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 165. ♂.

Arigorytes ruficrus Bohart
Calif, at 5000-7000 ft. in central Sierra Mts.

Arigorytes ruficrus Bohart, 1971. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc 83: 446. ♂, ♀.

Arigorytes smohalla Pate
Idaho, Wash., Calif.

Arigorytes smohalla Pate, 1947. Canad. Ent. 79: 54. ♀, ♂.

Genus XEROGORYTES Bohart

Xerogorytes Bohart, 1976. hi Bohart and Menke, Sphecid wasps of the world, p. 517.
Type-species: Arigorytes a7iaetis Pate. Orig. desig.

This is a monotypic genus occurring only in the southwestern United States. The biology is
unknown.

Xerogorytes anaetis (Pate)
Ariz., southwest. N. Mex.

Arigorytes anaetis Pate, 1947. Canad. Ent. 79: 55. ♀.

Genus HOPLISOIDES Gribodo

Hoplisoides Gribodo, 1884. Ent. Soc. Ital, Bol. 16: 276.

Type-species: Hoplisoides intricans Gribodo. Monotypic.
Icuma Cameron, 1905. Entomologist 38: 21.

Type-species: Icuma sericea Cameron. Monotypic.

This large genus occurs in all of the major zoogeographic regions except the Australian. The
species prefer to nest in sandy soil and make relatively short burrows ending in one or several
cells. The recorded prey are all Homoptera belonging to the Membracidae, Cicadellidae or Ful-
goridae; each species prefers prey of a single family usually.

Hoplisoides carinatus Bohart
Ariz.; Mexico (Sonora).

Hoplisoides carinatus Bohart, 1968. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 70: 287. ♂, ♀.

Hoplisoides cazieri Bohart
South. Ariz.

Hoplisoides cazieri Bohart, 1968. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 70: 288. ♂, ♀.




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Hoplisoides confertus (Fox)
Western North America.

Gorytes confertus Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 525. ♀, ♂.
Gorytes (Hoplisoides) imperialensis Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 117. ♂.

Hoplisoides costalis
***authority mismatch
costalis (Cresson). Alaska, U. S. east of 100th meridian. Ecology: Nests in sand, 1-2
cells per nest, 3-9 prey per cell. Parasite: Amobia aurifrons (Tns.); Nysson hoplisivora
Roh.; Notozus viridicyaueus (Nort.). Prey: Arcliasia galeata (F.), Cerena bubalus F., C.
palmeri Van D., Thelia bimaculata F., T. sp., Telamona monticola F., T. trisfis Fitch, T.
unicolor Fitch, G(osso7iota crafaegi Fitch, Cyrtolobus arcnatiis Emm.?, Vandiizea
arcuata (Say), Platycotis vittata F., Campylenclna latipes Say, Stictocephala borealis
(Fairm.); only adults are used as prey.
Gorytes costalis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 225. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 151, figs. 39, 62 (larva).

Biology: Rau, 1922. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 24: 19 (nest, prey). — Reinhard, 1925. Wash.
Acad. Sci., Jour. 15: 172-177 (nest, prey transport, egg, life cycle, cocoon, parasite (misdet.
as Pachyophthahniis signatus Meig.)). —Reinhard, 1929. The witchery of wasps, pp.
235-260, 3 figs, (nest, prey transport, life cycle, cocoon, parasite (misdet. as
Pachyoplttlialmus sig^iatits (Meig.)). — Krombein, 1953 (1952). Wasmann Jour. Biol. 10: 286
(nest, prey). —Krombein, 1959. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 61: 196 (nest, prey, egg, life cycle).
—Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 49-53, fig. 37 (nest,
prey).

Hoplisoides costalis
***authority mismatch
pygidialis (Fox). Western U. S. in U. and L. Sonor. Zones; Mexico. Prey: Ceresa sp.
Gorytes pygidialis Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 528. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Mickel, 1918 (1917). Nebr. Univ. Studies 17: 36 (prey).

Hoplisoides dentatus (Fox)
N. Mex., Ariz., Calif.

Gorytes dentatus Fox, 1893. Canad. Ent. 25: 116. ♂.

Hoplisoides denticulatus
***authority mismatch
denticulatus (Packard). Widely distributed in North America including Mexico.
Ecology: Nests in sand. Prey: Deltocephalinae sp. nymph. Another subsp. occurs in
Central and South America.
Gorytes denticulatus Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 430. ♀.
Gorytes barbatulus Handlirsch, 1888. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 97: 408. ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1959. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 61: 196 (prey, nest).

Hoplisoides diversus (Fox)
Calif.

Gorytes diversus Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 527. ♀, ♂.

Hoplisoides floridicus Bohart
Fla.

Hoplisoides floridicus Bohart, 1968. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 70: 289. cJ, 9.

Hoplisoides glabratus Bohart
Ariz., N. Mex., Colo., Tex. Ecology: Nests in sandy soil, stores as many as 98
prey per cell. Prey: Aceratagallia uhleri (Van D.), mostly nymphs and a few adults.

Hoplisoides glabratus Bohart, 1968. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 70: 291. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Bohart and Menke, 1976. Sphecid wasps of world, p. 520 (nest, prey, egg).

Hoplisoides hamatus (Handlirsch)
Western North America. Ecology: Nests, sometimes gregariously, in
soil varying from heavy clay-loam, to sandy clay to sand, makes 1 cell per nest, stores
7-14 prey per cell. Parasite: Senotainia trilineata (Wulp)?, S. rubriventris Macq.?;
Nysson rusticus Cr.?, Epinysson moestus (Cr.), E. pumilis (Cr.)? Prey: Stictocephala^
sp., Ceresini sp. probably Stictocephala sp., Telamonini sp., Membracidae sp.; preys upon
nymphs only.

Gorytes hamatus Handlirsch, 1888. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 97: 403. ♂.

Gorytes spilographus Handlirsch, 1895. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 104: 895.
9.

Hoplisoides arizonensis Baker, 1907. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 164. ♀.

Gorytes (Hoplisoides) adoniata Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 115. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 151-152, fig. 40 (larva).

Biology: Powell and Chemsak, 1959. Pan-Pacific Ent. 35: 195-201 (nest, prey transport, egg,
parasites ?). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 46-49 (nest.




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prey). —Evans, 1970. Mus. Compar. Zool., Bui. 140: 494 (nest, prey, parasites). — Bohart

and Menke, 1976. Sphecid wasps of world, p. 520 (parasite).

Hoplisoides placidus
***authority mismatch
birkmanni Baker. Southwestern U. S.

Hoplisoides Birkmanni Baker, 1907. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 166. ♀.

Hoplisoides pminosus Baker, 1907. Invertebrata Pacifica 1: 166. ♀.

Hoplisoides placidus
***authority mismatch
nebulosus (Packard). Eastern U. S. Ecology: Nests in sand, makes 1-3 cells per nest,
stores 4-20 prey per cell. Parasite: Seiiotaiyiia trilineata (Wulp)?; Dasymutilla v. vesta
(Cr.)?; Nyssov opuleiitus Gerst.?, A^. tuberculatus Handl., N. daeckei Vier. Prey:
Microcentrus spp., Palonica virida Ball, P. sp., Ceresa palmeri Van D.?, Ceresini spp.,
Campylenchia latipes Say, Enchenopa binotata Say, Entylia concisa Wlkr., E. sinuata
F., Publilia concava Say, Spissistilus festiyius Say, Telamona decorata Ball, Tylopelta
brevis Van D., Vanduzea arcuata (Say), V. triguttata Burm.; both adults and nymphs
are used.

Gorytes nebulosus Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 424. ♀.

Gorytes antiatus Provancher, 1887. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 272. "9" =
S.

Gorytes viicrocephalus Handlirsch, 1888. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 97:
405. ♂.

Gorytes Pergandei Handlirsch, 1888. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 97: 407. ♂.

Philanthus Harringtonii Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 278.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 45, figs. 43, 44 (larva).

Biology: Pate, 1946. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 41: 99 (prey). — Krombein, 1953. Wasmann Jour.

Biol. 10: 286-287 (nest, prey carriage, parasites ?). —Krombein, 1959. Ent. Soc. Wash.,

Proc. 61: 196 (prey, nest). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps,

pp. 34-46, figs. 28-33, 35 (nest, prey, life cycle, cocoon, parasites). —Bohart and Menke,

1976. Sphecid wasps of world, p. 520 (nest, prey).

Hoplisoides placidus
***authority mismatch
placidus (Smith). Fla.

Gorytes placidus Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 368. ♀, ♂.

Gorytes rufipes Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 369. ♀.

Hoplisoides projectus Bohart
Calif. (San Joaquin Valley).

Hoplisoides projectus Bohart, 1968. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 70: 290. ♂, ♀.

Hoplisoides punctifrons (Cameron)
Western U. S.; Mexico (Sinaloa).

Gorytes punctifrons Cameron, 1890. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 2, p. 74, pi. 5, figs. 13, 13a.
9.

Gorytes gulielmi Viereck, 1907. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 33: 408. ♀.

Hoplisoides semipunctatus (Taschenberg)
Southern U. S.; Argentina. Probably adventive in U. S.

Hoplisus semipunctatus Taschenberg, 1875. Ztschr. Gesell. Naturwiss. Berlin 45: 367. ♀.

Hoplisoides spilopterus (Handlirsch)
Western U. S. Ecology: Nests in damp sand. Prey: Stictocephala

wickhami Van D., Spissistylus festitms (Say), Campylenchia latipes (Say); preys upon
adults and nymphs.

Gorytes spilopterus HandHrsch, 1888. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 97: 414. ♀.

Gorytes ntaculatus Provancher, 1895. Nat. Canad. 22: 140. ♀.

Gorytes (Hoplisoides) pogonodes Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 114. ♂.

Biology: Pate, 1946. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 41: 99 (prey). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology
and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 55-56 (nest, prey).

Hoplisoides splendidulus (Bradley)
Western U. S.

Gorytes (Hoplisoides) splendidula Bradley, 1920. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 46: 113. ♀, ♂.

Hoplisoides tricolor (Cresson)
Widely distributed in U. S.; Mexico (Sinaloa). Ecology: Nests in

aggregations in sand, makes 2-4 cells per nest, stores 7-19 prey per cell. Parasite:
Nysson bellus Cr.? Prey: Parabolocrafus brunneus Ball, adult females and a few
nymphs.
Gorytes tricolor Cresson, 1868. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 1: 380. "♀"=♂.
Gorytes (Hoplisus) helianthi Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 40: 569 9.
Hoplisus rufocaudatus Mickel, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 42: 401. ♂.




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Biology: Evans, Lin and Yoshimoto, 1954. Ent. News 65: 5-11 (nest, prey transport, parasite
?).

Subfamily STIZINAE

All species nest in the ground.

Revision: Handlirsch, 1892. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 101: 25-181, 3 pis. (spp.
of world). -Fox, 1896 (1895). Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 266-268 (N. Amer. spp.).
—Parker, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 75 (5): 7-11, figs. 1-6 (N. Amer. genera).

Genus STIZUS Latreille

Stizus Latreille, 1802-1803. Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins., v. 3, p. 344.

Type-species: Stizus nificomis Fabricius. Desig. by Blanchard, 1846 {=Larra
ruficoi-nis Fabricius).
Megastizus Patton, 1879. U. S. Geol. Geog. Survey, Bui. 5: 344.

Type-species: Stizus brevipennis Walsh. Orig. desig.
Stizolarra Saussure, 1887. Soc. Ent. 2: 9.

Type-species: Sphex vespifomiis Fabricius. Desig. by Pate, 1937.
Megalostizus Schulz, 1906. Spolia Hym., p. 199. Emend.

This very large genus occurs in the Holarctic and Ethiopian Regions; it is also present in parts
of the Oriental Region, though apparently absent from Southeast Asia. Several species have
been reported to prey upon grasshoppers, katydids, and, rarely, mantids.

Revision: Dow, 1941. Psyche 48: 171-181, 7 figs. (N. Amer. spp.).

Stizus brevipennis Walsh
U. S. east of 100th meridian. Prey: Conocephalus sp. adult.
Stizus brevipennis Walsh, 1869. Amer. Ent. 1: 162. ♂.
Larra Brendeli Taschenberg, 1875. Ztschr. Gesam. Naturw. Halle 45: 361. ♂.

Biology: Williams, 1914 (1913). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 8: 198 (prey).

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1941. Smithsn. Inst., Misc. Collect. 99 (14): pi. 19, figs. A-G (male
genitalia).

Stizus iridis Dow
Utah, Calif. Ecology: Makes a unicellular cell in talus slope, stores at least 8 prey
per cell. Prey: Trimerotropis pallidipennis (Burm.), T. sparsa (Thom.); adults.
Stizus iridis Dow, 1942 (1941). Psyche 48: 171. ♂.

Stizus occidentalis Parker
Calif., Ariz.

Stizus occidentalis Parker, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 75 (5): 9. 9, cj.

Stizus texanus Cresson
Tex., Ariz.; Mexico (Chihuahua).

Stizus texanus Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 222. ♀, ♂.

Genus STIZOIDES Guerin

Revision: Gillaspy, 1963. Mus. Compar. Zool., Bui. 128: 369-391, 1 pi. (N. Amer. spp.).
Genus STIZOIDES Subgenus STIZOIDES Guerin

Stizus subg. Stizoides Guerin, 1844. Iconogr. Regn. Anim. 7, Ins., p. 438.
Type-species: Larra fasciata Fabricius. Desig. by Parker, 1929.

The typical subgenus does not occur in North America.

Genus STIZOIDES Subgenus TACHYSTIZUS Pate

Tachystizus Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 9: 63.

Type-species: Crabro tridentatus Fabricius. Orig. desig.

Two species of this subgenus are known to be cleptoparasites of other sphecoid wasps.

Stizoides foxi Gillaspy
Ariz.; Mexico (Baja California).

Stizoides (Tachystizus) foxi Gillaspy, 1963. Mus. Compar. Zool., Bui. 128: 378, figs. 1, 2, 5, 7,
9, 11. ♀, ♂.




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Stizoides renicinctus (Say)
Mich., Wis., 111. south to Tex., west to Alta., B. C. and Calif., D. C, N. C;
Mexico (Zacatecas). Host: Prionyx atratus (lep.), P. thomae (F.).
Stizus renicinctus Say, 1823. West. Quart. Rptr. 2: 77.
Stizus unicinctus Say, 1824. Amer. Ent. 1:4. 6. Emend.

Biology: Bradley, 1908. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 1: 129 (sleeping aggregation). —Williams, 1914
(1913). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 8: 230 (host). -Smith, 1915. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bui. 293: 10-11
(host). — Rau and Rau, 1918. Wasp studies afield, pp. 180-193 (host). —Evans, 1966.
Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, p. 129 (host).

Genus BEMBECINUS Costa

Bembecinus Costa, 1859. Fauna Regn. Napoli, Imen. Acul., Nyssonid., p. 4.

Type-species: Bembeciyius meridionalis Costa. Monotypic.
Stizomorpkus Costa, 1859. Fauna Regn. Napoli, Imen. Acul., Nyssonid., p. 7.

Type-species: Vespa tridens Fabricius. Monotypic.
Gorystizus Pate, .1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 9: 29.

Type-species: Vespa tridens Fabricius. Orig. desig.
Lavia Rayment, 1953. Victorian Nat. 70: 123. Nom. nudum.

The genus occurs in all major zoogeographic regions and on many islands. Five species groups
are recognized but the few North American taxa are all assigned to the Tridens Group. Many
species nest in sandy soil in compact colonies, frequently made up of many individuals. All spe-
cies whose biology is known prey upon leafhoppers and some other Homoptera, and practice
progressive provisioning.

Revision: Krombein and Willink, 1951 (1950). Amer. Midland Nat. 44: 699-713 (N. Amer.
spp.).

Biology: Evans, 1955. Behaviour 7: 295-302 (comparative behavior).

Bembecinus bishoppi Krombein and Willink
Tex.

Bembecinus bishoppi Krombein and Willink, 1951 (1950). Amer. Midland Nat. 44: 710. ♀.
6.

Bembecinus moneduloides (Smith)
Fla. (St. Johns Bluff).

Larra moneduloides Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 346. 9, (cJ misdet.).

Taxonomy: WilHnk, 1957. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 9: 702-704.

Bembecinus nanus
***authority mismatch
floridanus Krombein and Willink. S. Fla.

Bembecinus nanus floridanus Krombein and Willink, 1951 (1950). Amer. Midland Nat. 44:
706. ♂.

Bembecinus nanus
***authority mismatch
nanus (Handlirsch). N. J. to north. Fla., west to Tex., Iowa, east. Nebr. Prey:
Graphocephala versula (Say), Fulgoridae spp.
Stizus nanus Handlirsch, 1892. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 101: 61. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Shappirio, 1946. Ent. News 57: 229-230 (prey).

Bembecinus nanus
***authority mismatch
strenuus (Mickel). Nebr., S. Dak., Wyo., Tex.

Stizus strenuus Mickel, 1918 (1917). Nebr. Univ. Studies 17: 331. ♀, ♂.

Bembecinus neglectus (Cresson)
Nebr., Kans., Tex., La., Miss. Ecology: Colony nests in hard-packed sand
containing pebbles, makes 1-2 cells per nest, stores 10-15 prey per cell, practices
progressive provisioning. Prey: Gyponana octolineata (Say), Texananus excultus (Uhl.),
Xerophloea majesta Laws., all adults; Scolops sp. nymphs; preys principally upon adult
Cicadellidae.
Monediila neglecta Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 222. ♀.
Stizus xanthochrous Handlirsch, 1892. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl, Sitzber. 101: 69.
6.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 47, figs. 37-42 (larva).

Biology: Evans, 1955. Behaviour 7: 287-295, 4 figs, (mating, nest, prey, egg, cocoon, life
cycle).




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Bembecinus quinquespinosus (Say)
Nebr., Colo, and south. Calif, to Panama. Ecology: Nests in large

colonies in sand, makes unicellular nest. Prey: Cimmius hartii (Ball), Stirellus bicolor
(Van D.), Exitianus sp., Cuerna lateralis (F.), C. sp., Draeculacephala noveboracensis
(Fitch), Cameocephala sagittifera (Uhl), Acinopierus angulatus Laws., Cicadellidae sp.;
adults and a few nymphs.

Nysson 5-spinosus Say, 1823. West. Quart. Rptr. 2: 78.

Stizus godmani Cameron, 1890. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 2, pi. 5, fig. 8. ♀, ♂.

Stizus lineatus Cameron, 1890. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 2, p. 102. ♂.

Stizus flavus Cameron, 1890. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 2, p. 103. ♂.

Stizus flavtis var. subalpinus Cockerell, 1898. Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci., Proc. 7: 142. ♂.

Nysson cressoni Cameron, 1904. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 30: 95. ♀.

Taxonomy: Willink, 1957. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 9: 702-704. —Evans, 1959. Amer.
Ent. Soc. Trans. 85: 152-153, figs. 71-73 (larva).

Biology: Rohwer, 1909. Colo. Univ. Studies 6: 246-247 (colony; prey misdet.). — Rodeck, 1931.
Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci., Jour. 1: 61 (prey, nest). — Strandtmann, 1945. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann.
38: 312-313 (nest, prey transport). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand
wasps, pp. 134-141, fig. 76 (nest, prey). —Evans, 1968. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 61: 1344
(prey).
whecleri Krombein and WUlink. Ariz.

Bembecinus wheeleri Krombein and Willink, 1951 (1950). Amer. Midland Nat. 44: 709. ♀.
6.

Subfamily BEMBICINAE

All species nest in the ground, usually in quite friable soil. The more primitive species are soli-
tary nesters, practice mass provisioning and prey upon Hemimetabola, whereas the more spe-
cialized species nest in large aggregations, have developed progressive provisioning behavior in-
dependently in some genera and prey largely upon advanced Holometabola.

This subfamily has undergone considerable evolution in the New World where a number of
genera occur. Bembix is the only genus of worldwide distribution and it occurs in all major
zoogeographic regions.

Revision: Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 1-155. -Parker, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus.
Proc. 75 (5): 11-181.

Taxonomy: Bohart and Horning, 1971. Calif. Ins. Survey, Bui. 13: 1-49, 74 figs., 18 maps
(Calif, spp.).

Genus BICYRTES Lepeletier

Bicyrtes Lepeletier, 1845. Hist. Nat. Ins., Hym., v. 3, p. 53.

Type-species: Bicyrtes Servillii Lepeletier. Monotypic.
Bembidula Burmeister, 1874. Acad. Nac. Cien. Cordoba, Bol. 1: 122.

Type-species: Monedula discisa Taschenberg. Desig. by Parker, 1917.
Dumonela Reed, 1894. Univ. Chile, An. 85: 608.

Type-species: Monedula sericea Spinola. Orig. desig.

Wasps of this genus make uni- or multicellular nests, usually in fine- to coarse-grained sand.
They prey upon Heteroptera, chiefly Pentatomidae and Coreidae, although Pyrrhocoridae, Scu-
telleridae, Cydnidae, Lygaeidae and Reduviidae may be used occasionally; nymphs are preferred
to adults. The egg is laid on the first bug placed in the cell.

Bicyrtes affinis (Cameron)
South. Ariz.; Mexico (Guerrero).

Bembidula affinis Cameron, 1897. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 19: 371. ♀.

Bicyrtes capnoptera (Handlirsch)
Ga., Fla., La., Tex., Kans., N. Mex., Ariz., Calif.; Mexico (Baja

California). Ecology: Nests in soil, stores 5-7 prey per cell. Prey: Thyanta pallidovirens
accerra (McAtee) nymphs and adults.
Bembidula capnoptera Handlirsch, 1889. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 98:

497. (J, 9.
Bembidula capnoptera var. mesillensis Cockerell, 1898. Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci., Proc. 7:
142. ♂.




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Bicyrtes ayinulata Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 67. ♂, ♀.
Bicyrtes tristis Fox, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 435. ♂.

Biology: Linsley, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 157-158, fig. 5 (sleeping aggregation).

— Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 171-172 (nest, prey).

Bicyrtes fodiens (Handlirsch)
Southeast, to southwest. U. S.; Mexico, Central America. Ecology: Nests
in fine sand or sandy clay, makes 4-5 cells per completed nest and stores 10-23 prey per
cell. Parasite: Metopia argyrocephala (Meig.); Holopyga ventralis (Say). Prey: Solubea
pugnax F. adults, Mormidea lugens (F.) adults; Homaemus aeneifrons Say nymphs.

Bembidula fodiens Handlirsch, 1889. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 98: 499. ♂.
9.

Bembidula Burmeisteri Handlirsch, 1889. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 98:
500. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 50, figs. 53-55 (larva).

Biology: Rau, 1922. St. Louis Acad. Sci., Trans. 24 (7): 28 (nest). —Evans, 1966. Compar.

ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 167-170, 173 (nest, prey transport, egg, cocoon,

life cycle, parasites).

Bicyrtes insidiatrix (Handlirsch)
Mass., N. J., Fla., Ky., Tex., N. Mex.

Bembidula insidiatrix Handlirsch, 1889. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 98: 494.
6, 9.

Bicyrtes quadrifasciata (Say)
U. S. east of Rocky Mts. in Transit, and Austr. Zones. Ecology: Nests in
sand or heavier soil, usually makes a unicellular nest but occasionally one with 2-3 cells,
stores 4-14 prey per cell. Parasite: Senotainia rubriventris Macq., S. trilineata (Wulp),
S. vigila^is Allen, S. sp.; Holopyga ventralis (Say). Prey: Aplomems sp., Zelus sp.;
Lygaeidae sp.; Acanthocephala femorata {¥.), Anasa tristis (DeG.), Archimenis
alternatus (Say), A. calcarator (F.), Chariestiiis antennator (F.), Leptoglossus ciypealis
Heid., L. oppositus Say, L. phyllopus (L.); Acrostemtan hilare (Say), A. sp., Ba7iasa
dimidiata (Say), Brochymena arborea Say, B. cariosa Stal, B. carolinensis Westw., B.
quadripustulata (F.), Chlorochroa iihleri Stal, Dendrocoris humeralis Uhl., Edessa
florida Barb., Eitschistus tristigmus Say, E. spp., Menecles incertus Say, Murgantia
histrionica Hahn, Nezara viridula (L.), A^. sp., Podisus sp., Stefkaulax mannoratus Say,
Thyanta custator F., T. sp.; Homaemus aeneifrons Say, Tetyra bipunctata H.-S.;
Cyrtomenus sp.; Pentatomidae and Coreidae are preferred prey and only nymphs are
used.

Monedula quadrifasciata Say, 1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped., v. 2, app., p.
336. ♂, ♀.

Monedula sallei Guerin, 1844. Iconogr. Regne Anim., v. 7, p. 437.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 49, figs. 45-52 (larva). —Evans,
1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 265 (larva).

Biology: Hartman, 1905. Tex. Univ., Bui. 65: 32-36, fig. 14 (nest, prey, parasites). —Parker,
1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 134 (nest, prey). —Rau and Rau, 1918. Wasp studies
afield, pp. 41-43 (nest, prey). —Smith, 1923. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 16: 238-246 (nest, prey,
parasite). —Davis, 1926. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 34: 89-90 (nest, prey). —Rau, 1934. Canad.
Ent. 66: 260 (prey transport). — Krombein, 1953 (1952). Wasmann Jour. Biol. 10: 287-288
(nest, prey). —Krombein, 1955. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 57: 152-157, 4 figs, (nest, prey
transport, egg, cocoon, life cycle, parasite). —Krombein, 1958. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc 60:
105-106 (nest, prey). —Krombein, 1959. Ent. Soc Wash., Proc. 61: 196 (nest, prey).
—Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 146-160, figs. 80-90
(nest, mating, prey transport, life cycle, egg, cocoon, parasites). — Kurczewski and
Kurczewski, 1971. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 44: 336 (prey).

Bicyrtes variegata
***authority mismatch
(OHvier). Tex.; Mexico to Argentina, West Indies.

Bembex variegata Olivier, 1789. Encycl. Meth., Ins., v. 4, p. 292.

Monedula sericea Spinola, 1851. In (iay. Hist. Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., v. 6, p. 315.

Bembex guiana Cameron, 1912. Timehri (3) 2: 431. ♀.




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Bicyrtes ventralis (Say)
South. Canada, U. S.; north. Mexico. Ecology: Nests in sand or sandy gravel,
sometimes in small aggregations, usually makes a unicellular cell but occasionally one
with 2-3 cells, stores 3-18 prey per cell. Parasite: Senotainia vigilans Allen, S. trilineata
(Wulp). Prey: Anasa tristis (DeG.); Banasa dimidiata Say, Cosmopepla bimaculata
Thom., Elasmostethus cruciatus Say, Euschistus euschistoides Voll., E. tristigmus Say,
E. variolarius Beauv., Menecles incertus Say, Momiidia lugens F., Thyanta
pallidovirens accerra McAtee, Trichopepla semivittata Say; only nymphs are used and
Pentatomidae are the preferred prey.

Monedula ventralis Say, 1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped. v. 2, app., p. 337. ♂.

Bicyrtes Servillii Lepeletier, 1845. Hist. Nat. Ins., Hym., v. 3, p. 53. ♀.

Monedula parata Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 416. ♀.

Bembidula meliloti Rohwer, 1908. Ent. News 19: 376. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. See, Trans. 82: 50, figs. 56-58 (larva).

Biology: Hartman, 1905. Tex. Univ., Bui. 65: 36-39 (nest, prey). —Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl.
Mus., Proc. 52: 132-133 (nest, prey, life cycle). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and
evolution of sand wasps, pp. 160-167, figs. 91-93 (nest, prey transport, egg, life cycle).

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1941. Smithsn. Inst., Misc. Collect. 99 (14): pi. 19, figs. I-L (male
genitalia).

Bicyrtes viduata (Handlirsch)
Utah, Ariz., Tex.; north. Mexico. Ecology: Nests in coarse gravel. Prey:
Coreidae nymphs.
Bembidula viduata Handlirsch, 1889. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 98: 491. ♀.
Bicyrtes gracilis Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 68. ♂.

Biology: Alcock and Gamboa, 1975. Ariz. Acad. Sci., Jour. 10: 160 (nest, prey).

Genus MICROBEMBEX Fatten

Microbembex Patton, 1879. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Survey, Bui. 5: 364.
Type-species: Bembex monodonta Say. Orig. desig.

The North American species are scavengers, bringing in as food for their larvae a wide
variety of dead arthropods. Two South American species have been reported as paralyzing live
beetles and other insects, but these observations need confirmation. The egg is laid in the empty
cell and progressive provisioning is practiced.

Microbembex argyropleura Bohart
South. Calif., Ariz., Nev., Utah; Mexico (Baja California). Ecology: Nests
in dense aggregations in sand dune blowouts, lays egg in empty cell, practices
progressive provisioning. Parasite: Senotainia sp. near rufiventris (Coq.)? Prey: Dead
arthropods including Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Araneae.
Microbembex argyropleura Bohart, 1970. Pan-Pacific Ent. 46: 203. cJ, 9.

Biology: Alcock, 1975. Southwest. Nat. 20: 337-339, figs. 1, 2 (nest, prey, parasite).

Microbembex aurata Parker
West. Tex. to south. Calif.

Microbembex aurata Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 121. cJ, 9.

Taxonomy: Gillaspy, 1963. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 65: 230.

Microbembex californica Bohart
Cent. Calif, to Wyo., Utah and N. Mex.; Mexico (Baja California). Prey:
Dead arthropods.
Microbembex californica Bohart, 1970. Pan-Pacific Ent. 46: 202. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Goodman, 1970. Pan-Pacific Ent. 46: 207-209 (nest, "prey").

Microbembex hirsuta Parker
N. Mex., Tex.

Microbembex hirsuta Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 122. ♂, ♀.

Microbembex monodonta (Say)
South. Canada and U. S. east of Rocky Mts.; Mexico, Central America.
Ecology: Nests in large aggregations in loose dry to moist firm sand, makes a
unicellular nest, places egg upright in empty cell, practices progressive provisioning.
Parasite: Senotainia trilineata (Wulp), S. rufiventris (Coq.)?; Exoprosopa fascipennis
(Say); Dasymutilla bioculata (Cr.), D. sp.; Pamopes f. fulvicomis Cam.?, P.f. atlanticus
Krom.? Prey: Dead arthropods belonging to Phalangida, Araneida, Ephemeroptera,




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Orthoptera, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera,
Diptera, Hymenoptera; live paralyzed prey of other wasps may be stolen. Predator:
Small red ants.

Bembex monodonta Say, 1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd. Exped., v. 2, app., p. 335. ♂.

Microbembex monodonta occidentalis Johnson and Rohwer, 1908. Ent. News 19: 375.

Microbembex tarsalis Rohwer, 1914. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 47: 516. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Sec, Trans. 82: 55, figs. 79-84 (larva). —Evans,
1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 266 (larva).

Biology: Hartman, 1905. Tex. Univ., Bui. 65: 21-26 (nest, prey). —Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl.
Mus., Proc. 52: 134-141 (mating, nest, prey, life cycle, cocoon, parasite, predator). — Stoehr,
1917. Nat. Canad. 43: 113-119 (mating, nest, prey). — Rau and Rau, 1918. Wasp studies
afield, pp. 39-41, fig. 7 (nest, prey). — Mickel, 1924. Ent. News 35: 236-242 (parasite).
— Krombein, 1953 (1952). Wasmann Jour. Biol. 10: 288 (prey, life cycle). — Krombein, 1958.
Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 84: 166 (parasite ?). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and
evolution of sand wasps, pp. 361-388, figs. 177-190 (sleeping burrows, nest, prey, egg, life
cycle, parasites ?).

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1941. Smithsn. Inst., Misc. Collect. 99 (14): pi. 19, figs. H, Q, R, pi. 20,
figs. A, B (male genitalia).

Microbembex nigrifrons (Provancher)
U. S. and Mexico west of 100th meridian. Ecology: Nests in sand.
Parasite: Dasymutilla cassandra Mick., D. gloriosa (Sauss.); Pamopes f.fulvicornis
Cam. Prey: Many kinds of dead arthropods.
Bembex nigrifrons Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 415. ♂, ♀.
Microbembex monodonta neomexicana Johnson and Rohwer, 1908. Ent. News 19: 375.
Microbembex monodonta deltaensis Johnson and Rohwer, 1908. Ent. News 19: 375. ♂.

Biology: Bohart and MacSwain, 1940. Pan-Pacific Ent. 16: 92-93 (parasite; misdet. as aurata
Prkr.). -Alcock and Ryan, 1973. Pan-Pacific Ent. 49: 144-148, 1 fig. (prey, mating
behavior). —Alcock and Gamboa, 1975. Ariz. Acad. Sci., Jour. 10: 161-162 (nesting
behavior).

Microbembex rufiventris Bohart
Calif.

Microbembex nifiventris Bohart, 1970. Pan-Pacific Ent. 46: 204. ♂, ♀.

Genus STICTIA Illiger

Monedida Latreille, 1802-1803. Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins., v. 3, p. 345. Preocc.

Type-species: Vespa signata Linnaeus. Desig. by Latreille, 1810.
Stictia Illiger, 1807. In Rossi, Fauna Etrusca, Ed. 2, v. 2, p. 131. N. name for Monedula
Latreille.

These wasps occur only in the New World where most species are restricted to the tropical
areas. They occasionally nest in large aggregations in sandy soil. The nest is unicellular. They
practice progressive provisioning and prefer horseflies (Tabanidae) as prey. The egg is placed in
the empty cell in Carolina (F.) and on the first fly brought into the cell in our other species.

Carolina (Fabricius). N. J. and Pa. south to Fla., west to 111., Kans., and N. Mex. Ecology:

Occasionally nests in very large aggregations in sand; the egg is placed in the empty
cell; as many as 63 prey may be supplied. Parasite: Senotainia trilineata
(Wulp), Miltogrammini spp.; Dohmiphora comuta (Big.). Prey: Psorophora ciliata (F.);
Chrysops dimmocki Hine, Chlorotabanus crepuscularis Beq., Hybomitra hinei wrighti
Whit., Tabanus abdominalis F., T. antericanus Forst., T. atratus F., T. a. var.
nantuckensis Hine, T. bishoppi Stone, T. cheliopterus Rond., T. coarctatus Stone, T.
endymion 0. S., T . fumipennis Wied., T. i. imitans Wlkr., T. lineola F., T. melanocerus
lacustris Stone, T. mularis Stone, T. nigripes Wied., T. nigrescens Beauv., T. petiolatus
Hine, T. sparus Whit., T. stygius Say, T. sulcifrons Macq., T. trijunctus Wlkr., T. vittiger
schwardti Phil., T. spp.; Odontomyia cincta Oliv.; Volucella mexicana Macq., V. nigra
Greene; Graphomya maculata Scop., Musca domestica L., Orthellia caesarion Meig.,
Stomoxys calcitrans L.; Amobia erytlirura (Wulp), Sarcophaga bullata Prkr., S.
ochracea Aid., S. sarracenioides Aid., S. spp.; Calliphora vomitoria L., Cochliomyia




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macellaria F.; Tachinidae spp.; Melampsalta calliope (Wlkr.); Atalopedes campestris
Boisd.; the last two prey species (cicada and skipper) were stored only in a large
aggregation where there was considerable competition for prey. Predator: Solenopsis
geminata F. This wasp is commonly called the "horse guard" because it preys so
commonly on horseflies.
Bembex Carolina Fabricius, 1793. Ent. System., v. 2, p. 249.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 53, figs. 72-78 (larva). —Evans,
1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 268, fig. 55 (larva).

Biology: Bryant, 1870. Amer. Ent. 2: 87 (prey capture). — Ashmead, 1894. Psyche 7: 61 (prey
capture). — Hartman, 1905. Tex. Univ., Bui. 65: 27-29, figs. 7, 15 (nest, prey capture, egg,
life cycle, cocoon). — Hine, 1906. La. State Crop Pest Comn. Cir. 6: 20-27 (nest, prey).
—Hine, 1907. La. Agr. Expt. Sta., Bui. 93: 13-15 (nest, prey). — Krombein, 1958. Ent. Soc.
Wash., Proc. 60: 106-107 (nest, prey, parasite). —Krombein, 1959. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 61:
196-197 (nest, prey, life cycle, cocoon). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of
sand wasps, pp. 223-243, figs. 119-133 (mating, nest, egg, prey capture and transport, life
cycle, parasites). —Lin, 1971. Tex. Jour. Sci. 23: 275-283, 3 figs, (mating, nest, egg, prey,
life cycle, cocoon).

Stictia signata
***authority mismatch
signata (Linnaeus). South. Fla., south. Calif.; West Indies, tropical Mexico, Central and
South America. Ecology: Nests in large aggregations in sand along coasts and rivers;
the egg is placed on the first fly brought into the cell. Parasite: Villa sp.? Prey:
Taba7ius truquii Bell, T. sp., Diachlorus cumipes (F.), Lepiselaga crassipes ¥.,
Chrysops costatus F.; Hedriodiscus dorsalis (F.); Allograpta sp., Eristalis sp., Volucella
sp.; Musca domestica L., Morellia scapulata (Big.); Cochlioyyujia macellaria (F.),
Phaenicia ciuvia (Wlkr.); Sitophaga sp., Tachinidae sp.; Sarcophaga spp.; Tabanidae are
the preferred prey. Another subsp. occurs in Peru.
Vespa signata Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, v. 1, p. 574.
Apis vespiformis DeGeer, 1773. Mem. Hist. Ins., v. 3, p. 570, pi. 28, figs. 3, 4.
Monedula insularis Dahlbom, 1845. Hym. Europaea, v. 1, pp. 186, 494. ♀.

Biology: Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 243-247 (nest, prey,
egg, scavengers).

Stictia vivida
***authority mismatch
(HandHrsch). Tex. (Cameron Co.); Mexico (TamauHpas, Veracruz, Yucatan). Ecology:

Nests in hard-packed beach sand in small aggregations; the egg is placed on the first fly
brought into the cell. Parasite: Miltogrammini sp. Prey: Tabanus texaniis Hine, T. s.
scliwardti Phil, T. vittiger guatemalensis Hine, T. spp., Leucotabanus itzarum Beq.;
Cochliomyia macellaria (¥.); Sarcophaga effrenata Wlkr.
Monedula vivida Handlirsch, 1890. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 99: 101. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1957. Ent. News 68: 77. 6. —Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 153
(larva). -Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 268-269 (larva).

Biology: Evans, 1957. Ent. News 68: 76-77 (nest, prey transport). —Evans, 1966. Compar.
ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 247-252, figs. 134-137 (male territoriality, nest,
prey, egg, parasite).

Genus BEMBIX Fabricius

Bembix Fabricius, 1775. Systema Ent., Char. Gen., p. xxiii. No species.

Type-species: Bembex rostrata of Fabricius. Desig. by Latreille, 1810.
Bembyx Fabricius, 1775. Systema Ent., p. 361. Lapsus.
Bembex Fabricius, 1776. Gen. Ins., p. 122. Emend.
Apobembex Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 9: 9.

Type-species: Bembex oculata of Latreille. Orig. desig.
Epibembex Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 9: 26.

Type-species: Apis rostrata Linnaeus. Orig. desig.

This large genus occurs in all major zoogeographic regions and is the only representative of
the subfamily in the Old World. These wasps nest in a variety of soils ranging from loose sand
subject to blowing to hard-packed soil, and almost all species practice progressive provisioning.




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The more primitive species lay the egg on the first prey brought into the cell and the most ad-
vanced species place the egg in the empty cell. The nest may have a simple unicellular structure
or it may contain up to 5 cells; accessory burrows are made by some of the more advanced spe-
cies.

Taxonomy: Evans and Matthews, 1968. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 61: 1284-1299, 26 figs,
(synopsis of N. Amer. spp., keys, characters of species groups).

Biology: Evans, 1957. Studies on compar. ethology Bembix, 248 pp., 52 figs., 29 tables.

Species Group Belfragei

These primitive species nest in a variety of soil types, make multicellular nests, and place the
egg on the first fly brought into the cell.

Bembix belfragei Cresson
South cent. U. S. Ecology: Nests in large aggregations in coarse to fine
sand, makes a 2-celled nest with each cell at the end of a branch off the main burrow,
each with an accessory branch, provides 20-28 prey per cell. Parasite: Senotainia sp. in
triliiieata (Wulp) complex; Dasymutilla pyrrhus (Fox)? Prey: Tabanidae spp.;
Systoechus vulgaris Lw.; Eristalis agrorum F., E. latifrons Lw., E. tenax L., Volucella

Bembix fasciata
***authority mismatch
Macq.; Orthellia caesarmi Meig., Stoynoxys calcitrmis L.; Cochliomyia
macellaria (F.), Phaenicia caendeiviridis Macq., Phormia regina Meig.; Sarcophaga
bullata Prkr., S. cimbicis Tns., S. Iherminieri R.-Desv., S. prohibita Aid., S. quenda
Wlkr., S. uncata Wulp, S. ventrkosa Wulp, S. spp.; Acroglossa hesperidarum Will.,
Arcliytas apicifera Wlkr., A. aterrima R.-Desv., Belvosia seyniflava Aid., Bioniya
neoviexicana Tns.?, Bonnetia comta Fall., Ceracia dentata Coq., Copecrypta nite^is
Wied., Enplwrocera floridensis Tns., Go7iia sequax Will., M icropkthahna disjuncta
Wied., Peleteria sp., Phorocera claripeiinis Macq., Prosenoides sp., Sturmia sp.,
Winthe7)iia quadripustulata F., Tachinidae sp.

BeynbexO) Belfragei Cresson, 1873. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 220. ♂.

BembexC.) cressonis Handlirsch, 1893. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 102: 792.
6, 9.

BevibexC.) insig7iis Handlirsch, 1893. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 102: 793.
6, 9.

Bembix cressonii Dalla Torre, 1897. Cat. Hym., v. 8, p. 503. Lapsus.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 61, figs. 98-101 (larva).

Biology: Evans, 1957. Studies on compar. ethology Bembix, pp. 59-78, figs. 13-18 (mating,
nest, prey, egg, life cycle). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps,
pp. 315-317, fig. 161 (nest, prey, parasite).
frommcri Bohart. Calif. (Inyo Co.).

Bembix frommeri Bohart, 1970. Pan-Pacific Ent. 46: 201. ♂.

Bembix gillaspyi Evans and Matthews
South. Calif, deserts.

Bembix gillaspyi Evans and Matthews, 1968. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 61: 1290, figs. 8-9. ♂.
9.

Bembix rugosa Parker
Ariz.

Bembix nigosa Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 52: 95. ♀.

Bembix stenobdoma Parker
West. Tex. to south. Calif.

Bembix stenebdoina(,\) Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 52: 79. In key.
Bembix stenobdoma Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 94. ♂.
U-scripta Fox. Tex. to south. Calif.; Mexico, Guerrero and Morelos to Baja California. Ecology:
Nests occasionally in large aggregations in soil varying from loose sand to coarse,
compact sandy gravel, makes 2-5 cells per nest, places egg on first prey brought into
nest, hunts prey and stores nest only at dusk, provides up to 40 prey per cell. Prey:
Hermetia aurata Bell; Tabanus texanus Hine; Chromolepida pruinosa (Coq.); Apiocera
liaruspex 0. S.; Efferia sp., Erax cressoni Hine, E. tuberculatus Coq., Psilocuriis
nudiscidus Lw., P. modestus Will., P. puelhis Brom., Saropogon sp., Stenopogon ebyi
Brom., Asilidae spp.; Aphoebantus sp. near hirsidus Coq., A. spp., Desmatoneura
argeidifrons Will., Lordotus g. gibbus Lw., L. g. striatus Paint., Phthiria sulphurea Lw.,
P. sp., Poecilanthrax lucifera F., Villa flavipilosa Cole, V. parvicomis Lw., V.




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salebrosns Paint., V. sp.; Volucella fraudulenta Will., V. mexicana Macq., V. unipuncta
Curr., V. spp., Syrphidae spp.; Acrosticta mexicana Cole, A. sp.; Limnophora sp.,
Mydaea sp., Phyllogaster cordyluroides Stein; Sarcophaga johnsoni Aid., S. spp.,
Senotainia kansensis Tns.; Archytas marmoratus Tns., Chaetogaedia sp. near analis
Wulp, Goniochaeta plagioides Tns., Olenochaeta kansensis Tns., Phorocera
tachinomoides Tns., P. sp., Promasiphya confusa Aid., Ptilodexia sp., Tachinophyto sp.
near vanderwulpi Tns., Xenoppia monela Reinh.

Bem6ia- dentilabris Handlirsch, 1893. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl, Sitzber. 102: 794.
9. A nomen oblitum.

BembexO) U-scripta Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc, p. 362. 6,9. The valid name
for this taxon chosen by the first revisers.

Bembix arcuata Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 81. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 155, figs. 41, 63 (larva). —Evans, 1961
(1960). Psyche 67: 45-61 (possible syn. of arcuata).

Biology: Evans, 1957. Studies on compar. ethology Bembix, pp. 104-108, figs. 27-28 (nest,
prey). —Evans, 1961 (1960). Psyche 67: 45-61, 2 figs, (male sun dance, mating, nest, prey,
egg, life cycle). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 317-321,
figs. 162-164 (nest, prey).

Species Group Amoena

Members of this group make simple nests with one or more accessory (false) burrows, place
the egg on the first prey brought into the cell, and do not level the mound of excavated earth at
the nest entrance.

Bembix amoena Handlirsch
West. Canada and U. S. Ecology: Nests in colonies in soil varying from
sandy loam to coarse sandy gravel, makes 1- or 2-celled nest provided with 1-2
accessory burrows, probably stores more than 30 large prey per cell. Parasite:
Dasymutilla creusa var. bellona (Cr.); Pamopes edwardsii Cr. ?; Physocephala texana
Will. ?; Miltogrammini sp.; Exoprosopa dorcadion 0. S., Villa melasoma (Wulp). Prey:
Anoplodonta nigrirostris Lw., Hedriodiscus varipes Lw.; Hybomitra captonis Mart., H.
fulvilateralis Macq., H. liorhina Phil., H. opaca Coq., H. osbumi Hine, H. phaenops 0.
S.; Poecilanthrax sackeni Coq., Systoechus fumipennis Paint., Villa altemata Say, V.
eumenes (0. S.), V.fulviana nigricauda Lw., V. harveyi Hine, V. lateralis Say, V.
sinuosa jaeyuiickeana 0. S.; Thereva sp.; Asilus sp., Cyrtopogon glarealis Mel.,
Promachus sp.; Chrysotoxum ypsilon Will., Eristalis anthophorinus Fall., E. barda Say,
E. latifrons Lw., Eupeodes volucris 0. S., Helophilus hybridus Lw., Metasyrpkus
lapponicus Zett., M. meadii Jones, Scaeva pyrastri L., Stenosyrphus pullulus Snow,
Syrphus jonesi Fluke, S. opinator 0. S., S. ribesii L., S. vitripennis Meig., Volucella
esuriens (F.); Tetanocera vicina Meig.; Helina punctata R.-Desv., Limnophora
magyiipunctata Mall., Lispe brevipes Aid., Mydaea persimilis Mall., Phaonia monticola
Mall., Pyrellia cyanicolor Zett.; Calliphora vici7ia R.-Desv., C. vomitoria L.,
Cynomyopsis cadaverina R.-Desv., Eucalliphora lilaea Wlkr., Lucilia illustris Meig.,
Melanodexiopsis sp., Phomiia regina Meig., Protophormia terraeyiovae R.-Desv.;
Sarcofahrtia montanensis Prkr., Sarcophaga spp., Macronychia sp.; Acroglossa
hesperidarum Will., Arctophyto sp., Argenteopalpus signiferus Wlkr., Bonellimyia
subpolita Brks., Eumegaparia flaveola Coq., Fabriciella brevirostris Tot., F. rostrata
Tot., Gonia porca Will, G. spp., Melanodexia sp., Melinocera flavicomis Br., Mericia
alberta Curr., M. ampela Wlkr., M. arcuata Tot, M. bicarina Tot., M icrophthalma
disjuncta Wied., Paramuscopteryx sp., Peleteria iterans Wlkr., P. neotexensis Brks.,
Ptilodexia sp., Rhachogaster algens Wied., Siphosturmiopsis sp., Spallanzania sp.,
Trochilodes skinneri Coq.
BembexO.) amoeiia Handlirsch, 1893. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 102: 769.
6, 9.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 270-271, fig. 53 (larva).

Biology: Evans, 1957. Studies on compar. ethology Bembix, p. 59 (nesting site, prey).
— Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 269-288, figs. 149-154
(mating, nest, prey, egg, life cycle, parasite).




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Bembix sayi Cresson
Gulf Coast, Miss. Valley, and Great Plains States west to Colo, and N. Mex.;
north. Mexico. Ecology: Nests in small numbers (3-10) in loose to compacted sand,
makes a 1-3 celled nest with an accessory burrow, stores 14 or more flies per cell.
Parasite: Amobiopsis confundens Tns., Senotainia nibrive7itris Macq., S. opiparis
Reinh., S. sp. in trilineata (Wulp) complex. Prey: Stratiomyidae sp.; Chlorotabanus-
crepuscularis Beq., Chrysops flavida Wied., C. spp., Hybomitra hinei wrighti Whit.,
Silvius quadrivittatus Say, Tabanus cheliopterxis fronto 0. S., T.fratellus Will., T.
lineola F., T. melanocerus lacustris Stone, T. nigripes Wied., T. quinquevittatus Wied.;
Exoprosopa fasciata Macq., E . fascipennis noctula Wied., Geron sp., Phthiria sp.,
Poecilanthrax lucifer F., Systoechiis solitus Wlkr., S. vulgaris Lw., Villa cypris Meig.,
V . flavicostalis Paint., V. lateralis Say, V. molitor Lw.; Furcifera punctipennis Wied.;
Ablautus nigronotum Wilcox, Erax tabascens Bks., E. sp., Mallophorina laphroides
Wied., Asilidae sp.; Allograpta obliqua Say, Eristalis agrorum F., E. albifrons Wied., E.
tenax L., Microdon rufipes Macq., Syrphus sp., Volucella pusilla Macq., V. sp.; Musca
domestica L., Orthellia caesarion Meig.; Phaenicia caendeiviridis Macq.; Sarcophaga
ventricosa Wulp; Archytas analis F., Belvosia slossonae Coq., Fabriciella actiiiosa
Reinh., F. egiila Reinh., F. latigena Tot., Gonia sequax Will., Juriniopsis sp.,
Paradidyma si7igularis Tns., Phorocera daripennis Macq., Prosenoides flavipes Coq.,
Tachinidae sp.

BembexO) sayi Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 467. ♀.

Bembix latifrons Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 116. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 60, figs. 94-97 (larva).

Biology: Rohwer, 1909. Univ. Colo. Studies 6: 245 (nest, prey). — Hungerford and Wilhams,
1912. Ent. News 23: 247 (nest, prey). —Evans, 1957. Studies on compar. ethology Bembix,
pp. 48-59, figs. 11-12 (mating, nest, prey, egg, life cycle, parasite). —Evans, 1966. Compar.
ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 288-298, figs. 155-158 (nest, prey, parasites).
— Alcock and Gamboa, 1975. Ariz. Acad. Sci., Jour. 10: 154, fig. 1 (nest).

Species Group Cinerea

These species nest in soil with a high sahne content, make simple multicellular nests, and place
the egg on the first fly brought into the cell.

Bembix cinerea Handlirsch
N. J. to Fla. west to Tex. Ecology: Nests in very large aggregations on

salt flats in heavy black soil with high salt content, makes 1-2 cells per nest, stores 11-17
medium sized prey per cell. Parasite: Dasynmtilla cypris (BL), D. vesta sappho (Fox).
Prey: Eulalia evansi James, Hedriodiscus dorsalis F.; Tabanus lineola F., T.
nigrovittatus Macq., T. vittiger bellardii Szil., T. spp.; Anthrax anale Say; Eristalis
albifrons Wied.; Dimecoenia austrina Coq.; Lispe'sp. near sordida Aid., Phyllogaster
sp.; Phaenicia cluvia Wlkr.; Gymnopsoa texana Tns.; Cistogaster sp.
Bembexd) cinerea Handlirsch, 1893. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl, Sitzber. 102: 837. ♂.
9.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 59, fig. 109 (larva).

Biology: Krombein and Evans, 1954. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 56: 235 (nest). — Krombein and
Evans, 1955. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 57: 233-234 (nest, prey, parasite). —Evans, 1957.
Studies on compar. ethology Bernbix, pp. 78-94, figs. 19-23 (male sun dance, mating, nest,
prey, egg, life cycle, parasite).

Bembix hinei Parker
La., Tex., coastal only. Ecology: Nests in hard packed sand beach above high-tide
mark, occasionally in large aggregations, makes at least 5 cells per nest, stores 7-13 prey
per cell. Prey: Eulalia cincta Latr.; Tabanus lineola F., T. nigrovittatus Macq.;
Eristalis albifrons Wied.
Bembix hinei Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 86. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 156 (larva).

Biology: Hine, 1906. La. State Crop Pest Comn., Cir. 6: 27 (nesting site, prey; misdet. as

Bembix belfragei
***authority mismatch
Cr.). — Strandtmann, 1953. Kans. Ent. Soc, Jour. 26: 48-49 (nest, prey). —Evans,
1957. Studies on compar. ethology Bernbix, pp. 94-104, figs. 24-26 (nest, prey transport,
egg, life cycle).




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Species Group Americana

These species make simple multicellular nests, place the egg on the first prey brought into the
nest, and, so far as known, level the mound of excavated earth at the nest entrance.

americana comata Parker. Pacific Coast of N. Amer. to Mexico. Ecology: Nests in sand or

powdery soil, makes 1-3 cells per nest, provides 16-44 prey per cell. Parasite: Paryiopes
edwardsii (Cr.); Physocephala affiyiis Will. Prey: Apatolestes hera 0. S.; Thereva
niveipennis Kroeb.; Hydrophonis gratiosus Aid., H. sp.; Eristalis arbustorum L., E.

Bembix latifrons
***authority mismatch
Lw., E. tenax L., Heliophilus sp., Melanostoma sp., Mesograpta geminata Say,
M. marginata Say, Metasyrphus subsimis Fluke, Sphaerophoria cylindnca Say, S.
sulphuripes (Thom.), Syrphus sp., Toxomerus sp.; Ceroxys latiuscula Lw.; Coenosia
tigrina F., Helina bispinosa Mall, H. procedens Wlkr., Hylemya ciUcrura Rond., Lispa
tentaculata DeG., Muscina assimilis Fall., Musca domestica L., Ophyra leucostoma
Weid., Pegomyia duplicata Mall; Spaziphora cincta (Lw.).; Calliphora terraenovae
Macq., Phaenicia sericata Meig., Phormia regina Meig., Pollenia rudis F.; Sarcophaga
rapax Wlkr., S. spp., Senotainia trilineata (Wulp); Bonnetia covita (Fall.), Dexodes

Bembix cinerea
***authority mismatch
Tns., Tachinomyia similis Will. Typical americana F. occurs in the West Indies.

Bembix comata Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 100. ♂, ♀.

Bembix comata var. nevadensis Rodeck, 1934. Amer. Mus. Novitates 692: 1. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 59 (larva).

Biology: Parker, 1925. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 27: 189-195 (nest, prey capture and transport,

cocoon). — Bohart and MacSwain, 1940. Pan-Pacific Ent. 16: 16 (parasite). —Evans, 1957.

Studies on compar. ethology Bembix, pp. 36-48, figs. 8-10 (mating, nest, prey transport,

egg, parasite). — Alcock, 1973 (1972). Psyche 79: 158-164 (nest construction). — Alcock,

1973. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 31: 331-332 (prey).
americana hamata Fox. Calif., Santa Cruz to San Miguel Islands only.

Bembix hamata Fox, 1923. Psyche 30: 6. ♂.

Bembix haviata lucida Fox, 1923. Psyche 30: 7. ♂.

Bembix sanctae-rosae Cockerell, 1940. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 38: 135.
americana nicolai Cockerell. Calif., San Nicolas Island only.

BembexC.) nicolai Cockerell, 1938. Pan-Pacific Ent. 14: 150. ♂, ♀.
americana spinolae Lepeletier. N. Amer. except Pacific Coast States. Ecology: Nests in soil
varying from open sand to coarse soil, makes a unicellular nest, stores 16-24 prey per
cell. Parasite: Physocephala texana Will; Phrosinella fulvicomis (Coq.)?, Opsidia
gonioides Coq., Senotainia vigilans Allen, S. trilineata (Wulp), Miltogrammini spp.;
Exoprosopa fascipennis (Say); Pamopes chrysoprasinus Sm.?, P. edwardsii (Cr.)?;
Dasymutilla bioculata (Cr.)?; Macrosiagon flavipenne LeC. Prey: Eulalia cincta Oliv.,
Odontomyia hoodiana Big., 0. virgo Wied.; Chrysops aestuans abaestuans Phil, C.
flavida Wied., C.furcatus Wlkr., C. iugens Wied., C. mitis 0. S., C. niger Macq., C.
noctifer pertinax Will., C. pudicus 0. S., Hybomitra osbumi Hine, H. phaenops 0. S.,
Silvius quadrivittatus Say, Tabanus atratus L., T. coffeatus Macq., T. daeckei Hine, T.
insuetus 0. S., T. lasiopthalmus Macq., T. phaenops 0. S., T. pumilus Macq., T.
quinquevittatus Wied., T. vittiger schwardti Phil.; Conophorus painteri Prid.,
Exoprosopa pueblensis Jaen., Phthiria stilfurea Lw., Spamopolius brevirostris Macq., S.
fulviis Wied., Systoechus fumipennis Paint., S. vulgaris Lw., Villa agrippina 0. S., V.
altemata Say, V.fulviana Say, V. lateralis Say, V. sinuosa jaennickiana 0. S.;
Furcifera rufiventris Lw., Psilocephala haemorrhoidalis Macq., Thereva cingulata
Kroeb.; Asiius sp., Afomosia melanopogon Herm., Lasiopogon cinereus Cole, Tolmerus
callidus Will; Chrysotoxum ventricosum Lw., Dasysyrphus amalopsis 0. S., Eristalis
arbustorum L., E. sp., Eupeodes volucris 0. S., Helophilus latifrons Lw., H. obscunis
Lw., Melanostoma sp., Metasyrphus astutus Fluke, M. palliventris Curr., Microdon
lanceolatus Adams, Paragus bicolor F., Scaeva pyrastri L., Sphaerophoria sp., Syrphus
opinator 0. S., S. ribesii L., Xylota bigelowi Curr.; Rivellia sp., Penocera quadnlineata
Mel., Sepedon fuscipennis Lw., Tetanocera plumosa Lw.; Cordilura latifrons Lw.,
Hydrophoria divisa Meig., Hylemya sp.; Calythea separata Mall., Helina cinerella
Wulp, H. latifrons Zett., H. troene Wlkr., Musca domestica L., Phaonia deleta Stein,



.#




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Pyrellia serena Meig., Quadndaria a^mosa Zett., Siphona irritans L., Spilogona sp.,
Stomoxys calcitrans L.; Eucalliphora lilaea Wlkr., Lucilia illustris Meig., L. sp.,
Phaenkia sericata Meig., Phormia regina Meig., Pollenia rudis F.; Eumacronychia sp.,
Sarcophaga derelicta Wlkr., S. importuna Wlkr., S. planifrons Aid., S. quenda Wlkr.,
Senotainia flaincomis Tns., S. trilmeaia (Wulp); Bonellimyia glauca Brooks, Cuphocera
stricklandi Curr., Dinera sp., Microphthahna disjuncta Wied., Nearclnis duplaris
Reinh., Paradidyma singidaris Tns., Peleteria confusa Curr., Ptilodexia sp.,
Siphoplagia spinulosa Big., Trochilodes skinneri Coq., Winthemia quadripHsfidata F.

Be7)ibexil) spinolae Lepeletier, 1845. Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym., v. 3, p. 227. ♂.

Bembexd) similans Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 358. ♂, ♀.

Bembexd) connexus Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 360. ♂, ♀.

Bembex(\) primaaestate Johnson and Rohwer, 1908. Ent. News 19: 378. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 58, fig. 108 (larva).

Biology: Walsh and Riley, 1869. Amer. Ent. 1: 126 (nest, prey). — Peckham and Peckham,
1898. Wis. Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey, Bui. 2: 58-76 (nest, prey, parasite, life cycle). —Barber,
1915. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 17: 187-188 (parasite). —Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc.
52: 127-131 (mating, nest, prey transport, life cycle, cocoon). — Rau and Rau, 1918. Wasp
studies afield, pp. 37-38 (nest, prey, parasite ?). —Rau, 1922. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 24
(7): 29, fig. 8 (nest). — Krombein, 1936. Ent. News 47: 95 (prey, parasite). —Evans, 1957.
Studies on compar. ethology Bembix, pp. 17-36, figs. 6-7 (mating, nest, prey capture and ^

transport, egg, life cycle, parasites). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of
sand wasps, pp. 311-315, fig. 160 (nest, prey, parasites).

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1941. Smithsn. Inst., Misc. Collect. 99 (14): pi. 21, figs. M-P (male
genitalia).

Bembix cameroni Rohwer
Southwest. U. S.; centr. Mexico. Ecology: Nests in alluvial soil with sand on

surface and frequently silt or loam beneath surface. Prey: Esenbeckia delta Hine; Geron

sp., Phthiria sidphurea Lw.; Eristalis latifrons Lw.; Musca domestica L., Orthellia

caesarion Meig.; Peleteria sp., Plagioprosp fiery sa parvipalpis Wulp.
Bembyx{\) cameroni Rohwer, 1912. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 41: 467. ♂.
Bembix festiva Parker, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 75 (5): 118. ♂.
Bembix rohweri Maidl and Khma, 1948 (1944). In Lohrmann, Muenchen. Ent. Gesell., Mitt.

34: 424. N. name for cameroni Roh. which is not preocc.

Biology: Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 310-311 (nest,

prey).
nubiiipennis Cresson. Miss. Valley, Great Plains and southwest. States; Mexico (San Luis
Potosi). Ecology: Nests in large aggregations in hard-packed soil, makes 1-5 cells per
nest, stores up to 48 prey per cell. Parasite: Pamopes chrysopra sinus Sm.;
Miltogrammini spp. Prey: Hedriodiscus truquii (Bell.), Nemotelits trinotatus Mel.,
Stratiomys jamesi Steysk., S. meigenii Wied., S. nigriventris Lw.; Tabaniis sidcifrons
Macq., T. trimacidatus Beauv.; Anthrax anale Say, A. irrorata Say, Bombylius io Will.,
Exoprosopa emarginata Macq., E.fasciata Macq., Poecilanthrax lucifera (F.),
Sparnopoliiis brevirostris Macq., Villa spp.; Neorhynchocepkalus sackenii (Will.);
Atomosia piiella (Wied.), Diogmites misellus Lw., D. umbrinus Lw., Erax sp. near
tubercidatus Coq., Proctacanthella cacopiloga (Hine); Eristalis arbustontm (L.), E.
tenax (L.); Chrysomyza demandata (F.), Tetanops luridipennis Lw.; Paracantha culta
(Wied.); Musca domestica L., Orthellia caesanon (Meig.), Stomoxys calcitrans (L.);
Bufolucilia silvaru7n (Meig.), Lucilia illustris (Meig.), Phoenicia caeruleiviridis (Macq.),
P. sericata (Meig.), Polletna rudis (F.); Sarcophaga assidua Wlkr., S. derelicta Wlkr., S.
helicis Tns., S. Ihenninieri R.-Desv., S. rapax Wlkr., S. sinuata Meig., S. ventricosa
Wulp, S. sp.; Aplomya theclarum (Scud.), Archytas apiciferus Wlkr., A. metallicus
(R.-Desv.), Gymnoclytia occidua (Wlkr.), Hyalomyodes triangulifera (Lw.), Phorocera
claripennis Macq., P. tachino^noides Tns., Trichopoda pennipes (F.).

Bembex{\) nubiiipennis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 218. ♂, ♀.

Bembix nubilosa Parker, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 75 (5): 140. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 42 (larva).




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Biology: Parker, 1910. Ohio Nat. 10: 163-165 (nest, prey, parasite ?). — Rau and Rau, 1918.
Wasp studies afield, pp. 9-37, figs. 2-6 (sun dance, nest, prey, life cycle, cocoon). —Rau,
1922. St. Louis Acad. Sci., Trans. 24 (7): 29-30 (sun dance, nest). —Rau, 1935. Psyche 41:
243-244 (nesting site). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp.
298-308, fig. 159 (sun dance, mating, nest, prey, egg, life cycle, parasites).

Species Group Texana

These species make unicellular nests and place the egg in an erect position in the empty cell.
False burrows are frequently constructed, and one species removes the prey remains before
bringing in fresh prey.

Bembix melanaspis Parker
Southwest. U. S.; Mexico (Baja California). Ecology: Makes unicellular

nest in sand; lays egg in empty cell. Prey: Tabanidae, Therevidae, Syrphidae, Conopidae,
Calliphoridae; Coenagrionidae.
Bembix melanaspis Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 109. cJ, 9.

Biology: Alcock and Gamboa, 1975. Ariz. Acad. Sci., Jour. 10: 160-161, fig. 2 (nest, prey).

Bembix texana Cresson
Southeast, and south. States. Ecology: Nests in loose to hard-packed sand,
sometimes in large aggregations, makes a unicellular nest sometimes with one or two
accessory burrows, places egg in empty cell, usually removes old prey remains from cell
before bringing in fresh prey. Parasite: Dasymutilla pyrrhus (Fox)? Prey: Hedriodiscus
trivittatus Say, Odontomyia sp., Stratiomyidae sp.; Chlorotabanus crepuscularis Beq.,
Chrysops dimmocki Hine, C. pudica 0. S., Hybomitra hinei wrighti Whit., Tabanus
abdominalis F., T. bishoppi Stone, T. coarctatus Stone, T. endymion 0. S., T.
fuscicostatus Hine, T. gracilis Wied., T. lineola F., T. melanocerus lacustris Stone, T.
mularis Stone, T. nigripes Wied., T. quiyiquevittatus Hine, T. spams milleri Whit., T.
trijunctus Wlkr.; Villa sp.; Meromacrus acutus F., M icrodon fulgens Wied., Tubifera
sp.; Micropezidae sp.; Cochliomyia macellaria F., Phaenicia caeruleiviridis Macq.;
Exorista larvarum L., Tachinidae spp.

Bembix fasciata Fabricius, 1804. Systema Piezatorum, p. 224. Preocc. This is a
questionable synonym.

Bembexd) texana Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 219. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 62, figs. 105-107 (larva).

Biology: Evans, 1957. Studies on compar. ethology Bembix, pp. 135-141, fig. 37 (nest, egg,

prey, life cycle). — Krombein, 1958. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 60: 107-110 (nest, prey).

—Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 323-335, figs. 165-170

(male sun dance, nest, prey, parasite ?).
troglodytes Handlirsch. Southwest. States north to Kans.; north. Mexico. Ecology: Nests in
fine-grained damp sand along watercourse, not markedly gregarious, makes unicellular
nest frequently with an accessory burrow, places egg in empty cell, stores 21-26 prey
per cell. Parasite: Timulla leona (Bl.)?; E xoprosopa fascipennis (Say)? Prey: Eulalia
communis James, Hedriodiscus truquii (Bell), Hoplitimyia constans Lw., Stratiomys
meigenii Wied.; Chrysops sequax Will, C. wiedemanni Kroeb., Tabanus sp.; Exoprosopa
fascipennis (Say), E. iota (0. S.), Sparywpolius sp., Systoechus vidgaris Lw., Villa
chimaera (0. S.). V. salebrosa Paint.; Chrysogaster nitida Wied., Eristalis tenax L.;
Musca domestica L.; Orthellia caesarion Meig., Stomoxys calcitrans L.; Callitroga
macellaria F., Phormia regina Meig.; Amobia sp., Amobiopsis aurata Coq., Sarcophaga
derelicta Wlkr., S. Iherminieri R.-Desv., S. opifera Coq., S. rapax Wlkr., S. ventricosa
Wulp, Senotainia flavicornis Tns., S. litoralis Allen, S. trilineata (Wulp), S. sp.;
Achaetoneura sp., Copecrypta nitens Wied., Gymnoclytia occidua Wlkr., Phorocera
claripennis Macq.

BembexV.) troglodytes Handlirsch, 1893. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 102:
829. ♂, ♀.

Bembix helianthopolis Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 113. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 61, figs. 102-104 (larva).

Biology: Evans, 1957. Studies on compar. ethology Bembix, pp. 116-135, figs. 29-36 (male sun
dance, mating, nest, egg, prey, life cycle, parasites?). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and
evolution of sand wasps, pp. 335-337 (nest, prey).




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Species Group Pruinosa

The two species of this group make deep, complex unicellular nests, place the egg flat in the
empty cell, and remove prey remains from the cell.

Bembix occidentalis Fox
West, and southwest. U. S.; north. Mexico. Ecology: Makes complex

unicellular nest in sand dunes, sometimes in large aggregations, lays egg in empty cell,
cleans nest frequently so number of prey provided is unknown. Parasite: Dasymutilla
sackenii (Cr.); Villa atrata (Coq.), V. vielasoma Wulp, Exoprosopa eremita 0. S.;
Physocephala affinis Will. Prey: Stratiomys laticeps Lw.; Apatolestes villosuius Big.,
Chrysops sp., Taba7ius punctifer 0. S.; Aphoebayitus tardus Coq., A. sp.. Villa siyiuosa
Wied., V. sp. near agrippina 0. S.; Psilocephala costalis Lw.; Apiocera haruspex 0. S.,
A. sp.; Eristalis latifrons Lw., Helophilus latifrons Lw., Lejops iululatus Meig.,
Melanostoma rostratum Big., Metasyrphus meadii Jones; Anacaynpta latiuscula Lw.;
Miisca domestica L., Paregle ciyierella Fall.; Calliphora erythrocephala Meig., Lucilia
illustris Meig., Phaenicia sericata Meig., Phormia regina Meig.; Sarcopliaga bullata
Prkr., S. sp.; Aphria ocypterata Tns. Predator: Proctacanthus occidentalis Hine.

BeynbexV.) occidentalis Fox, 1893. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (2) 4: 10. ♂, ♀.

BembexC.) beuteyiynuelleri Fox, 1901. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 9: 83. ♂.

Benibex{]) obsolete Howard, 1901. Insect Book, pi. 4, fig. 36.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 58, figs. 85-87 (larva).

Biology: Coquillett, 1895. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 3: 236-237 (nest, prey; misdet. as ciyierea
Handl.). — Bohart and MacSwain, 1939. South. Cahf. Acad. Sci., Bui. 38: 84-98 (mating,
nest, prey, parasites). —Ross, 1953. Insects close up, pp. 42-43, 5 figs, (nest, prey, cocoon,
parasites). —Evans, 1957. Studies on compar. ethology Beynbix, pp. 167-181, figs. 47-49
(mating, nest, prey).

Bembix pruinosa Fox
U. S.; Mexico. Ecology: Nests in large aggregations in loose sand, frequently in
dunes, makes a long unicellular nest sometimes with an accessory burrow, places egg in
empty cell, provides 20-30 prey per cell, placing later flies in a long single file. Parasite:
Dasymutilla bioculata (Cr.); Pamopes edwardsii (Cr.)?; Physocephala texana Will.;
Exoprosopa fascipennis (Say), E. areyiicola Johns, and Johns., Villa atrata (Coq.);
Seyiotaiyiia iyiyoeyisis Reinh.? Prey: Ayioplodoyita yiigrirostris Lw., Eulalia ciyicta Oliv.,
Odoyitomyia tnynida Bks., Stratiomys jaynesi Steysk., S. yiorma Wied.; Chrysops flavida
Wied., Tabayius eqtialis Hine, T.fulvulus Wied., T. liyieola F., T. prodyictus Hine, T.
quiyiquevittatus Wied., T. sulcifroyis Macq., T. trispilus Wied., T. vittiger schwardti Phil.;
Anastoechus barbatus 0. S., Aphoebayitus sp., Bombylius ynedorae Paint., Exoprosopa
fascipeymis (Say), E. divisa Coq., Heterostylum robustum 0. S., Lepidayithrax
proboscidea Lw., Poecilanthrax iucifera F., P. sackeyiii Coq., P. willistoyii Coq., Villa
alteryiata Say, V. cypris Meig., V.faustiyia 0. S., V.fulviayia yiigricauda Lw., V.
lateralis Say, V. ynolitor Lw.; Psilocephala aldrichii Coq., P. haemorrhoidalis Macq.;
Plagioyieurus uyiivittatus Lw.; Asemosyrphus polygraynmus Lw., Eristalis albifroyis
Wied., E. arbustorum L., E. brousii Will., E. latifroyis Lw., E. teyiax L., E. viyietoruyn F.,
Eupeodes volucris 0. S., Helophilus latifroyis Lw., Platycheirus erraticus Curr., Rhiyigia
yiasica Say, Sericoynyia chrysotoxoides Macq., Sphaerophoria robusta Curr., Syrphus
rectus 0. S., S. forvus 0. S., Xylota metallica Wied.; Ceroxys latiuscuius Lw.;
Hydrophoria divisa Meig.; Liynyiophora yiarona Wlkr., Lispe cotidiayia Snyd., L. yiasoyii
Stein, Musca autumyialis DeG., M. domestica L., Musciyia assimilis Fall., M. dorsiliyiea
Wulp, Orthellia caesarioyi Meig., Pyrellia cyayiicolor Zett., Stoynoxys calcitrayis L.;
Bufolucilia silvaruyn Meig., Callitroga macellaria F., Eucalliphora lilaea Wlkr., Lucilia
illustris Meig., Phaeyiicia sericata Meig., Phormia regiyia Meig., Polleyiia rudis F.;
Amobia floyndeyisis (Tns.), Sarathroynyia feynoralis Sch., Sarcophaga derelicta Wlkr., S.
errabimda Wulp, S. Ihermiyiieri R.-Desv., S. querula Wlkr.; Achaetoyieura archippivora
Riley, Adyyioyitia sp., Archytas apicifera Wlkr., Paradidyyna affiyiis Reinh., Peleteria
eroyiis Curr., Spallayizayiia sp., Sitophaga sp., Wiyitheynia rufopicta Big.
BembexV.) pruiyiosa Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 361. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 57, figs. 88-93 (larva).




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Biology: Mickel, 1924. Ent. News 35: 236-242 (parasite). —Evans, 1957. Studies on compar.
ethology Bembix, pp. 142-167, figs. 38-46 (hopping dance, mating, nest, prey, egg, life
cycle, parasites). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp.
345-349 (hopping dance, nest, prey capture, parasites).

Genus STICTIELLA Parker

Stictiella Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 21.

Type-species: Monedula formosa Cresson. Orig. desig.
Microstictia Gillaspy, 1963. Ent. News 74: 196.

Type-species: Monedula femorata Fox. Orig. desig.

The genus is restricted to the Nearctic Region and all but one species occur in America north
of Mexico. The species whose biology is known use adult Lepidoptera as prey and usually prac-
tice mass provisioning, although there is one record suggestive of progressive provisioning in
serrata, a species also known to practice mass provisioning.

Taxonomy: Gillaspy, 1959. Pan-Pacific Ent. 35: 193 (species groups). —Gillaspy, Evans and
Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 559-566, 1 fig. (partition into Stictiella and Xerostictia
on morph. characters).

Biology: Gillaspy, Evans and Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 559-563, fig. 1 (ethology).

Stictiella callista Parker
Ariz., N. Mex. Ecology: Nests in sand. Prey: Melipotis indoviita (Wlkr.);
Strymon vielinus pudica Edw.; Hesperiidae sp.
Stictiella callista Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 34. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Gillaspy, Evans and Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 562 (prey). — Alcock and
Gamboa, 1975. Ariz. Acad. Sci., Jour. 10: 160 (nest, prey).

Stictiella corniculata Mickel
Wyo. to Calif.

Stictiella corniculata Mickel, 1918 (1917). Nebr. Univ. Studies 17: 332. ♂.

Taxonomy: Gillaspy, 1963. Ent. News 74: 251-252.

Stictiella divergens Parker
Kans.

Stictiella divergens Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 55. ♂.

Stictiella emarginata (Cresson)
Generally distributed throughout the U. S. and south. Canada. Prey:
Euxoa quinquelinea incallida (Sm.).
Monedula emarginata Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 468. ♂, ♀.
Monedula maviillata Handlirsch, 1890. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, Sitzber. 99: 146.
3, 9.

Biology: Bradley, 1908. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 1: 129 (sleeping aggregation). —Gillaspy,
Evans and Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 562 (prey).

Stictiella exigua (Fox)
Mont.

Monedula exigua Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 370. ♀.

Stictiella femorata (Fox)
Fla., Tex.

Monedula femorata Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 368. ♂.

Stictiella formosa
***authority mismatch
(Cresson). Kans., Okla., Tex. Ecology: Nests in sand, makes 5-17 cells per nest, stores
6-11 butterflies per cell, practices mass provisioning. Parasite: Acarina sp.; Diptera sp.
Prey: Polites sp., Hylephila phyleus Dru., Atalopedes campestris Boisd., Pyrgus
coynmunis Grt., Thanaos zarucco Luc; Pliyciodes phaon Edw., Libythea lai-vata Streck.,
L. sp.; Strymon melinus Hbn.
Monedula formosa Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 221. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 260, figs. 37-41 (larva).

Biology: Gillaspy, Evans and Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc Amer., Ann. 55: 559-561 (nest, prey,
parasite).

Stictiella minutula (Handlirsch)
Tex.

Monedula minutula Handlirsch, 1890. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 99: 148.
9.

Stictiella nubilosa Gillaspy
Calif. (Los Angeles).

Stictiella nubilosa Gillaspy, 1963. Ent. News 74: 252. ♀.




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Stictiella plana (Fox)
Great Plains States.

Monedula plana Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat, Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 367. ♂.

Stictiella pulchella (Cresson)
Colo, to Calif. Ecology: Usually makes unicellular nest in sand but rarely
2 cells, stores as many as 19 moths in a completed cell. Prey: Leptotes maiina Reak.;
Loxostege sitnilalis Guen.; Characoma proteella Dyar.
Monedula pulchella Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 471. ♂, ♀.
Stictiella melanostema Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 30. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Gillaspy, 1963. Ent. News 74: 252 (synonymy). —Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc,
Trans. 90: 260-261, fig. 42 (larva).

Biology: Gillaspy, Evans and Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 560, 562-563 (nest, prey,
sleeping aggregation).

Stictiella serrata (Handlirsch)
Fla., Ga., N. C. Ecology: Nests in fine-grained sand, makes unicellular
nest, stores 12 to more than 21 moths per cell, practices both mass and progressive
provisioning. Parasite: Senotainia sp. near nibriventris Macq. Prey: Elasmopalpus
lignosellus (Zell.); Hellula wgatilis (Hulst); Bactra verutana ZelL, Eucosminae sp.;
Crambus satrapellus Zink. C. quinquareatus ZelL, C. sp., Argynia argentana Martyn;
Jocara sp.
Monedula serrata Handlirsch, 1890. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 99: 143. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 51, figs. 59-62 (larva).

Biology: Gillaspy, Evans and Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 561-562, fig. 1 (nest, prey

transport, egg, life cycle). — Krombein, 1964. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2201: 19-20 (nest, prey

transport, life cycle, cocoon).

Stictiella speciosa (Cresson)
Alta., Ariz., Sask., Colo., N. Mex., Nebr., Kans.

Monedula speciosa Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc. 4: 470. ♀.

Stictiella spinifera (Mickel)
Alta., Kans., Nebr.

Stictia spinifera Mickel, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 42: 418. ♂.

Stictiella melampous Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 43. ♂.

Stictiella tuberculata (Fox)
Idaho, Nev., Wash.

Monedula tuberculata Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 366. ♂.

Genus GLENOSTICTIA Gillaspy

Glenostictia Gillaspy, 1962. In Gillaspy, Evans and Lin, Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 563.
Type-species: Monedula pulla Handlirsch. Orig. desig.

This genus occurs only in the Nearctic Region and all species are found in America north of
Mexico. So far as known the members of the genus practice progressive provisioning and prey
upon adult Hymenoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera.

Biology: Gillaspy, Evans and Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 563-566 (ethology).

Glenostictia argentata (Fox)
Calif.; Mexico. Ecology: Nests in sand dune, practices progressive
provisioning. Prey: Primarily Bombyliidae.
Stictiella argentata Fox, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc (4) 12: 434. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Alcock, 1975. Southwest. Nat. 20: 339 (nest, prey).

Glenostictia bifurcata (Fox)
South. Calif.; Mexico (Baja California, Sonora).

Stictiella bifurcata Fox, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 431. ♂.

Stictiella bifurcata var. albicera Fox, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc (4) 12: 432. ♂.

Stictiella directa Fox, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc (4) 12: 433. cJ, 9.

Glenostictia bituberculata (Parker)
Ariz., Calif., N. Mex.

Stictiella bituberculata Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 52: 36. ♂, ♀.

Glenostictia clypeata (Gillaspy)
West. Tex. to south. Calif.; Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Guerrero). Prey:
Apiocera augur 0. S.; Tubifera latifrons (Lw.).

Stictiella clypeata Gillaspy, 1959. Pan-Pacific Ent. 35: 187. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Painter, 1936. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 24: 192 (prey; misdet. as tenuicomis (Fox)).
—Gillaspy, Evans and Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 563 (prey).




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Glenostictia gilva Gillaspy
Ariz., Calif. Ecology: Nests in dry sand, provisions progressively. Prey:
Aphoebantus intei-ruptus Coq., A. sp.
Glenostictia gilva Gillaspy, 1963. Ent. News 74: 198. ♂, ♀.
Biology: Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 188-189 (nest,
prey). — Alcock, 1975. Southwest. Nat. 20: 339 (nest, prey).

Glenostictia megacera (Parker)
Colo., Utah, Wash.; Mexico.

Stictiella megacera Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 49. ♂, ♀.

Glenostictia pictifrons (Smith)
Generally distributed from Pa. and Ga. west to Colo., Tex., and Calif. Prey:
Villa sp. in lateralis Say group.
Monedula pictifrons Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 335. ♀.
Monedula i7ierviis Handlirsch, 1890. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 99: 144. ♂.
Monedula denverensis Cameron, 1908. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 34: 235. ♀.

Biology: Gillaspy, Evans and Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 563-564 (prey). —Alcock,
1975. Southwest. Nat. 20: 339-340 (prey-hunting behavior).
pulia (Handlirsch). Western U. S. Ecology: Nests in sand, practices progressive provisioning.
Parasite: Miltogrammini sp. Prey: Lepidanthrax sp., Geron sp., Aphoebantus sp.;
Psilocephala aldrichi Coq.; Eupeodes volucris 0. S., Helophilus latifrons 0. S.;
Hylemya cilicrura (Rond.); Senotaiiiia rubriventris (Macq.), Sarcopkaga opifera Coq., S.
tiiberosa Pand., S. sp.; Stomatomyia parvipalpis (Wulp).
Monedula pulla Handlirsch, 1890. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 99: 149. ♀.
Monedula usitata Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 371. ♂ (♀ misdet.).

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 52, figs. 63-65 (larva).

Biology: LaRivers, 1942. Pan-Pacific Ent. 18: 4-8 (nest, prey, parasite). —Gillaspy, Evans and

Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 564 (nest, prey, sleeping aggregation). —Evans, 1966.

Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp. 186-188, fig. 105 (nest, prey).

Glenostictia scitula (Fox)
Ariz., Calif., N. Mex., Tex. Ecology: Nests in sandy loam or heavier stony soil,
makes 5 or more cells per nest, may store as many as 40 prey per cell, provisions
progressively. Parasite: Pamopes conci^inus Vier.?; Senotainia sp.? Prey: Cicadellidae
sp.; Heteropsylla texana Cwfd.; Neurocolpus arizonae Knight, Psalhis sp.; Procladius
sp. near bellus Lw.; Dicyphoma schaefferi Coq., Zabrachia sp.; Silvitis quadrivittatus
Say; Mythicomyia intermedia Mel., Oligodranes sp., Phthiria sp.; Brevitrichia griseola
Coq., Scenopinus sp.; Holopogon phaeonotus Lw., Asilidae sp.; Allograpta obliqua Say,
Mesograpta marginata Say; Euxesta magdalenae Cr., E. nitidiventris Lw.; Trupanea
bisetosa Coq.; C onioscinella sp.; Melanagromyza sp.; Astiosoma sp.; Milichia aethiops
Mall.; Calythea micropteryx Thom., Hylemya platura Meig., Pegomya longimana Pok.;
Haematobia irritans L., Musca domestica L.; Eumacronychia sp.; Siphophyto setigera
Coq.; Apanteles sp.; Torymus sp.; Iridomyrmex pruinosus Rog.; Lindenius sp.;
Tachysphex sp.; Colletes sp.; Perdita exclamans CklL, P. hiulli Timb., P. marcialis
Ckll., P. mentzeliarum Ckll, P. larreae Ckll., P. n. 7inmerata Ckll, P. spp.; Dufourea sp.,
Lasioglossum sp.; preferred prey are Perdita bees, but other small Hymenoptera,
Diptera and Hemiptera are also used.

Monedula scitula Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 369. ♀.

Monedula villosa Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 370. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 262, figs. 48-52 (larva).

Biology: Gillaspy, Evans and Lin, 1962. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 55: 564-566 (nest, prey,
sleeping aggregation). —Evans, 1966. Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, pp.
189-205, figs. 106-109 (nest, prey transport, egg, cocoon, life cycle, parasite).

Glenostictia tenuicornis (Fox)
Calif., Ariz., Tex.

Monedula tenuicornis Fox, 1895. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 47: 368. ♀, ♂.

Glenostictia terlinguae Fox
Tex.

Stictiella terlinguae Fox, 1928. Pan-Pacific Ent. 4: 103. ♂, ♀.

Genus XEROSTICTIA Gillaspy

Xerostictia Gillaspy, 1963. Ent. News 74: 187.




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Type-species: Xerostictia longilabris Gillaspy. Orig. desig.

The genus contains only one polytypic species occurring in the southwestern deserts of the
Nearctic Region.

Xerostictia longilabris
***authority mismatch
longilabris Gillaspy. Ariz., Calif. Ecology: Makes a multicelled nest in sand dunes,
practices progressive provisioning. Prey: Brachynemurus longipalpis Hag. adults;
Onnenis saucia Van D. adults. Another subspecies occurs in Baja California.
Xerostictia longilabris longilabris Gillaspy, 1963. Ent. News 74: 187, figs. 1-7. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Alcock, 1975. Southwest. Nat. 20: 340-341, figs. 3-5 (nest, prey).

Genus STENIOLIA Say

Steniolia Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 367.

Type-species: Bembex{\) longirostra Say. Monotypic.

All but three species occur in western America north of Mexico; two of the extralimital spe-
cies range as far south as Venezuela or Ecuador. The wasps nest in small aggregations, con-
struct shallow unicellular nests and practice progressive provisioning. Preferred prey of most
species are bee-flies (Bombyliidae). The egg is laid on the first prey brought into the nest.
Adults of both sexes form large sleeping aggregations on shrubs or plants, often at some
distance from the nesting site.

Revision: Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 89: 1-117, 6 pis.

Biology: Evans and Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Midland Nat. 72: 257-280, 14 figs, (comparative
ethology).

Steniolia californiensis Gillaspy
Calif.; Mexico (Baja California).

Steniolia californiensis Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 89: 52, figs. 5, 10, 25, 29, 34,
50. ♂, ♀.

Steniolia dissimilis Fox
Southern Ariz.; Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa).

Steniolia dissimilis Fox, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci. Proc. (4) 12: 429. ♂, ♀.

Steniolia duplicata Provancher
Western Tex. to Calif., Nev.; Mexico (Baja California, Chihuahua,

Coahuila). Ecology: Nests in moderately sandy soil. Parasite: Pamopes concinnus Vier.?
Prey: Villa sp. near altemata Say, V. pallida (Coq.), V. spp., Aphoebantus sp. near
hirsutus Coq.; Paragus tibialis Fall., Mesogramnia marginata Lw., Eupeodes volucris
0. S.; Syrphidae spp.; Fannia sp.; Sarcophaga sp.; Calliphoridae sp.; Syrphidae appear
to be the preferred prey.

Steniolia duplicata Provancher, 1888. Addit. Corr. Faune Ent. Canada Hym., p. 414. ♂, ♀.

Steniolia edwardsii Patton, 1894. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 3: 45. Nom. nud.

Steniolia meridionalis Fox, 1923. Calif. Acad. Sci., Proc. (4) 12: 430. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 263-264, figs. 34-36 (larva).

Biology: Bradley, 1908. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 1: 129 (sleeping aggregation). —Evans and
Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Midland Nat. 72: 274-276 (clustering, nest, prey). —Evans, 1966.
Compar. ethology and evolution of sand wasps, p. 205 (parasite).

Steniolia elegans Parker
Wyo. to Wash., south to western Tex. and southern Calif.; Mexico (Baja

California, Sonora, Coahuila, Aguascahentes, San Luis Potosi, Hidalgo). Ecology: Nests
in powdery, rocky soil. Prey: Anthrax irroratus Say, Poecilanthrax signatipennis (Cole),
Systoechus vulgaris Lw., Villa sinuosa Wied., V. spp.; Holopogon atripennis Back;
Eupeodes volucris 0. S., Microdon coarctatus Lw., Volucella sp.; Bombyliidae are the
preferred prey.
Steniolia elegans Parker, 1929. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 75 (5): 50. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956 Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 52, figs. 66-71 (larva).

Biology: Evans and Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Midland Nat. 72: 276 (clustering, nest, prey
capture). —Evans, 1973. Great Basin Nat. 33: 29-30 (nest, prey transport).

Steniolia eremica Gillaspy
Southern Calif., Ariz., Nev. Prey: Efferia texana (Bks.).

Steniolia eremica Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc^ Trans. 89: 67, figs. 14, 38, 54, 84. ♂, ♀.

Biology: Evans and Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Midland Nat. 72: 276-277 (prey).




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Steniolia nigripes Parker
Calif.; Mexico (Baja California). Ecology: Nests in bare desert soil. Prey:
Aplioebantus sp. near tardus Coq., A. hirsutus Coq.
Sfenioiia nigripes Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 8. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans and Lin, 1956. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 82: 53 (larva).
Biology: Gillaspy, 1951. Pan-Pacific Ent. 27: 167-168 (nest, prey, cocoon).

Steniolia obliqua (Cresson)
Mont, to N. Mex., west to B. C. and Calif. Ecology: Nests in fine-grained,
powdery sandy loam. Parasite: Pamopes chnjsoprasinus Sm.?, P. edwardsii (Cr.);
Mutillidae sp.; Taxigramma heteroneura (Meig.)?, Hilarella hilarella (Zett.)? Prey: Villa
sinuosa jaennickeana 0. S., V. I. lateralis Say, V. a. alteiiiata (Say), V. a. nigropecta
Cr., V. concessor Coq., Geron sp., Bombylius sp.; Pipiza calcarata Lw.; Lucilia sp.;
Bombyliidae are the preferred prey.
Monedula obliqua Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 469. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 265, fig. 45 (larva).

Biology: Evans and Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Midland Nat. 72: 266-272, figs. 1-10, 13, 14
(clustering, mating, nest, prey capture and transport, life cycle, cocoon, parasites).
—Evans, 1970. Mus. Compar. Zool., Bui. 140: 494-495 (nest, prey, parasites).

Steniolia scolopacea
***authority mismatch
albicantia Parker. B. C. to northern Calif., Idaho.

Steniolia albicantia Parker, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 52: 12. ♂.

Biology: Evans and Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Midland Nat. 72: 261 (clustering).

Steniolia scolopacea
***authority mismatch
scolopacea Handlirsch. Calif., Nev.; Mexico (Baja California).

Steniolia scolopacea Handlirsch, 1889. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 98: 510.
6, 9.
sulfurea Fox. Calif.

Steniolia sulfurea Fox, 1901. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Jour. 9: 84. ♂.

Steniolia tibialis Handlirsch
Wash, to Calif., Nev., Idaho. Prey: Conophorus nigripennis (Lw.); Syrphus
sp.
Steniolia tibialis Handlirsch, 1889. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Kl., Sitzber. 98: 513. ♂.
9.

Biology: Evans and Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Midland Nat. 72: 276 (prey).

Steniolia vanduzeei Gillaspy
Calif., Nev.

Steniolia vanduzeei Gillaspy, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 89: 62, figs. 13, 37, 53, 83. ♂, ♀.


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