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Superfamily SPHECOIDEA
Family PEMPHREDONIDAE

Members of this family are small for sphecoid wasps and include the smallest species (2 mm)
in the superfamily. The majority of species prey on Homoptera, especially aphids, but some of
the smallest species use Thysanoptera or Collembola. The family includes both ground-nesting
species and those which use pre-existing cavities in twigs, galls, etc., as nesting sites.

Subfamily PSENINAE

The revisions listed under the subfamily heading are neither adequate nor reliable for identifi-
cation of most members of the subfamily.

Revision: Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 1-18 (N. Amer. spp.). — Malloch, 1933. U. S.
Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 1-60, 2 pis. (N. Amer. spp.).

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 139-145, figs. 1-22 (larvae). — Gittins,
1969. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 95: 49-76, 21 figs, (generic reclassification).

Tribe PSENINI

Genus AMMOPSEN Krombein

Ammopsen Krombein, 1959. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 54: 18.

Type-species: Ammopsen masoni Krombein. Monotypic.

Nothing is known of the biology except that the sole included species is frequently collected
while visiting the flowers of mat Euphorbia in the desert. The presence in the female of a
foretarsal comb and genal ammochaetae suggests that masoni is a ground-nesting species.

Ammopsen masoni Krombein
Southern Calif., Ariz., N. Mex., Utah, Nev.

Ammopsen masoni Krombein, 1959. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 54: 19. ♂, ♀.

Genus MIMESA Shuckard

Mimesa Shuckard, 1837. Essay on Indig. Fossor. Hym., p. 228.

Type-species: Trypoxylon equestre Fabricius. Orig. desig.
Aporia Wesmael, 1852. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belg., Bui. 19: 272. Preocc.

Type-species: Trypoxylon equestre Fabricius. Desig. by Kohl, 1896.
Aporina Gussakovskij, 1937. Trav. Inst. Zool. Acad. Sci. 4: 665. N. name. Preocc.

Wasps of this genus nest in the ground with several cells off the main burrow. So far as
known they prey on leafhoppers, both nymphs and adults.

Mimesa agalena Gittins
Calif.

Mimesa agalena Gittins, 1966. Ent. News 77: 251. ♀, ♂.

Mimesa arizonensis (Malloch)
Ariz. (Tucson, Roosevelt Lake).

Psen (Mimesa) arizonensis Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 36. ♂.

Mimesa barri Gittins
Idaho, Oreg., Calif.

Mimesa barri Gittins, 1966. Ent. News 77: 249. ♀, ♂.

Mimesa basirufa Packard
Transcont. in Transit, and U. Austr. Zones. Ecology: Nests in flat compacted
soil or vertical sand banks. Prey: Idiocenis sp. nymphs, Macropsis viridis (Fitch) adults,
Oncopsis variabilis (Fitch) adults, 0. sorbrius (Wlkr.) adults.

Mimesa basirufa Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc Phila., Proc. 6: 406. ♀.

Mimesa nebrascensis Smith, 1908. Nebr. Univ., Studies 8: 390. ♀.

Biology: Krombein, 1961. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 56: 64 (nest, prey). — Kurczewski and
Lane, 1974. Ent. Soc Wash., Proc. 76: 377-379, figs. 1, 3 (nest, prey transport, egg).

Mimesa coquilletti (Rohwer)
Calif., Nev.

Psen (Mimesa) coquilletti Rohwer, 1910. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 12: 103. 9 (6 misdet).

Mimesa cressonii
***authority mismatch
atriventris (Malloch). Ont. (Toronto).

Psen (Mimesa) cressoni (!) var. atriventris Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26):
31. ♂.




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Mimesa cressonii
***authority mismatch
cressonii Packard. Transcont. in Transit, and U. Austr. Zones. Ecology: Nests in

level sand. Parasite: Senotainia trilineata (Wulp). Prey: Doratura stijlata (Boh.) adults,
DiplocolevHs configuratus (Uhler) adult and nymphs, Athysanella longkauda Beirne
adults, Polyamia compacia (Osborn and Ball) adults, Laevicepkalus melshermeri (Fitch)
adults, Scaphytopius sp. ? nymphs; Delphacodes campestris Van Duzee adult, D. sp.
nymph, Laccocera vittipennis Van Duzee adult, Libumiella ornata (Stal) adult;
Craspedolepta sp. adult.

Mimesa Cressonii Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 405. ♀.

Mimesa denticulata Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 406. ♂.

Mimesa conica Smith, 1908. Nebr. Univ., Studies 8: 389. "♀"=♂.

Biology: Kurczewski and Lane, 1974. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 76: 379-382, figs. 2, 4-6 (nest,

prey transport, egg, parasite).

Mimesa dawsoni Mickel
Nebr. (Harrison).

Miviesa dawsoni Mickel, 1916. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 42: 420. ♂.

Mimesa edentata (Malloch)
Calif. (San Diego Co.).

Psen (Mimesa) edenfatus Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 37. ♂.

Mimesa ezra (Pate)
Maine, Pa., Md., Wis., Kans., Colo., Wash. Ecology: Nests in sandy soil. Prey:
Exitianus exitiosus (Uhler).

Mimesa argentifrons Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 487. ♀, ♂. Preocc.

Psen (Mimesa) ezra Pate, 1944. Canad. Ent. 76: 133. N. name.

Biology: Williams, 1914 (1913). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 8: 226, pi. 33, figs. 1, 3 (nest, prey).

Mimesa granulosa (Fox)
S. Dak., Mont, Idaho, N. Mex.

Psen granulosus Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 15. ♂.

Mimesa gregaria
***authority mismatch
gregaria (Fox). Wyo., Colo., N. Mex.

Pse7i gregarius Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 16. ♂.

Mimesa gregaria
***authority mismatch
simplex (Malloch). Idaho, Utah, Colo.

Psen (Mi7nesa) gregarius var. simplex Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 42. ♀.
6.

Mimesa impressifrons (Malloch)
Wash. (Perry).

Psen (Mimesa) impressifrons Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 38. ♂.
macuiipes Fox. Ont. to Fla.

Mimesa macuiipes Fox, 1893. Canad. Ent. 25: 117. ♂.

Psen (Mimesa) nigrescens Rohwer, 1910. Ent. News 21: 168. ♂.

Psen (Mimesa) perplexa Rohwer, 1910. Ent. News 21: 169. ♀.

Mimesa pauper Packard
Transit. Zone east of Rockies.

Mimesa pauper Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc 6: 409. ♂.

Mimesa cingulaia Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 410. ♂.

Mimesa polita (Malloch)
Maine, Md., Nebr., N. Mex.

Psen (Mimesa) politus Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 35. ♀, ♂.

Mimesa proxima Cresson
Nebr., Colo., N. Mex., Wash.

Mimesa proxima Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 188. ♀.

Mimesa punctifrons (Malloch)
Calif. (Redlands).

Psen (Mimesa) punctifrons Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 82 (26): 36. ♂.

Mimesa pygidialis (Malloch)
Mich., Colo., Alta.

Psen (Miinesa) pygidialis Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 82 (26): 39. ♀, ♂.

Mimesa sabina Gittins
Calif.

Mimesa sabi^ia Gittins, 1966. Ent. News 77: 247. ♀, ♂.

Mimesa unicincta Cresson
Colo., Calif., B. C. Predator: Philanthus pulcher D. T.

Mimesa unicincta Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 488. ♀.

Genus MIMUMESA Malloch

Psen subg. Mimumesa Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 16.
Type-species: Psen niger Packard. Orig. desig.




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The North American nigra (Pack.) nests in decaying timber and preys upon adult Agallia leaf-
hoppers. Several species in the Old World have similar nesting habits and one species nests in
clay banks. The Old World species prey upon both Cicadellidae and Delphacidae.

Mimumesa canadensis (Malloch)
Ont., N. Y., Mich., N. Dak., Colo., Alaska.

Psen (Mimumesa) canadensis Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 22. ♀, ♂.

Mimumesa clypeata (Fox)
Colo., Utah, Nev., Idaho, Cahf., Wash., Alaska, N. W. T.

Psen clypeatus Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 15. ♀, ♂.

Mimumesa coloradoensis (Cameron)
Colo. (Berkeley Co.).

Psen (Mimesa) coloradoensis Cameron, 1908. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 34: 232. ♀.

Mimumesa cylindrica (Fox)
Ariz.

Psen cylindricus Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 5. ♀, ♂.

Mimumesa fuscipes (Packard)
Mass.

Psenfuscipes Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 402. ♀.

Mimumesa interstitialis (Cameron)
N. Mex.

Psen (Mimesa) interstitialis Cameron, 1908. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 34: 233. ♂.

Mimumesa johnsoni Viereck
N. Y. to Va., W. Va.

Mimesa johnsoni Viereck, 1901. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 27: 340. ♀, ♂.

Mimumesa leucopus (Say)
N. H., Md., D. C, Va., Ind., 111., Alta.

Psen leucopus Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 370. ♀, ♂.

Psen elongatus Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc, Phila., Proc. 6: 400. "♀"=♂.

Mimumesa longicornis (Fox)
R. I., N. Y. to Fla., La., Iowa; Cuba, Cent. Amer.

Psen longicornis Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 8. ♂.

Mimesa striatus Viereck, 1901. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 27: 339. ♀.

Psen (Mimesa) floridana Rohwer, 1910. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 12: 102. ♀.

Mimumesa mandibularis Smith
Nebr.

Mimesa mandibularis Smith, 1908. Nebr. Univ., Studies 8: 392. ♀.

Mimumesa mellipes (Say)
N. Y., Md., D. C, Ohio, Ind., 111., Iowa, Nebr.

Psen mellipes Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 369. ♀.

Psen chalcifrons Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 401. ♀.

Mimumesa mixta (Fox)
Transcont. in Transit. Zone. Predator: Philanthus pulcher D. T.

Psen mixtus Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 7. ♀, ♂.

Mimesa alticola Viereck, 1903. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 29: 65. ♀.

Psen (Mimesa) similis Rohwer, 1910. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 12: 101. ♂.

Mimumesa nigra (Packard)
Transcont. in Transit. Zone. Ecology: Nests in decaying wood. Prey: Agallia
sp. adults.

Psen niger Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 399. ♀ (♂ misdet.).

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 143-144, figs. 21-22 (larva).
Biology: Gurney, 1951. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 53: 280 (nest, prey).

Mimumesa propinqua Kincaid
Alaska.

Mimesa vropinqua Kincaid, 1900. Wash. Acad. Sci., Proc. 2: 508. ♂.

Mimumesa psychrus (Pate)
Canada (Hudson Bay).

Mimesa borealis Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 431. ♂. Preocc.
Psen (Mimesa) psychnis Pate, 1944. Canad. Ent. 76: 133. N. name.

Mimumesa regularis (Fox)
N. J., Pa.

Psen regularis Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 6. ♀.

Taxonomy: Viereck, 1901. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 27: 339. ♀.

Genus PSENEO Malloch

Psen subg. Pseneo Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 7.
Type-species: Psen kohlii Fox. Orig. desig.

Meager records indicate that these wasps nest either in the soil or in decaying wood, and prey
upon leafhoppers, both nymphs and adults.




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Revision: Krombein, 1950. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 52: 277-287 (N. Amer. spp.). —van Lith,
1975. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 118: 15-39, figs. 16-37 (New World spp.).

Pseneo longiventris
***authority mismatch
kohlii (Fox). N. Y. south to Ga., W. Va., Ala., Ind., Kans.
Psen Kohlii Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 9. 9 (cJ misdet.).
Psew (Pseiieo) fulvipes Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 11, fig. 3. ♀.
Pse7i (Pseneo) angulatus Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 12. ♂.

Morphology: Snodgrass, 1941. Smithsn. Inst., Misc. Collect. 99 (14): pi. 22, figs. E-J (male
genitalia).

Pseneo longiventris
***authority mismatch
longiventris (Cameron). N. Mex., Ariz, south to Colombia and Surinam.

Mimesa longiventris Cameron, 1891. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 2, p. 137, pi. 8, fig. 18. "9"

= Mimesa montezuma Cameron, 1891. Biol. Cent.-Amer., Hym., v. 2, p. 138. ♀.
Psen (Pseneo) spicatus Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 12. ♂.

Pseneo punctatus
***authority mismatch
Carolina (Rohwer). Va. to north. Fla., Ala., Miss., Ark. Ecology: Nests in soil in
flowerpot. Prey: Homalodisca triquetra (F.), Graphocephala coccinea (Foerster).
Psen (Mimesa) punctata var. Carolina Rohwer, 1910. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 12: 103. ♀.

Biology: Krombein, 1950. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 52: 283 (nest, prey).

Pseneo punctatus
***authority mismatch
ferrugineus (Viereck). South. Fla.

Mimesa ferrnginea Viereck, 1901. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 27: 341. ♂.

Pseneo punctatus
***authority mismatch
punctatus (Fox). S. Dak., Nebr., Colo.; Mexico (Morelos).

Psen pimctatiis Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 9. ♀.

Pseneo simplicicornis (Fox)
Que., N. J. and Pa. south to N. C. Ecology: Nests in decaying wood;
cocoons of reared series bear fragments of wood pulp. Prey: Graphocephala sp.,
Cicadellinae sp.
Psen simplicicor)iis Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 10. ♀ (♂ misdet.).

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 142 (larva).

Biology: Krombein, 1950. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 52: 286 (nest). —Krombein, 1951. U. S. Dept.
Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 959 (prey).

Genus PSEN Latreille

Psen Latreille, 1796. Precis Caract. Gen. Ins., p. 122. No species.

Type-species: Sphex atra Fabricius. First included species.
Psenia Stephens, 1829. System. Cat. Brit. Ins., p. 361.

Type-species: Sphex atra Fabricius. Desig. by Pate, 1937.
Dahlbomia Wissman, 1849. Stettin. Ent. Ztg. 10: 9.

Type-species: Sphex atra Fabricius. Monotypic
Mesopora Wesmael, 1852. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belg., Bui. 19: 279.

Type-species: Sphex atra Fabricius. Monotypic.
Caenopsen Cameron, 1899. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 4: 55.

Type-species: Caenopsen fuscinervis Cameron. Monotypic.
Punctipsen van Lith, 1968. Tijdschr. Ent. Ill: 125.

Type-species: Mimesa exarata Eversmann. Orig. desig.

The North American barthi Vier. nests in dead wood and preys upon Membracidae, and

Psen erythropoda
***authority mismatch
Roh. preys upon Cercopidae. Extralimital species have been reported as nesting in
dead wood or in sandy or clay soil, and as preying upon Cicadellidae, Cercopidae and Mem-
bracidae.

Revision: van Lith, 1975. Tijdschr. v. Ent. 118: 2-15, figs. 1-15 (New World spp.).

Psen barthi Viereck
Que., Conn., Pa., Md., Ga., Wis. Ecology: Nests in wood. Prey: Cyrtolobus

fenestratus (Fitch); Atymna inoniata (Say); Micrutalis calva (Say); cocoons from which
type series of myersiana was reared bear attached fragments of Membracidae, perhaps
Enchenopa binotata (Say).
Psen {Mimesa) barthi Viereck, 1907. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 5: 251. ♀.
Mimesa myersiana Rohwer, 1909. Ent. News 20: 324. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 142-143, fig. 20 (larva).




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Biology: Barth, 1907. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Bui. 5: 251-257 (nest, prey).

Psen erythropoda Rohwer
Ont., Maine to Ga., Wis., Ind. Prey: Aphrophora quadrinotata Say.
Psen {Mimesa) erythopoda (!) Rohwer, 1910. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 12: 102. ♀.
Psen (Mimesa) erythropoda Rohwer, 1910. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 12: 176. Emend.

Biology: MaUoch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 15 (prey).

Psen monticola (Packard)
Ont, N. H. to Ga., W. Va., Mich., Ala.

Mimesa monticola Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 407. ♂.

Psen unifasciculatus
***authority mismatch
MaUoch. N. Mex. (Beulah). Possibly the opposite sex of and a synonym of
montivagus D. T.
Psen (Psen) unifasciculatus Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 82 (26): 15. ♂.

Tribe PSENULINI

Genus PLUTO Pate

Psenia Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 44. Preocc.

Type-species: Mimesa tibialis Cresson. Orig. desig.
Pluto Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Mem. 9: 51. N. name.

Biological notes are available for only one species which nests in large aggregations in sandy
soil and preys upon nymphal and adult leafhoppers. The presence of a foretarsal pecten in the
female suggests that members of the genus are all ground-nesting.

Pluto aerofacies (Malloch)
Tex.; Mexico.

Psenia aerofacies Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc.S2 (26): 49. ♀, ♂.

Pluto albifacies (Malloch)
Iowa, Tex. Ecology: Nests gregariously in ilat clay-sand, each nest with
several cells and 5-12 prey per cell. Prey: Opsins stactogalus Fieb., nymphs and adults.

Pse7iia albifacies Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 50. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 140-141, figs. 1-6 (larva).

Biology: Evans, 1968. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 61: 1344 (nest, prey).

Pluto angulicornis (Malloch)
Tex.

Pse7iia angulicornis Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 58. ♀, ♂.

Pluto arenivagus Krombein
N. C, Ga., Fla.

Psenia angulicornis var. Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 48 (in key).

Pluto arenivagus Krombein, 1950 (1949). Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc, Jour. 65: 268. ♀, ♂.

Pluto brevipetiolatus (Rohwer)
Calif.

Psenulus (Neofoxia) brevipetiolatus Rohwer, 1910. Ent. Soc Wash., Proc. 12: 100. ♀.

Pluto clavicornis (Malloch)
Ariz.; Mexico.

Pseiiia clavicornis Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 50. ♂.

Pluto littoralis (Malloch)
Md., Fla.

Pse7iia littoralis Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 82 (26): 56. ♀, ♂.

Pluto longiventris (Malloch)
Ariz., Calif.

Psenia longiventris Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 52. ♀, ♂.

Pluto marginatus (Malloch)
S. C, La.

Pseyiia marginata Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 82 (26): 54. ♀, ♂.

Pluto minutus (Malloch)
Tex. (San Diego).

Pse7iia minnta Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 59. ♀.
pallidistigma (Malloch). Ariz., Tex.

Psenia pallidistigma Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 82 (26): 52. ♀, ♂.

Pluto rufibasis (Malloch)
Ga.

Psenia rufibasis Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 82 (26): 53. ♀, ♂.

Pluto sayi (Rohwer)
Austr. Zone.

Psenulus (Neofoxia) sayi Rohwer, 1910. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 12: 100. ♀.

Pluto suffusus (Fox)
N. Mex., Nev., Calif.

Psen suffusus Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 18. 9 (misdet. in part).




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Pluto texanus (Malloch)
Tex. (Brownsville).

Pse7iia texana Malloch. 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 56. ♀, ♂.

Pluto tibialis (Cresson)
D. C, Va., S. C, Tenn., Ala., La., Mo., Tex.

Mimesa tibialis Cresson, 1872. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 4: 227. ♀, ♂.

Genus PSENULUS Kohl

Psenulus Kohl, 1896. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus., Ann. 11: 254, 293.

Type-species: Psen fuscipennis Dahlbom. Desig. by Ashmead, 1899.
Neofoxia Viereck, 1901. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 27: 338.

Type-species: Psen atrata (Fabricius) of Panzer. Orig. desig.
Stenomellinus Schulz, 1911. Zool. Ann. 4: 142.

Type-species: Psen dilectus Saussure. Monotypic.
Psenulus subg. Eopsenulus Gussakovskij, 1934. Mushi 7: 84.

Type-species: Psenulus (Eopsenulus) iwatai Gussakovskij. Orig. desig.
Nipponopsen Yasumatsu, 1938. Mushi 11: 84.

Type-species: Nipponopsen anomoneurae Yasumatsu. Orig. desig.

These wasps nest in pre-existing cavities in twigs, stems and grass, and also in abandoned
beetle borings in wood. Prey records of North American species are Aphididae and Psyllidae.
Some extralimital species prey upon Delphacidae and Cicadellidae.

Revision: Krombein, 1950. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 45: 35-40 (N. Amer. spp.).

Psenulus alienus (Krombein)
Calif. Ecology: Nests in borings in Sambucus stems. Prey: Psyllidae sp.
adults.
Diodontus (Diodontus) alienus Krombein, 1950. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 45: 38. ♀.

Biology: Parker and Bohart, 1966. Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 94 (nest, prey).

Psenulus frontalis (Fox)
Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., Utah, Calif., Wash.

Psen frontalis Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 4. ♀.

Diodontus occidentalis Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 5. 9. Preocc
Diodontus hesperus Pate, 1944. Canad. Ent. 76: 133. N. name.
pallipes parenosas (Pate). N. H. to Ga., Utah, Calif. Ecology: Nests in borings in wood, in old
anobiid borings, and in canes of Rubus. Parasite: Pyemotes ventricosus (Newp.);
Lackerbaueria krombeini Baker; Chrysididae sp., possibly Omalus. Prey: Drepanaphis
acerifoliae (Thos.) adults, D. sp. nymphs, Therioaphis sp. ? nymphs, Macrosiphuni sp.
nymphs. Typical pallipes (Panz.) and other subspecies occur in the Palaearctic Region.
Diodontus parenosas Pate, 1944. Canad. Ent. 76: 133. N. name for Malloch's misdet. of

Psenulus trisulcus (Fox)


Taxonomy: Krombein, 1950. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 45: 37 (lectotype desig.). —Evans, 1959.
Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 144-145, figs. 13-19 (larva).

Biology: Krombein, 1951. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 958 (nest). —Krombein, 1955.
Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 50: 15-16 (nest, prey). —Krombein, 1958. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc
71: 22 (nest, prey). —Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 232-234 (nest,
prey, life cycle, cocoon, parasites).

Psenulus trisulcus (Fox)
N. H. to Tenn., Mo., Kans. Ecology: Nests in elder stems. Parasite: Omalus
iridescens (Nort.).
Psen trisulcus Fox, 1898. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 25: 5. ♀.

Diodontus corusanigrens Rohwer, 1920. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 57: 228. "♀"=♂.
Diodontxcs sulcatns Malloch, 1933. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 82 (26): 6. ♀.

Taxonomy: Pate, 1944. Canad. Ent. 76: 133.

Biology: Rau, 1922. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 24: 21-22 (nest).

Subfamily PEMPHREDONINAE

Revision: Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 307-326 (N. Amer. spp.; not reUable for
identification).




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Taxonomy: Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 90-93 (key to gen.). —Evans, 1958. Amer.
Ent. Soc, Trans. 84: 126-136, figs. 49-57, 60-69 (larvae). —Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc,
Trans. 90: 246-253, figs. 17-25 (larvae).

Tribe PEMPHREDONINI

Genus DIODONTUS Curtis

Diodontus Curtis, 1834. Brit. Ent., v. 11, text for pi. 496.

Type-species: Pemphredon tristis Vander Linden. Desig. by Internatl. Comn. Zool.
Nomencl., 1968. Op. 844, Bui. Zool. Nomencl. 25: 10.
Xylocelia Rohwer, 1915. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 49: 243.

Type-species: Diodontus occidentalis Fox. Orig. desig.

Members of this genus nest in the ground. Aphids are the normal prey, but there is one record
of a leafhopper being used.

Taxonomy: Mickel, 1916. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 9: 344-352 (N. Amer. spp.). — Krombein, 1939.

Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 34: 143 (key to N. Y. spp.). — Bohart and Menke, 1965. Bui. Zool.

Nomencl. 22: 257-258 (request to place Diodontus on Official List of Generic Names with

tristis as type-species).
adamsi Titus. Mich. (Isle Royale).

Diodontus adaynsi Titus, 1909 (1908). Mich. Board Geol. Survey Rpt. for 1908, p. 319. ♀.
americanus Packard. Maine, Wis. Ecology: Nests in soil. Prey: Choke-cherry aphids.

Diodontus americanus Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 393. ♀.

Biology: Peckham and Peckham, 1898. Wis. 'Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey, Bui. 2: 99-107, pi. 10, fig.
5, pi. 14, fig. 3 (nest, prey, life cycle).
antennatus (Mickel). Nebr. (Omaha).

Xylocelia antennatus Mickel, 1916. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 9: 348. ♀.
argentinae Rohwer. Colo., Wyo. Ecology: Nests gregariously in flat sand and makes up to 5
cells per nest. Parasite: Diptera sp. Prey: Aphididae sp. or spp. Predator: Philanthus
pulcher D. T.
Diodontus argeiitinae Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 104. ♂.

Biology: Evans, 1970. Mus. Compar. Zool., Bui. 140: 486 (nest, prey, parasite, predator).
ater (Mickel). Nebr., Kans., Pa. Ecology: Nests in vertical sand or clay bank, and in sloping
gravel bank. Prey: Aphididae sp. or spp. Predator: Philanthus pacificus Cr.
Xylocelia ater Mickel, 1916. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 9: 351. ♀.

Biology: Rau, 1922. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 24: 21 (nest). —Evans, 1970. Mus. Compar.

Zool., Bui. 140: 486-487 (nest, prey, predator).
beulahensis (Rohwer). N. Mex. (Beulah).

Xylocelia beulahensis Rohwer, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 53: 174. ♀.
bidentatus Rohwer. N. B., N. Y., Mich.

Diodontus bidentatus Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 560. ♂.
brunneicornis Viereck. Kans. (Sedgwick Co.).

Diodontus brunneicornis Viereck, 1906. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 32: 212. ♂.
cockerelli Rohwer. Colo. (Florissant).

Diodontus cockerelli Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 105. ♂.
crassicornus Viereck. Oreg. (Corvallis).

Diodontus crassicornus Viereck, 1904. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 30: 243. ♂.
flavitarsis Fox. Colo.

Diodontus flavitarsis Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 316. ♂.
florissantensis Rohwer. Colo. (Florissant).

Diodontus florissantensis Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 107. ♀, ♂.
franclemonti (Krombein). N. Y., Pa., Md., D. C, Va., Mich. Ecology: Nests gregariously in
sand.

Xylocelia fraticlemonti Krombein, 1939. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 34: 141. ♀, ♂.




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Taxonomy: Evans, 1958. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 84: 133, figs. 65, 66 (larva).

Biology: Lin, 1967. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 69: 343-346 (linear copulation).
fraternus Rohwer. Colo. (Florissant).

Diodontus fraternus Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 106. ♂.
gillettei Fox. Nebr., Colo., Idaho. Predator: Philanthus pulcher D. T., P. pacificus Cr.

Diodontus Gillettei Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 316. ♀.
leguminiferus Cockerel]. N. Mex. (Santa Fe).

Diodontus leguminiferus Cockerell, 1897. In Cockerell and Fox, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.,
Proc 49: 141. ♂.
maestus Mickel. Nebr., Colo.

Xylocelia maestus Mickel, 1916. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 9: 347. ♂.
metathoracicus (Mickel). Ala., Mo., Nebr. Ecology: Nests in clay bank, the cell with up to 48
aphids. Prey: Hysteroneura setariae (Thos.).
Xylocelia metathoracicus Mickel, 1916. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 9: 349. ♀.

Biology: Rau and Rau, 1918. Wasp Studies Afield, pp. 102-108, figs. 27, 28 (nest, prey,
mating).
neomexicanus Rohwer. N. Mex. (Rowe).

Diodontus neomexicanus Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 317. ♀.
nigritus Fox. Colo.

Diodontus nigritus Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 317. ♀.

Diodontus occidentalis
***authority mismatch
Fox. Nebr., Ariz., Calif. Ecology: Nests gregariously in level sand, the cells

provisioned with 23-30 aphids. Parasite: Omalus cressoni (Aar.). Prey: Aphis sp., Myzus
persicae Sulz. (?), Macrosiphum (Acyrthosiphon) sp., Rhopalosiphum sp.
Diodontus occidentalis Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 315. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Powell, 1964. Wasmann Jour. Biol. 21: 155-176 (nest, prey, parasites, mating, life

cycle, cocoon).
rugosus Fox. Ill, Nebr., Colo., Mont.

Diodontus rugosus Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 315. ♂.
siouxensis (Mickel). Nebr. (Sioux Co.).

Xylocelia siouxensis Mickel, 1916. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 9: 350. ♀.
spiniferus (Mickel). Nebr. (Omaha).

Xylocelia spiniferus Mickel, 1916. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 9: 348. ♀.
striatus (Mickel). N. Dak., Wyo.

Xylocelia striatus Mickel, 1916. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 9: 350. ♀.
vallicolae Rohwer. Colo. (Florissant, Boulder).

Diodontus vallicolae Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 104. ♂.

Diodontus vallicolae salicis Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 105. ♂.
virginianus (Rohwer). N. Y., Md., Va. Ecology: Nests gregariously in flat soil, or in pockets of
soil between roots, the cell provisioned with up to 5 aphids. Parasite: Omalus
intermedins (Aar.). Prey: Prociphilus tesselatus (Fitch) nymphs; Typhlocyba sp. adult.

Xylocelia virginiana Rohwer, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 175. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1958. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 84: 133, fig. 67 (larva).

Biology: Krombein, 1951. U. S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Monog. 2: 964 (prey). — Krombein, 1958. Biol.
Soc. Wash., Proc. 71: 22-24 (nest, prey). —Krombein, 1963. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 65: 264
(parasite).

Genus PEMPHREDON Latreille

The species nest in twigs, deserted galls, abandoned beetle burrows, or in rotten wood and
provision the cells with Aphididae.

Genus PEMPHREDON Subgenus PEMPHREDON Latreille

Pemphredon Latreille, 1796. Precis. Caract. Gen. Ins., p. 128. No species.
Type-species: Crabro lugubris Fabricius. Desig. by Shuckard, 1837.




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Revision: Rohwer, 1917. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 11: 97-102 (N. Amer. spp.).

Pemphredon concolor Say
Transcont. in Transit. Zone. Ecology: Nests in beetle borings in stump. Parasite:

Omaius janus (Hald.), 0. sp.; Penthous mediator pleiimlis (Cr.); Phalacrotophora

longifrons (Brues). Prey: Loyigistigma caryae (Harr.).
Pemphredon concolor Say, 1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped., v. 2, p. 339.
Pemphredon Morio Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 486. ♀. Preocc.
Pemphredon concolor Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 78. ♀. Preocc.
Pemphredon Cressonii Dalla Torre, 1897. Cat. Hym., v. 8, p. 359. N. name.
Pemphredon Provancheri Dalla Torre, 1897. Cat. Hym., v. 8, p. 359. N. name.
Pemphredon shawii Rohwer, 1917. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 12: 100. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1958. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 84: 128-129, figs. 49-55 (larva).

Biology: Reinhard, 1929. Nature Mag. 13: 154-157, 7 figs, (nest, prey, cocoon, life cycle,
parasites). —Reinhard, 1929. The Witchery of Wasps, pp. 192-214, 3 pis. (nest, prey,
cocoon, life cycle, parasites).

Pemphredon confertim Fox
Wash., Oreg., Calif. Ecology: Nests in oak gall and in borings in stems.

Parasite: Anthrax irroratus Say; Senotainia trilineata (Wulp); Omaius jayius (Hald.), 0.
purpuratus (Prov.); Perithous mediator neomexicanus (Vier.).
Pemphredon confertim Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 311. ♂.
Pemphredon errans Rohwer, 1917. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 12: 99. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Parker and Bohart, 1966. Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 94 (nest, parasites).

Pemphredon foxii Rohwer
Pa., N. J.

Peynphredon foxii Rohwer, 1917. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 12: 101. ♀.

Pemphredon montanus Dahlbom
Transit. Zone east of Rocky Mts., B. C, N. W. T.; Europe.

Pemphredon lugubris var. b. Zetterstedt, 1838. Ins. Lapponica, p. 441.

Pemphredon montanus Dahlbom, 1844. Hym. Europaea, v. 1, p. 262. ♀, ♂.

Pemphredon angularis Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 310. ♀, ♂.

Pemphredon nearcticus Kohl
Nev., Colo.

Pemphredon (Cemonus) nearcticus Kohl, 1890. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus., Ann. 5: 55. ♀, ♂.
Pemphredon cockerelli Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 103. "♀"=♂.

rileyi Fox. Calif. (Placer Co.).

Pemphredon Rileyi Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 310. 9 (9 in part, cj misdet.).

Pemphredon tinctipennis Cameron
Ariz.

Pemphredon tinctipennis Cameron, 1908. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 34: 234. ♀.

Pemphredon virginianus Rohwer
N. Y., Pa., Va., W. Va., Wis. Ecology: Nests in rotten stump of tuliptree.
Prey: Cinara sp.

Pemphredon virginiana Rohwer, 1917. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 12: 101. ♀, ♂.

Genus PEMPHREDON Subgenus CEMONUS Panzer

Cemonus Jurine, 1801. Intell. Blatt. Litt. Ztg. Erlangen, v. 1, p. 164. Name suppressed by

Internatl. Comn. Zool. Nomencl., Op. 135, 1939.
Cemonus Panzer, 1806. Krit. Rev. Insektenf. Deutschlands, v. 2, p. 186.

Type-species: Sphex unicolor Panzer. Monotypic
Cemonus Jurine, 1807. Nouv. Meth. Class., Hym. Dipt., p. 213. Preocc.
Type-species: Sphex unicolor Panzer. Desig. by Shuckard, 1837.
Dineums Westwood, 1837. Mag. Nat. Hist. (n. s.) 1: 173.

Type-species: Pemphredon unicolor of Latreille. Orig. desig.
Cenomus Gimmerthal, 1836. Soc Imp. Nat. Moscou 9: 436. Emend, or lapsus.
Diphlebus Westwood, 1840. Introd. Mod. Classif. Ins. 2, Gen. Synop., p. 81.

Type-species: Pelopoeus unicolor Fabricius of Panzer. Orig. desig.
Chevrieria Kohl, 1883. Schweiz. Ent. Gesell., Mitt. 6: 658. Preocc.

Type-species: Pelopoeus unicolor Fabricius of Panzer. Orig. desig.

Pemphredon bipartior Fox
N. Y. to Va., W. Va., Mo., Tex., N. W. T. Ecology: Nests in borings in twigs of
sumac and elder. Parasite: Omaius purpuratus (Prov.) ?; Perithous mediator pleuralis
(Cr.) ? Prey: Eriosoma lariigerum (Hausm.), Rhopalosiphum rhois Mon., Aphididae sp.
Pemphredon bipartior Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 313. ♀.




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Pemphredon bipartitor (!) Dalla Torre, 1897. Cat. Hym., v. 8, p. 356.
Pemphredon biparitor (!) Rau, 1928. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 25: 369.
Pemphredon (Cereonus (.')) Iiarbecki Rohwer, 1910. Ent. News 21: 170. ♀.

Biology: Rau, 1928. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 25: 369-373, figs. 46, 47 (nest, prey, life cycle).
—Rau, 1934. Canad. Ent. 66: 259 (nest, prey, life history). — Krombein, 1960. Ent. News
71: 34 (nest, prey).

Pemphredon grinnelli (Rohwer)
B. C, Calif., Ariz., Utah, Colo. Ecology: Nests in borings in Sambucus

stems. Parasite: Anthrax ii-roratus Say; Omalus trilobatns Boh. and Camp., 0. cressoni

(Aar.); Eurytoma stig7na Ashm.; Habrocytus analis (Ashm.).
Ceratophortts gennelli (!) Rohwer, 1910. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 12: 104. 9. This name was

intended as a patronymic for F. Grinnelli, Jr., who collected the holotype.
Ceratophonis grinyielli utahensis Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 562. ♀.
Cemonus gijfardi Rohwer, 1917. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 53: 246. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1958. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 84: 129, fig. 57 (larva).

Biology: Parker and Bohart, 1966. Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 94 (nest, parasites).

Pemphredon inornatus Say
Transcont. in Transit, and U. Austr. Zones; Europe. Ecology: Nests in cavities
in twigs, in rotten wood, and in exposed tree roots. Parasite: Perithons mediator
pleuralis Cr. Prey: Macrosiphum sp.
Pemphredon inornatus Say, 1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped., v. 2, p. 339.
Cemonus Shuckardi Morawitz, 1864. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Bui. 7: 460. ♀, ♂.
Cemonus dentatus Puton, 1871. Soc. Ent. de France, Ann. (5) 1: 94. ♀.
Pemphredon tenax Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 313. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1958. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 84: 128-129, figs. 49-55 (larva).

Biology: Rau and Rau, 1918. Wasp Studies Afield, p. 108 (nest, prey, life cycle). —Rau, 1928.

Acad. Sci. St. Louis, Trans. 25: 373-375 (nest, prey). —Rau, 1946. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui.

41: 10. —Evans, 1958. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 84: 129 (nest).

Pemphredon lethifer (Shuckard)
Ont. south to Fla., Pa. west to 111., Colo., Utah, Wash., Calif.; Europe.

Ecology: Nests in North America in soft pith of roses, berries, sumac, hibiscus. Possibly
adventive in North America. Parasite: Perithous divinator (Rossi); Omalus auratus (L.),
0. purpiuratus (Prov.). Prey: Aphis gossypii Glov., A. sp. nymphs, Chaitophorus
populicola patchae H. R. L. nymphs and adults.

Cemonus lethifer Shuckard, 1837. Essay on Indig. Fossor. Hym., p. 201. ♀, ♂.

Ceynonus strigatus Chevrier, 1870. Schweiz. Ent. Gesell., Mitt. 3: 269. ♀, ♂.

Cemonus Fabricii Mueller, 1911. Ent. Rundschau 28: 107. N. name for unicolor Auctt.

Pemphredon (Diphlebiis) littoralis Wagner, 1918. Deut. Ent. Ztschr., p. 143. ♀, ♂.

Pemphredon (Diphlebus) fuscatns Wagner, 1918. Deut. Ent. Ztschr., p. 143. ♂.

Pemphredon {Diphlebus) neglectus Wagner, 1918. Deut. Ent. Ztschr., p. 143. ♂.

Pemphredon {Diphlebus) minutus Wagner, 1918. Deut. Ent. Ztschr., p. 143. ♂.

Pemphredon (Dineurus) lethifer form confusa Wagner, 1932 (1931). Deut. Ent. Ztschr., p.
231. ♀.

Pemphredon (Dineurus) brevipetiolatus Wagner, 1932 (1931). Deut. Ent. Ztschr., p. 232,
fig. 14. ♂.

Taxonomy: Krombein. 1959. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 54: 95-96 (occurrence of lethifer in N.
Amer. and differentiation from N. Amer. spp.). —Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90:
246-248, figs. 23-25 (larva).

Biology: Rau, 1948. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 41: 326 (nest, prey; misdet. as inortiatus).
—Krombein, 1959. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 54: 96 (parasite). —Krombein, 1960. Ent. News
71: 34-35 (nest, prey, cocoon, life cycle, parasite). —Krombein, 1964. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc.
77: 99-100, fig. 17 (nest, prey, life cycle). -Thomas, 1964. Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts and
Letters, Papers 49: 199-201 (nest, parasite, life history). —Parker and Bohart, 1966.
Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 94 (nest).

Genus PASSALOECUS Shuckard

Xyloeciis Shuckard, 1837. Essay Indig. Fossor. Hym., Conspect. Gen., No. 25. Preocc.




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Passaloecus Shuckard, 1837. Essay Indig. Fossor. Hym., p. 188. N. name.

Type-species: Pemphredon insigiiis Vander Linden. Orig. desig.
CoeloecHS Verhoeff, 1890. Ent. Nachr. 16: 383.

Type-species: Diodontns gracilis Curtis. Desig. by Pate, 1937.
Heroecus Verhoeff, 1890. Ent. Nachr. 16: 383. No species.

Type-species: Pemphredon insigtiis Vander Linden. Included and desig. by Pate,
1937.

Most Passaloecus nest in pre-existing borings, cavities in wood or twigs and stems, in decay-
ing wood and in abandoned galls, although one extralimital species has been recorded as nesting
in sandy soil. Two North American species, annulatus and cuspidatus, and the Holarctic insig-
nis, have been reported in North America as making a series of linear cells with the partitions
and closing plugs made from resin. The Peckhams' report (1905) of annulatus closing its nest
with pellets of mud is questionable and may have been based on a misidentification. However,
two species in Europe and Japan are known to form the cell partitions from grains of earth, in-
sect feces and other debris, so perhaps anmilatns is not so restricted in its choice of nesting
materials as cuspidatus and insignis. Aphids are the preferred prey, but rarely, and perhaps in-
advertently, a few psyllids may be included in a cell.

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1938. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 33: 122-127 (key to N. Y. spp.).

Passaloecus annulatus
***authority mismatch
annulatus (Say), n. status. Ont., transcont. in U. S. Ecology: Nests in deserted
beetle burrows in wood or pith, and in logs. Prey: Drepanaphis acerifoliae (Thos.) ?
nymph, D. sp. nymph, Macrosiphum sp. nymph, Neothomasia populicola (Thos.),
Aphididae sp. Another subsp. occurs in Korea.
Pemphredon annulatus Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 379. ♀, ♂.
Passalaccus (!) rivertonensis Viereck, 1904. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 30: 243. ♂.
Passalaecns (!) equalis Viereck, 1906. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 32: 212. ♀.

Biology: Peckham and Peckham, 1905. Wasps, Social and Solitary, pp. 87-89 (nest, prey, life

cycle). —Krombein, 1955. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 50: 16 (prey). —Krombein, 1958. Biol.

Soc. Wash., Proc 71: 24 (nest, prey). —Krombein, 1960. Ent. News 71: 35-36 (nest, prey).

—Krombein, 1961. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 56: 65 (nest, prey).

Passaloecus armeniacae Cockerell
N. Mex., Ariz., Colo., Idaho, Calif., B. C.

Passaloecus artneniacae Cockerell, 1897. hi Cockerell and Fox, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.,
Proc. 49: 141. ♀.

Passaloecus borealis Dahlbom
Alaska, western Canada, Rocky Mts. south to Utah, Colo.; north. Europe
and at higher altitudes in south.

Passaloecus borealis Dahlbom, 1844. Hym. Europaea, v. 1, p. 247. ♀, ♂.

Passaloecus cuspidatus Smith
Transcont. chiefly in Transit, and U. Austr. Zones. Ecology: Nests in

borings in wood, and provisions each cell with 11-52 aphids. Parasite: Anthrax irroratus
Say; Poemenia a. americana (Cr.), P. a. nebulosa Hab. and Tow.; Chalcididae sp.;
Omalus aeneus (F.), 0. purpuratus (Prov.), 0. cressoni (Aar.). Prey: Cinara abieticola
(Choi.), C.fortnacula Hottes, Pterocomma bicolor (Oest.), Macrosiphum euphorbiae
(Thos.), M. rosae (L.), M. spp., Myzus porosus (Sand.), Masonaphis sp., Rhopalosiphum
sp., Euceraphis betulae (Koch). Predator: Philanthus pulcher D. T., P. pacificus Cr.

Passaloecus cuspidatus Smith, 1856. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 427. ♀.

Pemphredon mandibularis Cresson, 1865. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 4: 487. ♀.

Passaloecus distinctus Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 319.

Passaloecus dispar Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 320. ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1958. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 84: 131-132, figs. 60-64 (larva). —Evans,
1959. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 85: 167 (larva). —Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90:
250-251 (larva).

Biology: Packard, 1869. Guide Study Ins., p. 161 (nest, prey, parasite). —Krombein, 1956.
Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 51: 42-43 (nest, prey). —Krombein, 1958. Biol. Soc Wash., Proc.
71: 24-25 (nest, prey). — Fye, 1965. Canad. Ent. 97: 740, 742 (nest, prey, parasite, life cycle).
—Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 236-239, figs. 66, 67 (nest, prey, life
cycle, parasites). —Evans, 1973. Great Basin Nat. 33: 154-155 (nest, prey, parasites,
predators).




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Passaloecus gracilis (Curtis)
Pa. and N. J. to Tex. along coast, Ohio, Ind., Mich.; west. Europe. Ecology:
Nests in borings in twigs. Adventive from Europe. Parasite: Perithous divinator
(Rossi); Omalus auratus (L.).

Diodontiis gracilis Curtis, 1834. Brit. Ent., v. 11, pi. 496. ♂.

Passaloecus turionum Dahlbom, 1844. Hym. Eur. 1: 246. ♀, ♂.

Passaloecus brevicomis Morawitz, 1864. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, Bui. 7: 462. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1961. Ent. News 72: 258-259 (adventive in U. S. and separation from
N. Amer. spp.).

Biology: Krombein, 1961. Ent. News 72: 258 (nest, parasite).

Passaloecus marginatus (Say)
Pa.

Pemphredon marginatus Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 379.

Passaloecus melanocrus Rohwer
Tex., Colo., Ariz. Ecology: Nests in abandoned burrows of Dendroctonus
barberi Hopkins.
Passaloeais melanocrus Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 561. ♂.

Passaloecus melanognathus Rohwer
Oreg., Calif.

Passaloecus melanocpiathus Rohwer, 1910. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 12: 104. ♀.
monilicornis ithacae Krombein, n. status (D. Vincent). Mass., Conn., N. Y., Va., Ont., Mich.,
Minn., Alta., Alaska. Ecology: Nests in borings in twigs and wood. Parasite: Omalus
aeneus (P.), 0. sp.; Poemenia albipes (Cr.), P. sp. Prey: Cinara hottesi (Gill, and Palm.),
C. abieticola (Choi.), C.fomacula Hottes, C. palmerae (Gill.), C. braggii (Gill), C. sp.,
Neosymdobius americanus (Baker), Pterocomma smitkiae Mon. ?, Ainphorophora sp.,
Anuraphis rosea Baker, Rhopalosiphum fitchii (Sand.), Euceraphis betnlae (Koch).
Typical monilicornis Dahlbom occurs in the Palaearctic Region.
Passaloecus ithacae Krombein, 1938. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 33: 126. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1964. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 90: 249-250, fig. 22 (larva).

Biology: Fye, 1965. Canad. Ent. 97: 737-740, fig. 9 (nest, prey, parasites, life cycle).
—Krombein, 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees, pp. 234-236 (nest, prey, life cycle).

Passaloecus relativus Fox
Wyo., Colo., Utah, Nev., Ariz. Parasite: Poemenia americana nebulosa Hab. and
Tow. Predator: Philanthus pulcher D. T., P. pacificus Cr.
Passaloecus relativus Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 319. ♂.

Taxonomy: Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 100. ♀.

Passaloecus singularis
***authority mismatch
singularis Dahlbom. Mass., N. Y., Pa., Ohio, Mich., Utah, Colo.; Europe. Ecology:
Nests in abandoned burrows of Pissodes strobi (Peck). Possibly adventive in N. Amer.
Another subsp. occurs in Mongolia.
Passaloecus singularis Dahlbom, 1844. Hym. Europaea, v. 1, p. 243. ♂.
Passaloecus tenuis Morawitz, 1864. Acad. Imp. des Sci. St. Petersburg, Bui. 7: 462. ♀, ♂.
Passaloecus gertrudis Krombein, 1938. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 33: 124. ♀, ♂.

Genus POLEMISTUS Saussure

Polemistus Saussure, 1892. In Grandidier, Hist. Nat. Madagascar, v. 20, p. 565.

Type-species: Polemistus macilentus Saussure. Desig. by Pate, 1937.
Polymistus Ashmead, 1899. Canad. Ent. 31: 222. Emend, or lapsus.

Polemistus pusillus Saussure
Utah, Ariz.; Mexico. Ecology: Nests in abandoned Trypargilum mud nests
and makes cell partitions and nest closure from a transparent glass-like substance (resin
?), and stores 6-8 aphids per cell. Parasite: Monodontomems sp.; Omalus sp., Chrysis
sp. Prey: Aphis gossypii Glov., A. sp., Macrosiphum sp.
Polemistus pusillus Saussure, 1892. In Grandidier, Hist. Nat. Madagascar, v. 20, p. 565. ♀.

Biology: Rau, 1943. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann. 36: 647 (nest, prey, parasites).

Tribe STIGMINI
Genus STIGMUS Panzer

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1973. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 86: 211-230, 16 figs, (synonymy,
distribution and key to N. Amer. spp.).




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Genus STIGMUS Subgenus STIGMUS Panzer

Stigmus Panzer, 1804. Faunae Ins. German., heft 86, No. 7.

Type-species: Stigmus pendulus Panzer. Monotypic.
Gonostigrnus Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 559.

Type-species: Gonostigmus typicus Rohwer. Orig. desig.

Most species nest in pre-existing cavities, often beetle borings, in twigs, wood, structural
timber, shelf fungi and galls, but some tunnel in soft pith. The cells are usually placed in a linear
series except when old galls are used.

So far as known, only aphids are preyed upon.

Stigmus americanus Packard
Transcont. in Canada from Labrador and N. S. to B. C. and N. W. T., in
U. S. east of 100th meridian and Wash. Ecology: Nests most commonly in old beetle
borings in dead trees or structural timber, occasionally in twigs; cells in a linear series
are separated by partitions of wood or pith particles, but there is an authentic record of
two wasps developing in a single brood chamber. Parasite: Omalus janus (Hald.), 0.
iridescens (Nort.), 0. purpuratus (Prov.). Prey: Drepanaphis acerifoliae (Thos.) nymphs,
D. sp. nymphs and adult, Rhopalosiphum sp. nymphs. Aphis sp. nymph, Anuraphis sp.
nymphs, Myzocallis ? sp. nymph, Chaitophorus ? sp. nymph, Therioaphis sp. nymphs
and adults, Aphidini sp., Panaphidini sp. nymphs and adult, Aphidinae sp. nymph.

Stignuis americanus Packard, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 386. ♀, ♂.

Stigmus lucidus Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 102. ♂.

Stigmtis fratemus coloradensis Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 559. ♀.

Biology: Peckham and Peckham, 1898. Wis. Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey, Bui. 2: 44-45 (nest, prey,
parasite). — Krombein, 1954. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 49: 6 (nest, prey). — Krombein, 1955.
Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 50: 16 (nest, prey). —Krombein, 1956. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 51:
42. (prey). —Krombein, 1958. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 71: 24 (nest, prey). —Krombein, 1961.
Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Bui. 56: 64-65 (nest, prey, life cycle).

Stigmus aphidiperda Rohwer
Pa. to N. C. Ecology: Nests in peach twig. Prey: Aphis persicaeniger Sm.

Stigmus aphidiperda Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 558. ♀, ♂.

Stigmus fraternus Say
Mass. and N. H. to S. C, W. Va., Tenn., Mo. Ecology: Nests in twigs, old galls
and beetle borings in structural timber. Prey: Monellia sp. nymphs, Therioaphis sp.
nymphs, Aphididae spp.
Stigmus fraternus Say, 1824. hi Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped., v. 2, p. 340.
Stigmus conestogorum Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 557. ♀.
Stigmus fraternus raui Rohwer, 1923. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 25: 100. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Packard, 1869. Guide Study Ins., p. 161 (nest). — Rau, 1928. Acad. Sci. St. Louis,
Trans. 25: 379-381. (nest, prey, life cycle). —Krombein, 1958. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 71: 24
(nest, prey).

Stigmus fulvicornis Rohwer
Miss. (Starksville). Ecology: Nesting in floors of porch and in house. Prey:
Aphididae sp.
Stigmus fulvicornis Rohwer, 1923. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour. 13: 370. ♀.

Biology: Smith, 1923. Jour. Econ. Ent. 16: 553-554 (nest, prey).

Stigmus hubbardi Rohwer
Colo., Utah, N. Mex., Ariz., Calif., Wash. Ecology: Nests in the shelf fungus
Polyporus.
Stigmus inordiyiatus hubbardi Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 559. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc 40: 559 (nest).

Stigmus inordinatus
***authority mismatch
inordinatus Fox. Mont., Colo, and N. Mex. west to B. C. and Calif. Ecology: Nests
in cavities or borings in twigs or stems of mulberry, peony, peach, raspberry and
elderberry, constructing a linear series of cells stored with 12-30 aphids per cell.
Parasite: Omalus variatus (Aar.), 0. glomeratus (Buyss.), 0. cressoni (Aar.). Prey:
Aphis frangulae Kalt. ?, Aphididae sp.
Stigmus inordinatus Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 322. ♀, ♂.
Stigmus fulvipes var. coquilletti Rohwer, 1911. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 40: 559. ♀, ♂.
Stigmus reticulatus Mickel, 1918 (1917). Nebr. Univ., Studies 17: 330. ♀.

Taxonomy: Evans, 1958. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 84: 134-135, figs. 68, 69 (larva).




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Biology: Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 102 (prey). — Wasbauer and Simonds,
1964. Pan-Pacific Ent. 40: 114-116, 1 fig. (nest, prey, cocoon). —Parker and Bohart, 1966.
Pan-Pacific Ent. 42: 95 (nest, parasites).

Stigmus inordinatus
***authority mismatch
universitatis Rohwer. Conn, to Va., W. Va., Ill, Colo. Ecology: Nests in old insect
galls on oak. Prey: Aphididae sp.
Stigmus inordinatus universitatis Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 102. ♀.

Biology: Richardson, 1915. Psyche 22: 104-105 (nest, prey). — Krombein, 1973. Biol. Soc.
Wash., Proc. 86: 224 (nest).

Stigmus podagricus
***authority mismatch
podagricus Kohl. South. Tex. and Ariz.; Mexico (Veracruz, Morelos).

Stigmus podagricus Kohl, 1890. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus., Ann. 5: 65. ♂.

Stigmus podagricus
***authority mismatch
tarsalis Krombein. Ga., Fla., Ala., centr. and north. Tex.

Stigmus (Stigmus) podagricus tarsalis Krombein, 1973. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 86: 225,
figs. 6, 16.

Genus STIGMUS Subgenus ATOPOSTIGMUS Krombein

Stigmus subg. Atopostigmus Krombein, 1973. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 86: 218.
Type-species: Stigmus fulvipes Fox. Orig. desig.

The single known species apparently nests in abandoned burrows of other insects in the soil.
The preferred prey is unknown.

Stigmus fulvipes Fox
B. C. transcont. in U. S.; Mexico (Morelos). Ecology: Nests in sand or mud banks
in abandoned burrows of other insects.
Stigmus fulvipes Fox, 1892. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 19: 324. ♀.

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1952. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 78: 94 (separation from eastern spp.).

Biology: Krombein, 1973. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 86: 218 (nesting site).

NoMEN Nudum in Stigmus Panzer

Stigmus coloradensis
***authority mismatch
Ashmead. Colo.

Stigmus coloradensis Ashmead, 1889. hi Cockerell, Colo. Biol. Assn., 10th Rept., p. 2.
Probably published originally in Custer County Courant newspaper.

Genus SPILOMENA Shuckard

Celia Shuckard, 1837. Essay Indig. Fossor. Hym., p. 182. Preocc.

Type-species: Stigmus troglodytes Vander Linden. Monotypic
Spilomena Shuckard, 1838. Ent. Soc. London, Trans. 2: 79 (footnote). N. name.
Microglossa Rayment, 1930. Roy. Soc. Victoria, Proc. (n. s.) 42: 212. Preocc.

Type-species: Microglossa longifrons Rayment. Orig. desig.
Microglossella Rayment, 1935. A Cluster of Bees, p. 634. N. name.
Taialia Tsuneki, 1971. Life Study (Fukui) 15: 10.

Type-species: Taialia formosana Tsuneki. Orig. desig.

Biological notes have been recorded for only three North American species. All of them nest
in abandoned borings of anobiid beetles in structural timber or logs. They prey upon Thysanop-
tera, usually immatures although occasionally adults are captured. Some extralimital species
nest in twigs or decayed wood; in addition to Thysanoptera these species also prey upon imma-
ture Psyllidae, Coccidae and Aphididae. About a dozen undescribed species occur in the
southwestern deserts.

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1958. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 60: 54, 60-61, figs. 2-6 (key to eastern
spp.).

Spilomena alboclypeata Bradley
B. C, Oreg., Calif., Idaho, Mont, Utah, Ariz., N. Mex., Colo., Kans., W.
Va., Va. Ecology: Nests in abandoned borings of anobiid beetles. Prey: Immature
Thysanoptera.
Spilomena alboclypeata Bradley, 1906. Canad. Ent. 38: 380. ♂.

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1958. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 60: 60, figs. 4, 4a, 6. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1958. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 60: 62 (prey, nest).




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Spilomena ampliceps Krombein
W. Va. (Lost River St. Pk.). Ecology: Presumably nests in old beetle
borings in logs.
Spilomena ampliceps Krombein, 1952. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 54: 178, figs. 1-3. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1958. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 60: 60, figs. 3, 3a. 9, cJ.

Spilomena barberi Krombein
Mass., N. Y. and Ont. south to Ga. and Tenn., Iowa, Kans., Colo., N. Mex.,
Ariz., Utah, Calif. Ecology: Nests in abandoned anobiid borings in wood. Prey:
Sericothrips sp. larva, Frankliniella or Thrips sp. larva, Thripidae sp. larva.
Spilomena barberi Krombein, 1962. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 75: 12. ♂, ♀.

Spilomena foxii
***authority mismatch
Cockerel!. Colo., N. Mex., Ariz., Calif., Wash.; Mexico (Baja California, Puebla).

Spilomena foxii Cockerell, 1897. Entomologist 30: 136. ♀.

Spilomena pusilla (Say)
Conn, to N. C, west to Iowa, Kans. and Tenn. Ecology: Nests in abandoned
anobiid burrows in structural timber and in logs. Prey: Sericothrips sp. larva in
variabilis (Beach) section, Thripidae spp. larvae and adult.
Stigmus pusilhis Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 378. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1952. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 54: 178-179, figs. 4-6. 9, d. —Krombein,
1958. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 60: 53, 61, figs. 2, 2a, 5. ♀, ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1952. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 54: 181 (nest). —Krombein, 1956. Ent. Soc.
Wash., Proc. 58: 155 (nest, prey). —Krombein, 1958. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 60: 53 (nest,
prey).

Genus XYSMA Pate

Xysma Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 94.

Type-species: Ammoplanus ceanothae Viereck. Orig. desig.
Telexysma Leclercq, 1959. Pare Natl. Upemba, I. Mission G. Witte, fasc. 53 (2), p. 2.

Type-species: Telexysma africana Leclercq. Orig. desig.

The North American ceanothae nests in abandoned anobiid borings in structural timber and
preys upon immature Thysanoptera. Nothing is known of the biology of the only other Xysma,
the South African africana.

Xysma ceanothae (Viereck)
Pa., Md., D. C, Va., Ga. Ecology: Nests in abandoned anobiid borings in
structural timber. Prey: Thripinae spp. larvae.
Ammoplanus ceanothae Viereck, 1904. Psyche 11: 72. 9 (9 in part, 6, misdet.).

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1958. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 71: 25. ♂.

Biology: Krombein, 1958. Biol. Soc. Wash., Proc. 71: 25 (nest, prey).

Tribe AMMOPLANINI

Genus PULVERRO Pate

Pulverro Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 107.

Type-species: Pulverro mescalero Pate. Orig. desig.

This genus has been recorded only from the Nearctic Region. One species has been recorded
as nesting in soil and preying upon Thysanoptera, mostly adults but a few immatures.

Revision: Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 107-119, figs. 4, 6, 7, 9-12, 16, 20.

Pulverro californicus Eighme
Calif, in North Coast Ranges.

Pulverro califomica Eighme, 1973. Pan-Pacific Ent. 49: 49. ♂, ♀.

Pulverro chumashano Pate
West. Calif.

Pulverro chumashano Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 118. cj.
Pulverro costano Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 116. ♀.

Taxonomy: Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 417, fig. 24 (female chumashano).

Pulverro columbianus (Kohl)
Colo., Utah, Idaho, Oreg., B. C.

Ammoplanus (?) columbianus Kohl, 1890. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus., Ann. 5: 61. "♀"=♂.
Ammoplanus eriogoni Rohwer, 1909. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 35: 101. ♂.
Pulverro Colorado Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 115. ♀.




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Pulverro constrictus (Provancher)
South. Calif.

Anacrabro constrictus Provancher, 1895. Nat. Canad. 22: 141. ♀.
Pulverro serrano Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 114, fig. 9. ♂.

Taxonomy: Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 413, fig. 6 (female serrano).

Pulverro laevis (Provancher)
Calif. (Los Angeles).

Anacrabro laevis Provancher, 1895. Nat. Canad. 32: 142. ♀.

Pulverro mescalero Pate
Tex., N. Mex., Ariz.; n. and cent. Mexico.

Ammoplanus mandibularis Ashmead, 1898. In Cockerell, Davenport Acad. Nat. Sci., Proc.

7: 148. Norn. nud.
Pulverro mescalero Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 111. ♀, ♂.

Taxonomy: Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 411.

Pulverro monticola Eighme
Calif, in North Coast Ranges. Ecology: Nests in sloping banks, constructs
several cells off side burrows, and provisions each with up to 21 thrips. Prey:
Frankliniella moultoni Hood, Aeolothrips fasciatus (L.); mostly adults and some larvae.
Pulverro monticola Eighme, 1968. Pan-Pacific Ent. 44: 263, figs. 1-7. ♂, ♀.

Taxonomy: Bohart and Grissell, 1972. Pan-Pacific Ent. 48: 148-149, figs. 1-4 (larva).

Biology: Bohart and Grissell, 1972. Pan-Pacific Ent. 48: 145-148, fig. 5 (nest, prey, life cycle).

Genus AMMOPLANOPS Gussakovskij

Ammoplanops Gussakovskij, 1931. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat., Bol. 31: 457.
Type-species: Ammoplanops carinatus Gussakovskij. Orig. desig.

Nothing is known of the nesting habits or prey. The presence of a tarsal pecten and pygidium
in the female suggests that the species are ground-nesting.

Revision: Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 392-411, figs. 3, 10-12, 17-23, 25.

Ammoplanops ashmeadi Pate
Calif. (Palm Springs).

Ammoplanops ashmeadi Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 397. ♀, ♂.

Ammoplanops cockerelli (Ashmead)
Tex., N. Mex., Colo., Utah, Ariz., Calif.

Ammoplanus cockerelli Ashmead, 1903. Ent. News 14: 295. ♀.

Ammoplanops cressoni Pate
Ariz., Nev., Calif.

Ammoplanops cressoni Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 395. ♂.

Ammoplanops foxi Pate
Calif. (Clark Mt. in San Bernardino Co.).

Ammoplanops foxi Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 409. ♂.

Ammoplanops moenkopi Pate
N. Mex., Ariz., Utah.

Ammoplanops moenkopi Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 402. ♂.

Ammoplanops timberlakei Pate
Calif. (Andreas Canyon in Riverside Co.).

Ammoplanops timberlakei Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 404. ♂.

Ammoplanops vierecki Pate
N. Mex. (Alamogordo).

Ammoplanops vierecki Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 406. ♀, ♂.

Genus AMMOPLANUS Giraud

Ammoplanus Giraud, 1869. Soc. Ent. France, Ann. (4) 9: 469.

Type-species: Ammoplanus Perrisi Giraud. Desig. by Pate, 1937.
Hoplocrabron De Stefani, 1886. Nat. Sicil. 6: 60.

Type-species: Hoplocrabron Marathroicus De Stefani. Monotypic
Ammoplanus subg. Ceballosia Giner Mari, 1943. Eos 19: 293. Preocc.

Type-species: Ammoplanus rjabovi Gussakovskij. Orig. desig.

Nothing is known definitely as to the ethology of our species. In Europe and Africa species of
this genus nest in pre-existing cracks in stone, wood or soil and provision the cells with imma-
ture Thysanoptera.

Revision: Pate, 1943 (1942). South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 41: 144-157, figs. 1, 5, 6, 8-12 (N.
Amer. spp.).




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Ammoplanus chemehuevi Pate
Calif. (Riverside Co.).

Ammoplanus (Ammoplamis) chemehuevi Pate, 1943 (1942). South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui.
41: 151. ♀, ♂.

Ammoplanus loti Pate
Calif. (Riverside).

Ammoplanus {Ammoplanus) loti Pate, 1943 (1942). South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 41: 146.
9.

Ammoplanus quabajai Pate
Calif.

Ammoplanus (Ammoplanus) quabajai Pate, 1943 (1942). South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 41:
156. ♀.

Ammoplanus sechi Pate
Calif. (Riverside Co.).

Ammoplanus (Ammoplanus) sechi Pate, 1943 (1942). South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 41: 149.
6.

Ammoplanus tetli Pate
Calif. (Tetly Park, San Bernardino Mts.).

Ammoplanus (Ammoplanus) tetli Pate, 1943 (1942). South Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 41: 147.
S.

Ammoplanus unami Pate
Pa., W. Va. Ecology: Presumably nests in abandoned beetle borings in logs.
Ammoplanus (Ammoplanus) unami Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 101. ♀.

Taxonomy: Krombein, 1956. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 58: 159, figs. 2, 2a (male).

Biology: Krombein, 1956. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 58: 160 (putative nest site).

Ammoplanus vanyumi Pate
Calif., Idaho.

Ammoplanus (Ammoplanus) vanyumi Pate, 1943 (1942). South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 41:
154. ♀.

Genus AMMOPLANELLUS Gussakovskij

Revision: Pate, 1943 (1942). South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bui. 41: 158-162, figs. 2-4, 7 (N. Amer.
spp.).

Genus AMMOPLANELLUS Subgenus AMMOt ┬╗LANELLUS Gussakovskij

Ammoplanus subg. Ammoplanellus Gussakovskij, 1931. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat., Bol. 31:
442.

Type-species: Ammoplanus (Ammoplanellus) chorasmius Gussakovskij. Orig.
desig.

The species are thought to nest in pre-existing holes or crannies in wood, and possibly to
provision the cells with Thysanoptera.

umatilla (Pate). Wash.

Ammoplanus (Ammoplanellus) umatilla Pate, 1945. Pan-Pacific Ent. 21: 82. ♀.

Ammoplanellus xila (Pate)
Ariz. (Phoenix). Ecology: Possibly nesting in chair containing burrows of
^ esperorhipis mirabilis Knull.

Ammoplanus (Ammoplanellus) xila Pate, 1945. Pan-Pacific Ent. 21: 84. ♀.

Genus AMMOPLANELLUS Subgenus PARAMMOPLANUS Pate

Ammoplanus subg. Parammoplanus Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 391.
Type-species: Amm,oplanus (Ammoplanellus) apache Pate. Orig. desig.

Ammoplanellus apache (Pate)
N. Mex., Ariz., Calif.

Ammoplanus (Ammoplanellus) apache Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 106. ♂.

Ammoplanellus lenape
***authority mismatch
lenape (Pate). Pa. (Lehigh Gap).

Ammoplanus (Ammoplanellus) lenape Pate, 1937. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 63: 104. ♂.

Ammoplanellus lenape
***authority mismatch
olamentke (Pate). Calif., Mont.

Ammoplanus (Parammoplanus) lenape olamentke Pate, 1943 (1942). South. Calif. Acad.
Sci., Bui. 41: 160. ♀, ♂.

Genus TIMBERLAKENA Pate

Timberlakena subg. Riparena Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 378.




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Type-species: Tiynberlakena {Riparena) cahnilla Pate. Orig. desig.
Timberlakena subg. Mojavena Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 381.

Type-species: Timberlakena (Mojavena) yucaipa Pate. Orig. desig.
Timberlakena subg. Timberlakena Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 383.

Type-species: Timberlakena (Timberlakena) nolcha Pate. Orig. desig.

Females lack a tarsal pecten and pygidium so it is presumed that they may nest in
pre-existing cavities, such as abandoned beetle borings, in twigs or structural lumber.

Revision: Pate, 1989. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 374-390, figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7-9, 13-16.

Timberlakena cahuilla Pate
Calif. (Riverside Co.).

Timberlakena (Riparena) cahuilla Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 378. ♀, ♂.

Timberlakena hualga Pate
Calif.

Timberlakena (Timberlakena) nolcha hnalga Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 388.
9,6.

Timberlakena nolcha Pate
Ariz., Calif., Idaho.

Timberlakena (Timberlakena) nolcha nolcha Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 385.
9,6.

Timberlakena ocha Pate
Calif. (Riverside Co.), Ariz.

Timberlakena (Timberlakena) ocha Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 389. ♀.

Timberlakena yucaipa Pate
Calif. (San Bernardino Co.).

Timberlakena (Mojavena) yncaijxi Pate, 1939. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 64: 381. ♀, ♂.


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