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Page 1189
Top-1+1OriginalDatabase of Hymenoptera in America north of MexicoHighertaxa


According to Malyshev (1968) this small family includes about 70 species which are scattered
throughout the world. The species are all parasitic. The hymenopterous or dipterous primary
hosts are usually parasites or predators of larval Lepidoptera. It is thought that at least some
species can be primary larval parasites of sawflies, and Cooper (1954) hypothesized that sawflies
were the hosts of ancestral Trigonalidae. That seems quite possible in view of the isolated and
undeterminable phyletic position of the family, but I know of no rearings of Nearctic trigonalids
as primary or secondary parasites of sawflies.

Trigonalid eggs are deposited singly on the leaves of angiosperms, apparently always near the
edges of leaves. They are tiny and tough-shelled, enabling them to be ingested without destruc-
tion by leaf feeding caterpillars. It appears that if the tough shell is not cracked when an egg is
ingested hatching does not occur. Eclosion from the egg occurs in the intestine of the caterpillar,
and the first instar trigonalid bores through the intestinal wall and apparently remains in the
body cavity of the caterpillar without developing further pending parasitization of the caterpil-
lar by an ichneumonid or tachinid or predation upon it by a social or solitary vespid. When the
primary host is a social vespid, a first instar trigonalid would apparently be fed to a larval
vespid by a foraging worker.

Revision: Townes, 1956. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 106: 295-304.

Taxonomy: Schulz, 1907. In Wytsman, Gen. Ins., fasc. 61, 24 p. (Genera of world). — Bischoff,
1938. //( Hedicke, Hym. Cat., pt. 5, 18 p. (world catalog).

Biology: Clausen, 1929; 1931. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 31: 67-79; 33: 70-81. -Clausen, 1940.
Entomophagous Insects, p. 56-61. —Cooper, 1954. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 56: 280-288.
—Malyshev, 1968. Genesis of Hym. and ... their Evolution, p. 88-95.


Orthogonalys Schulz, 1905. Hym. Stud., p. 76.

Type-species: Orthogonalys boliriana Schulz. Monotypic.
Orthogonalos Schulz, 1907. In Wytsman, Gen. Ins., fasc. 61, p. 8. Emend.
Tapinogonalos Schulz, 1907. In Wytsman, Gen. Ins., fasc. 61, p. 14.

Type-species: Trigonalys pulchellus Cresson. Desig. by Viereck, 1914.

Orthogonalys pulchella (Cresson)
Southern Maine s. to n. Va., w. to w. N. Y. and W. Va. Host: Archytas
aterrimus (R.-D.), Nilea lobeliae (Coq.).
Trigonalys pulchellus Cresson, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 351. ♂.

Biology: Townes, 1956. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 106: 298 (oviposition behavior).

Page 1198
Top-1+1OriginalDatabase of Hymenoptera in America north of MexicoHighertaxa

Genus LYCOGASTER Shuckard

Lycogaster Shuckard, 1841. Entomologist 1: 123.

Type-species: Lycogaster pullata Shuckard. Monotypic.

Lycogaster pullata
***authority mismatch
nevadensis (Cresson). Southwestern S. Dak., Colo., n. N. Me.x., Nev., w. Oreg. Ecology:
A number of specimens were reared from unknown pupal or larval-pupal parasites of
Hypliantria ciniea (Drury) at Boulder, Colo. Host: Eitodytterns fora)iii)iatHs scutellaris
Trigonalya nevadenain Cresson, 1879. Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 7: vii in Proc. S, 9.

Lycogaster pullata
***authority mismatch
pullata Shuckard. Vt, Mass., R. I., N. Y., Md., D. C, n. Va., w. N. C, n. Ga., n. N. Dak.
Host: Eno(ly)ienis fomi)iiiiati(n foniDiinatiis (Sauss.), E)iico,spiliis a))ie7-ica)iHS (Christ).
Lycoganter pullatus Shuckard, 1841. Entomologist 1: 124. ♀.
Lycoganter puHutuN var. hollennis Melander and Brues, 1902. Biol. Bui. 3: 36. c^, 9.

Biology: Cooper, 1954. Ent. Soc. Wash., Proc. 56: 280-288. -Townes, 1956. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
Proc. 106: 299-300.


Poecilogonalos Schulz, 1907. In Wytsman, Gen. Ins., fasc. 61, p. 9.

Type-species: Trigonalyn pulchella Westwood. Monotypic. The type-species is an
objective synonym of P. ilncaitsii (Westwood).

This genus includes only one Nearctic species, but according to Townes (1956, trigonalid revi-
sion, p. 300) Poecilogonalos is rather large and widely distributed.

Poecilogonalos costalis (Cresson)
Southeastern Mass. s. to mid Fla., w. to s. Ohio and s.w. La. Ecology: Has
been reared as a secondary parasite of Phosphila turbulenta Hbn. and Automeris io
(F.). Host: Lespesia sp. ex Phospliila turbulenta Hbn.
Trigonalys (Lycoga.ster) costalis Cresson, 1867. Ent. Soc. Phila., Proc. 6: 352. ♂.
Trigonalys sulcatus Davis, 1898 (1897). Amer. Ent. Soc, Trans. 24: 349. ♂.

Biology: Townes, 1956. U. S. Natl. Mus., Proc. 106: 301-302 (oviposition behavior).


Bareogonalos Schulz, 1907. In Wytsman, Gen. Ins., fasc. 61, p. 18.

Type-species: Trigonalys canadensis Harrington. Monotypic.
Nippogonalos Uchida, 1929. Insecta Matsumurana 3: 79.

Type-species: Nippogotialos jezoensis Uchida. Monotypic and orig. desig.

Bareogonalos canadensis (Harrington)
Southwestern B. C, n.w. Calif. Host: Vespula arenaria (F.), V.
pensylva)iica (Sauss.).
Trigonalys Canadensis Harrington, 1896. Canad. Ent. 28: 108. "♂"=♀.

Taxonomy: Harrington, 1898. In Taylor, Canad. Ent. 30: 15-16 (male described).

Biology: Taylor, 1898. Canad. Ent. 30: 14-15.


Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico

CarlF. W. Muesebeck

This catalog is dedicated to our cherished colleague with affectionate regard
for his kindliness and with admiration for his distinguished scholarly contributions to
our knowledge of North American Hymenoptera for more than half a century.

Catalog of

Hymenoptera in America

North of Mexico

Prepared cooperatively by

specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera

under the direction of

Karl V. Krombein and Paul D. Hurd, Jr.

Smithsonian Institution


David R. Smith and B. D. Burks

Systematic Entomology Laboratory,

Insect Identification and Beneficial Insect Introduction Institute

Science and Education Administration,

United States Department of Agriculture


Apocrita (Aculeata)


Washington, D.C.


Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Main entry under title:

Catalog of Hymenoptera in American north of

"An outgrowth of . . . Hymenoptera of America
north of Mexico, synoptic catalog (1951) in-
cluding the first and second supplements (1958,

Includes index.

CONTENTS: v.l. Symphyta and Apocrita
(Parasitica). — v. 2. Apocrita (Aculeata)

1. Hymenoptera — North America. 2. Insects —
North America. I. Krombein, Karl V.
QL567.1.A1C37 595.7'9'097 78-606008



Introduction by Karl V. Krombein, Paul D. Hurd, and David R. Smith v

Hymenoptera by Karl V. Krombein and Paul D. Hurd, Jr 1

Symphyta by David R. Smith 3

Megalodontoidea 7

Xyelidae 7

Pamphiliidae 10

Tenthredinoidea 19

Pergidae 19

Argidae 20

Cimbicidae 26

Diprionidae 29

Tenthredinidae 39

Siricoidea 125

Syntexidae 125

Siricidae 125

Xiphydriidae 130

Orussidae 131

Cephoidea 133

Cephidae 133

Apocrita by Karl V. Krombein 139

Parasitica by Paul M. Marsh and Robert W. Carlson 141

Ichneumonoidea by Paul M. Marsh and Robert W. Carlson 143

Braconidae by Paul M. Marsh 144

Aphidiidae by Paul M. Marsh 295

Hybrizontidae by Paul M. Marsh 313

Ichneumonidae by Robert W. Carlson 315

Stephanidae by Robert W. Carlson 740

Chalcidoidea by Gordon Gordh 743

Torymidae (except Agaoninae) by E. E. Grissell 748

Pteromalidae by B. D. Burks 768

Eurytomidae by B. D. Burks 835

Chalcididae by B. D. Burks 860

Leucospididae by B. D. Burks 874

Eucharitidae by B. D. Burks 875

Eupelmidae by B. D. Burks 878

Encyrtidae by Gordon Gordh 890

Eulophidae by B. D. Burks 967

Mymaridae by B. D. Burks 1022

Trichogrammatidae by B. D. Burks 1033

Unplaced Taxa in Chalcidoidea by B. D. Burks 1042

Cynipoidea by B. D. Burks 1045

Ibaliidae 1045

Liopteridae 1046

Figitidae 1047

Eucoilidae 1052

Alloxystidae 1058

Cynipidae 1060

Evanioidea by Robert W. Carlson 1109

Evaniidae 1109

Aulacidae 1111

Gasteruptiidae 1115

Pelecinoidea by Carl F. W. Muesebeck 1119

Pelecinidae 1119

Proctotrupoidea by Carl F. W. Muesebeck 1121

Vanhorniidae 1122

Roproniidae 1122

Heloridae 1122

Proctotrupidae 1123

Diapriidae 1127

Scelionidae 1150

Platygastridae 1171

Ceraphronoidea by Carl F. W. Muesebeck 1187

Ceraphronidae 1187

Megaspilidae 1191

Trigonaloidea by Robert W. Carlson 1197

Trigonalidae 1197

Aculeata by Karl V. Krombein 1199

Bethyloidea by Karl V. Krombein 1203

Bethylidae 1203

Sclerogibbidae 1219

Chrysididae 1220

Dryinidae 1240

Embolemidae 1251

Scolioidea by Karl V. Krombein 1253

Tiphiidae 1253

Sierolomorphidae 1276

Mutillidae 1276

Scoliidae 1314

Sapygidae 1319

Formicoidea by David R. Smith 1323

Formicidae 1323

Vespoidea by Karl V. Krombein 1469

Masaridae 1469

Eumenidae 1472

Vespidae 1510


Pompiloidea by Karl V. Krombein 1523

Pompilidae 1523

Rhopalosomatidae 1570

Sphecoidea by Karl V. Krombein 1573

Ampulicidae 1574

Sphecidae 1575

Pemphredonidae 1595

Larridae 1617

Crabronidae 1650

Mellinidae 1683

Nyssonidae 1684

Philanthidae 1720

Apoidea by Paul D. Hurd, Jr 1741

Colletidae 1748

Oxaeidae 1770

Andrenidae 1772

Halicitidae 1932

Melittidae 1978

Megachilidae 1981

Anthophoridae 2081

Apidae 2188

Institutional Affiliation of Contributing Authors

Smithsonian Institution: Paul D. Hurd, Jr., Karl V. Krombein, Carl F. Muesebeck
U.S. Department of Agriculture: B. D. Burks, Robert W. Carlson, E. E. Grissell,'

Paul M. Marsh, David R. Smith
University of California, Riverside : Gordon Gordh




Karl V. Krombein,

Paul D. Hurd, Jr.,


David R. Smith

This catalog, which is an outgrowth of the
highly successful Hymenoptera of America
North of Mexico Synoptic Catalog (1951),
including the first and second supplements
(1958, 1967), provides simultaneously, by
use of computer technology (Krombein, Mello
and Crockett, 1974. Ent. Soc. Amer., Ann.
20 :24-29), a printed version as well as a
computer-queriable data base of the basic
systematic, biological, and morphological in-
formation on the order Hymenoptera as it
occurs in America north of Mexico. While the
format of the present catalog closely parallels
that of the original catalog, every effort has
been made to increase the information con-
tent to fulfill better the needs of the biological
community. This has been accomplished chief-
ly by the introduction of textbook prose at
most higher category levels, by the presenta-
tion of explanatory or descriptive comments
as appropriate, and by the inclusion of more
complete listings of citations to taxonomic,
biological, and morphological literature at all
hierarchical levels together with parentheti-
cal annotations concerning the content for
many of these citations. Similarly, the data
about hosts, parasites, prey, predators, and
pollen sources are covered more fully than in
the original catalog. Since these data have
been reported in various ways and under dif-
fering names in the primary literature, an

attempt has been made to organize this in-
formation and present it, usually, alphabeti-
cally even though sometimes such data have
been recorded in the literature with scien-
tific or vernacular names or both. Although
many of these names have been checked for
accuracy, no consistent attempt has been
made to verify that the names agree with
current usage or status. While those authors
of zoological names are usually abbreviated
in the citation of hosts, parasites, and the
like, the authors of the scientific botanical
names are not included. Elsewhere in the
catalog, the last name of an author is cited
in full, but without initials. Since the tech-
nology employed in the preparation of this
catalog precluded the use of diacritical marks,
these have been omitted and consequently,
as in the case of the umlaut, a variant spell-
ing has been substituted as appropriate.

The International Code of Zoological No-
menclature (1961) including the intent and
preamble of the Code and of any pertinent
opinions usually has been followed. Thus a
name in current usage as deterimned by the
code is employed, but mention is made, as
appropriate, that an application is pending
before the International Commission of
Zoological Nomenclature.

An attempt has been made to record all the
recent taxa, with their synonyms, described


from, or known to occur in, the political di-
visions of the conterminous United States,
Canada, Alaska, and Greenland. Insofar as
known, all species introduced from other
countries and liberated in America north of
Mexico for biological control purposes have
been listed. Some of these have never been
recovered and, apparently, were unsuccessful
in establishing themselves. For each such
species a statement has been included, follow-
ing the distribution, that the species was
liberated but did not become established.

As in the original catalog, the arrangement
is systematic for species-groups and higher
categories insofar as our present knowledge
and the limitations of a linear arrangement
permit. The generic and subgeneric concepts
represented in this arrangement are based
upon what are believed to be the correct type-
species. In each instance the type-species is
cited together with the authority for the
selection. Where designations of type-species
have been found to be invalid under the Inter-
national Code of Zoological Nomenclature,
new type-species designations, believed to be
valid, are given in the catalog. Generic syn-
onymy is included under the generic head-
ings except where subgenera are recognized,
in which cases such synonymy is given under
the subgeneric names, and references to re-
visional or other papers are listed under the
appropriate higher category.

The arrangement of species within genera,
subgenera, and species groups is alphabetical.
Where subspecies are recognized, the sub-
specific names are placed in alphabetical or-
der under the species to which they belong;
and varieties are listed under the particular
species or subspecies in which they were
described. In each case the specific, subspeci-
fic, or infrasubspecific, name is followed by
an indication of the known distribution, and
by brief statements, as appropriate, of pre-
ferred habitats or the like, hosts, parasites,
prey, predators, or pollen sources. Much of

this information on synonymy, distribution,
ecology, hosts, parasites, prey, and so forth
has not been published previously. The type
localities are usually recorded for those forms
that are known only from the localities where
the type specimens were obtained. Otherwise
the distribution is usually shown by states
and provinces, or by other means such as
life zones.

Since unquestionably a catalog is indispen-
sable in the support of systematic and other
biological research, no effort has been spared
toward making this catalog as useful as pos-
sible to all of the scientific community inter-
ested in these fascinating insects.


All authors have attempted to include all
pertinent references to synonyms, revisions,
taxonomy, biology, and morphology begin-
ning with 1758, the publication date of the
10th edition of "Systema Naturae" by Lin-
naeus. The cut-off dates vary for the several
sections of the catalog and are as follows:
Symphyta through 1974;
Ichneumonoidea through 1976;
Chalcidoidea — Torymidae (except Agaoninae)
and Encyrtidae through 1976; other fam-
ilies and Agaoninae through 1972;
Cynipoidea through 1972;
Evanioidea through 1976;
Pelecinoidea, Proctotrupoidea, and Ceraphro-

noidea through 1972;
Trigonaloidea through 1976;
Bethyloidea and Scolioidea through 1975;
Formicoidea through mid-1975;
Vespoidea, Pompiloidea, and Sphecoidea

through 1975; and
Apoidea through 1976.

All authors have included some references
subsequent to the dates listed above.



The source for journal abbreviations is Whit-
lock, C, 1939, Abbreviations used in the De-
part7ne)it of Agriculture for titles of publica-
tions. United States Department of Agricul-
ture Miscellaneous Publication No. 337, 278
pages. Abbreviations for other titles and
journals not found in Whitlock essentially
follow the same format and abbreviations
that she recommends. Book titles are usually
shortened to omit irrelevant adjectives and
include abbreviations, e.g. : Wheeler and
Wheeler, 1963. The Ants of North Dakota,
p. — , is cited as Wheeler and Wheeler, 1963.
Ants of N. Dak., p. — . Certain lengthy non-
serial titles are also abbreviated, e.g. : Say,
1824. In Keating, Narr. Long's 2nd Exped.,
V. 2 (App.), p. — , rather than Say, 1824. hi
Keating, Narrative of an Expedition to the
Source of St. Peter's River, Lake Winnepeek
. . ., etc. The titles are intended to be uni-
form throughout the catalog, but, in a work
of this magnitude, there will naturally be
some deviations. The abbreviations should be
adequate to find the cited publication.


Certain symbols and abbreviations are fre-
quently used in this catalog. Though there

may be slight variations in some, they are

generally as follows :

(!) — lapsus or misspelling of a scientific

" ♀ " = ♂ or " ♂ " = ♀ — incorrect sex deter-

♀ (♂ misdet.) or ♂ (♀ misdet.) — only one
of the sexes described belongs to the species cataloged.

♀ — female.

♂ — male.

ab. — aberration.

app. — appendix.

cent. — central.

changed status — used after a species-group
name to indicate a rank different from that
previously accorded to it; not necessarily
the same as new status.

desig. — designated; e.g., in type-species de-
signation, "Desig. by Rohwer, 1911."

e., east. — east, eastern.

emend. — emendation.

fasc. — fascicle.

fig., figs. — figure, figures.

h.— heft.

n. comb. — new combination; used after a
species-group name to indicate a new ge-
neric assignment.

n. name — new name; used after a genus-
group or species-group name to indicate
a substitute name for a homonym.

N. name — New name; used after a biblio-
graphic citation to indicate a previously
proposed name.

Nom. nud. — Nomen nudum.

n. s. — new series.

n. status— new status; used where a taxon is
here accorded a rank different from that
which it had previously.

N. syn. — New synonymy; used to indicate a
synonym newly proposed in this catalog.

n., no., north. — north, northern.

n.e., northeast. — northeast, northeastern.

n.w., northwest. — -northwest, northwestern.

orig. desig.-^original designation; used to
indicate type-species designation.

p., pp. — page, pages.

pi., pis. — plate, plates.

preocc. — preoccupied; used after a genus-
group or species-group name to indicate a

pt. — part.

revised status — revised status; used to de-
note a taxon that has been removed from

ser. — series.

s., so., south. — south, southern.

s.e., southeast. — southeast, southeastern.

S.W., southwest. — southwest, southwestern.

sp., spp. — species.

ssp., sspp. — subspecies.

subg. — subgenus.

transcont. — transcontinental.

v., vol. — volume.

var. — variety.

w., vi'est. — west, western.













U. Austr.

Upper Austral

L. Austr.

Lower Austral









U. Sonor.

Upper Sonoran

L. Sonor.

Lower Sonoran



Political Unit












British Columbia












District of Columbia






















Labrador, Newfoundland






















N. B.

New Brunswick

N. C.

North Carolina

N. Dak.

North Dakota







Newfoundland (insular)

N. H.

New Hampshire


New Jersey

N. Mex.

New Mexico

N. S.

Nova Scotia

N. W. T.

Northwest Territories

N. Y.

New York











P. E. I.

Prince Edward Island



R. I.

Rhode Island



S. C.

South Carolina

S. Dak.

South Dakota





U. S.

United States








Washington (state)

W. Va.

West Virginia






Yukon Territory



The catalog contains one undiagnosed new genus also in the Ichneumonidae, Woldsted-

species in the Ichneumonidae, Pterocormus tius Carlson, type-species Bassns biguttatns

clasma Carlson, p. 521, proposed for the Gravenhorst, p. 719, proposed for Syrphoc-

taxon misidentified as Ichneumon canade)isis tonus Foerster sensu Dasch (1964).

Cresson by Heinrich (1961). The following new names are proposed to

The catalog contains one undiagnosed new replace preoccupied names :


Pachynematus gamus Smith for Pachyncmatus graminis Marlatt (1896) p. 58

Nematus atttis Smith for Ammironematus dyari Marlatt (1896) p. 68

Amauronematus peralus Smith for Nematus pecforalis Cresson (1880) p. 80


Oedomopsis davisi Carlson for Trophon 1 nasutus Cresson (1868) p. 366

Gelis cushmani Carlson for Hemiteles apantelis Cushman (1927) p. 405

Oresbius shimiaginensis Carlson for Stihoscopns ferrugineus Ashmead (1902) ... .p. 438

Pterocormus dionymus Carlson for Ichneumon anonyynus Heinrich (1961) p. 522

Casinaria affinisima Carlson for Casinaria affinis Walley (1947) p. 635


Mesopolobus fuscipedes Burks for Platyterma fuscipes Ashmead (1896) p. 816


Harmolita ovatella Burks for Harmolita ovata Phillips and Emery (1919) p. 840


Syntomosphyrum orgyiazele Burks for Tetrastichomyia orgyiae Girault (1916) . .p.1005


Trichopria kiefferi Muesebeck for Diapria montana Kieffer (1906) p.ll47


Trimorus contractus Muesebeck for Gryon flavipes Ashmead (1893) p.ll62


Aphanogmus harringtoni Muesebeck for Aphanogmus salicicola Harrington (1899) p.ll90


Dendrocerus obscurellus Muesebeck for Atritomus californicus Kieffer (1906) ..p.ll94


Euparagia richardsi Bohart for Psiloglossa simplicipes Rohwer (1909) p.l470


Cerceris bolingeriana Krombein for Cerceris bolingeri Scullen (1972) p.l730


Triepeolus mitchelli Hurd for Triepeolus sublunatus Mitchell (1962) p.2094

There are a number of other nomenclatural valid genera and species for each family and

and taxonomic changes. These are considered higher category. These nomenclatural and

of lesser bibliographic importance than the taxonomic changes are as follows :

new names, so tabulations of them are de- A number of generic transfers are made,

ferred to Volume 3 which will also contain They are usually cited in the text as xanti-

the indexes and a table of the number of anum (Saussure), n. comb. The authority


responsible for the transfer is the author
of that section unless the name of another
specialist is included.

There are also a number of instances where
a taxon formerly considered to be a species is
treated here as a subspecies of another taxon,
or where a taxon. formerly considered to be a
subspecies is now raised to specific rank. The
authority responsible for the change is the
author of that section unless the name of
another specialist is included. These are usu-
ally cited in the text as clavatum johannis
(Richards), n. status or alba Rohwer, n.

The words — changed status — occasionally
follow the author of a species-group name.
This indicates that the taxon has a rank

different from that accorded it elsewhere. It
is not the same as new status for it reflects a
change which has already been published.

In a few taxa, the words — revised status —
follow the author of a species-group name.
This denotes a taxon which has been removed
from synonymy.

There are a few new synonyms at the
genus-group level and numerous new syn-
, onyms at the species-group level. These are
indicated by the abbreviation N. syn. follow-
ing the bibliographic citation of the new syn-
onym. As noted above, the synonymy is to be
attributed to the author of the section unless
the name of another specialist appears in
parentheses following the abbreviation N. syn.

Volume 3

It is intended that Volume 3 will contain
separate indexes to the taxa of Hymenoptera,
and to their hosts, parasites, prey, predators,
and pollen and nectar sources. Preparation of
the indexes has already begun, and we antici-
pate that the tapes for Linotron production
will be sent to the Government Printing Office
during 1978. We will also include in Volume
3 a tabulation of the number of valid genera
and species for each family and higher cate-
gory, and lists of the nomenclatural and
taxonomic changes other than the new names
which are listed above.


Preparation of the catalog and funding for its
publication have had the enthusiastic support
of Porter M. Kier, Director, National Museum
of Natural History (NMNH), Smithsonian
Institution (SI) and of Lloyd V. Knutson,
Chairman, Insect Identification and Beneficial
Insect Introduction Institute, U.S. Depart-

ment of Agriculture. The catalog in its printed
form could not have been achieved without
their help, and we are most grateful that
their assistance was available whenever we
required it.

We are indebted to a host of cooperating
hymenopterists for generous assistance which


has greatly enhanced the content and quality
of the catalog. The aid furnished has involved
such diverse activities as i-eviewing prelimi-
nary drafts of various sections, and providing
new information on taxonomy, synonymy,
distribution, and biology.

In the Symphyta, H. E. Milliron, formeiiy
of the Biosystematics Research Institute
(BRI), Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, re-
viewed parts of the manuscript and provided
information, as did H. R. Wong, Northern
Forest Research Centre, Edmonton, Alberta,
for Pristiphora Latr. H. Greenbaum, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, furnished
data on Florida sawflies.

The accuracy of host names in the Para-
sitica was checked by the following special-
ists : Smithsonian Institution — J. F. G.
Clarke, D. R. Davis. W. D. Duckworth, T. L.
Erwin, W. D. Field, and R. C. Froeschner;
Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL),
U. S. Department of Agriculture — D. C.
Ferguson, R. J. Gagne, R. D. Gordon, A. B.
Gurney, J. L. Herring, R. W. Hodges, J. M.
Kingsolver, J. P. Kramer, A. S. Menke, D. M.
Miller, L. M. Russell, C. W. Sabrosky, D. R.
Smith, T. J. Spilman, M. B. Stoetzel, E. L.
Todd, R. E. Warner, and R. E. White. D. M.
Weisman (SEL) identified the remains of
some lepidopterous larvae which served as

Specialists who were helpful in the Ichneu-
monoidea were : L. E. Caltagirone, University
of California, Albany, and C. C. Loan (BRI),
who reviewed parts of the manuscript on
Braconidae; C. van Achterberg, Waarder, The
Netherlands, W. R. M. Mason (BRI), R. D.
Shenefelt, University of Wisconsin, Madison,
and R. Wharton, University of California,
Berkeley, who provided advice and informa-
tion on Braconidae; H. K. and M. C. Townes,
American Entomological Institute, Ann Ar-
bor, Michigan, who provided information and
advice on Ichneumonidae; and P. M. Marsh
(SEL) , who proofed the first-phase computer
printouts for Mesochorinae, Diplazontinae,
Oxytorinae and Orthocentrinae, and the third-
phase edit for Ichneumoninae.

Z. Boucek, Commonwealth Institute of En-
tomology, London, and M. Graham, Oxford
University, provided much information on
Chalcidoidea, and D. P. Annecke, Plant Pro-

tection Research Institute, Pretoria, South
Africa, advised on the placement of some
species assigned erroneously to Aphycvs
Mayr. A special debt of gratitude is due C. F.
W. Muesebeck who painstakingly proofed all
edit phases of the computer printouts for
Encyrtidae and Torymidae and all but the
first-phase edits of all other families of

D. B. Krombein provided welcome assist-
ance by helping to proof the manuscripts and
printouts for all superfamilies of aculeate
wasps. F. D. Parker, Bee Biology and Syste-
matics Laboratory, Utah State University,
Logan, furnished biological data for a number
of Utah wasps.

We are grateful to R. M. Bohart, Univer-
sity of California, Davis, for reviewing the
manuscript on Chrysididae and for consider-
able other assistance which included informa-
tion on new synonyms and distribution in the
Elampinae and Chrysididinae, and the assign-
ment of taxa to species groups in Chrysis
L. H. E. Evans, Colorado State University,
Fort Collins, reviewed the section on Bethyli-

In the Scolioidea, the late J. C. Bradley,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, and
J. G. Betrem, Deventer, The Netherlands,
reviewed the manuscript on Scoliidae, and
H. W. Allen, Moorestown, New Jersey, that
on Tiphiinae. W. E. Ferguson, San Jose State
University, California, and C. E. Mickel, Uni-
versity of Arizona, Tucson, furnished infor-
mation on synonymy and taxonomy of some

R. R. Snelling, Los Angeles County Museum,
California, and M. R. Smith, Arlington,
Virginia, reviewed the section on Formicoi-
dea. J. F. Watkins II, Baylor University,
Waco, Texas, reviewed the section on Dory-
linae, and A. C. Cole, University of Tennessee,
Knoxville, that on Pogoiwmyrmex Mayr.
A. Francoeur, University of Quebec, Chicou-
timi, provided information on the fusca
group of Formica L.

0. W. Richards, British Museum (Natural
History) , London, and R. M. Bohart reviewed
the entire manuscript for Vespoidea. J. van
der Vecht, Putten, The Netherlands, recom-
mended the systematic sequence adopted in
the Eumenidae and reviewed the manuscript.


M. J. West-Eberhard, Universidad del Valle,
Cali, Colombia, and R. R. Snelling reviewed
the manuscript on Vespidae and supplied
data on taxonomy and biology. J. E. Gillaspy,
Texas A & I University, Kinpsville, provided
information on Polistes Latr.

H. E. Evans reviewed the manuscript on
Pompilidae, and F. E. Kurczewski, University
of Syracuse, N. Y., contributed some prey

R. M. Bohart and A. S. Menke generously
made available a copy of their manuscript,
"Sphecid Wasps of the World," which was
most helpful in assembling the section on
Sphecoidea; Menke, in addition, reviewed the
catalog manuscript for this superfamily.
Other specialists contributed data on the
groups mentioned after their names : R. E.
Coville, University of California, Berkeley
(taxonomy and distribution of Trypoxyloni-
nae); J. E. Gillaspy (Bembicinae); F. E.
Kurczewski (biology of Larridae and Cra-
bronidae); R. C. Miller, Cornell University
(taxonomy, distribution, and biology of
Crabronidae); W. J. Pulawski, Wroclaw,
Poland (taxonomy and distribution of Tachij-
sphe.r Kohl); and D. Vincent, University of
Maryland, College Park (taxonomy and dis-
tribution of Passaloeciis Shuck.).

E. G. Linsley, University of Califoi-nia,
Berkeley, reviewed the entire manuscript on
Apoidea and offered valuable suggestions.
C. D. Michener, University of Kansas, Law-
rence, discussed with the author of that sec-
tion the biology and systematics of bees;
many of his suggestions have been incorpo-
rated in the classification adopted. The fol-
lowing specialists have cooperated by con-
tributing data on the groups specified after
their names: G. E. Bohart, Bee Biology and
Systematics Laboratory, Utah State Univer-
sity, Logan (taxonomy and biology of
Apoidea); W. E. LaBerge, Illinois Natural
History Survey, Urbana (taxonomy of An-
drenidae and Anthophoridae); U. N. Lanham,
University of Colorado, Boulder (taxonomy
of Apoidea); M. A. Lieftinck, Rhenen, The
Netherlands (taxonomy of Anthophoridae);
A. L0ken. University of Bergen, Norway
(taxonomy of Apidae); T. B. Mitchell, North
Carolina State University, Raleigh (taxon-
omy of Apoidea); J. S. Moure, Universidade

Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil (taxon-
omy of Apoidea); F. D. Parker (taxonomy
and biology of Apoidea); J. G. Rozen, Jr.,
American Museum of Natural History, New
York, New York (taxonomy and biology of
Apoidea); R. R. Snelling (taxonomy of
Hijlaeus F.); R. W. Thorp, University of
California, Davis (taxonomy and biology of
Apidae); P. H. Timberlake, University of
California, Riverside (taxonomy of Apoidea);
and T. J. Zavortink, University of San
Francisco, California (taxonomy of Antho-
phoridae) .

C. W. Sabrosky (SEL) has been helpful to
all of us in the discussion of abstruse nomen-
clatural problems. J. F. Gates Clarke (SI)
participated patiently in philosophical dis-
cussions of a wide variety of subjects per-
taining to the catalog. G. C. Steyskal (SEL)
was the resource person for the grammar of
scientific names and other linguistic matters.

Computerization of the catalog and its pro-
duction by the computer-driven Linotron re-
quired the highly skilled technical expertise
of specialists in computer storage and appli-
cations. James F. Mello, formerly Chief of the
Data Processing (ADP) Program at NMNH,
carefully analyzed the 1951 Hymenoptera
Catalog and developed the data analysis
matrix which governed entry of information
into the computer. R. Creighton, Manager,
Information Retrieval and Indexing Division,
Office of Computer Services (OCS), SI, de-
vised the programs for editing, arranging,
querying, and displaying data from the man-
uscripts. J. J. Crockett, Manager, Software
Systems and Program Maintenance (OCS),
developed the program for conversion of the
computerized data to special magnetic tapes
capable of driving the Photo Typesetting
Unit, the Mergenthaler Linotron 1010, in the
Government Printing Office. T. G. Gautier,
Chief (ADP), and D. Bridge, Operations
Manager (ADP), maintained daily collabora-
tion with the Editorial Board in assignment
of clerical assistance, and production of the
edit phases, merge files, and SELGPO print-

Finally, we are most grateful for the care-
ful, accurate typing of the manuscripts for
computer entry by the corps of dedicated
clerk typists. R. M. Garlick served with the


program as principal typist from its inception during the six years of manuscript produc-

until his reassignment in mid-1976 as a com- tion and computer entry were: L. E. Back,

puter technician; he also trained the other L. M. Bybell, R. Cloyed, L. E. Hatton, M.

assigned typists. P. R. Brown is currently the Monahan, L. G. Oliver, J. Peabody, P. A.

only typist assigned full time. Other typists Sunkel, and M. F. Ward,
who worked for vaiying lengths of time


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