CONNAL D. EARDLEY, Ph.D
Agricultural Research Council
Plant Protection Research Institute
Phone: +27 12 304 9578 / 60
Fax: +27 12 325 6998
Born 3 March 1954, Johannesburg, South Africa. I'm married and have two children, a daughter named Nicola Jane (22), and a
son named Matthew Peter (18). I speak English as well as Afrikaans.
- 1972-Matriculation. T.E.D. Damelin College, Johannesburg.
- 1976-BSc degree. University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. (Entomology and Botany)
- 1977-BSc(Hons) degree. University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. (Entomology)
- 1982-MSc degree cum laude. University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein. (Entomology)
Thesis title: A taxonomic revision of the genus Xylocopa Latreille (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) in southern Africa.
- 1995-PhD degree. University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, (Entomology)
Thesis title: Phylogeny of the Ammobatini and Revision of the Afrotropical Genera (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae: Nomadinae).
- 1997-Hons. BCompt degree. University of South Africa (UNISA). Pretoria. (Accounting, auditing and financial management)
A complete record of in-service computer and management training was not kept.
||South African International, without any major offences
||Programme in Project
||Graduate School of Business, Management. University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch.
||Offered by the Agricultural Research Council. Presented by Prof. LUC d'Haese.
||Statistics I, UNISA, Pretoria.
||Accounting I, II & III, Auditing I & II (2 year major), Commercial Law I & II (2 year major),
Taxation and Business Economics I, UNISA.
||Short course MS Access
||Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria. Internal Training.
||American Museum Natural History, USA.
||PPRI, Biosystematics Division, Pretoria.
||PPRI, Biosystematics Division, Pretoria.
||SAFRINET, an official SADC project, southern African network of BioNET-INTERNATIONAL, headquarters in UK.
Operational and financial management.
||Scientific articles and books for many journals and publishing companies. Record not kept.
||For scientific staff: external review for promotion and funding. Records not kept.
||PPRI, bee taxonomist.
||Entomological Society of Southern Africa
||Entomological Society of Southern Africa.
||Biosystematics Interest Group of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa.
||SAFRINET and Pollinator articles, reports and documents, records not kept.
||BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Action Group
||Steering Committee for the implementation of the Sao Paulo Declaration
||Journal Insect Science and its Application later became Journal of Tropical Insect Science.
||Co-ordinator, International Pollinator Initiative (IPI) Technical Co-ordination Committee
||UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
||African Pollinator Initiative (API)
||Host, Taxonomy Workshop
||International Third BioNET-International Global Workshop.
||International Pollinator policy development
||Design & presentation of International course
||First African Bee Course.
||National & Regional representative
||South Africa & Africa representative to the International Pollinator Initiative's GEF Project -
the proposal will be submitted to GEF in March 2006.
||6th Hymenopterist's Congress.
||CBOL's (Consortium for the Barcode of Life) South Africa Workshop
SAFRINET, API and IPI are knowledge networks. I co-ordinated SAFRINET from its inception, created and
co-ordinated API, and was party to the decision to create IPI. They are all highly successful programmes,
having become role-models around the world. This success resulted in me being invited to numerous congresses
and workshops per annum (since 1997, sometimes over twelve per annum, mostly in Africa, South America,
North America and Europe, and many others that were not attended) and taking maximum opportunity in these
workshops and meetings to discuss/promote ideas with key persons to further develop these projects. A full
record of these was not kept. My participation in virtually all these meetings was paid for by the organizers
or raised by myself. ARC has not paid for any of my travel abroad, or any other activities in the development
of these projects. They paid for my bee taxonomy. Collectively these three networks have been successful in
raising several million Rand, and proposals for much more are in the pipeline.
As a bee taxonomist, I range among the best known in the world. I do bee identification for a number of
pollination projects in several different African countries. The availability of my skills being instrumental
in such project being undertaken. One of API's successes is that an additional three young African scientists
are studying to become bee taxonomists; one each in South Africa, Kenya and Ghana. This is the first time ever
that there has been a bee taxonomist in another African country, and more than two in South Africa. I have been
the major instigator behind this development.
I believe that my success has been due to me being creative in the development of projects and an ability to
work with and encourage people from many different countries and backgrounds.
- MANAGEMENT, PLANNING, POLICY AND PROJECT DEVELOPMENT
- Co-ordinator of SAFRINET, a multi-national and multi-disciplinary project
- SAFRINET is a network for capacity building in biosystematics (taxonomy), an
official SADC (Southern African Development Community) project and the southern African
network of BioNET-International. It was instituted by a decision of the SADC heads of state,
and is a network of people and organizations that are providers and/or users of biosystematic
services. As the SAFRINET co-ordinator I:
Although BioNET-International is a highly acclaimed network (the founder, Prof. Tecwyn Jones,
received an acknowledgement for BioNET from the queen of England), in my opinion it has under-achieved
because little new scientific and technical capacity in taxonomy has been developed. SAFRINET was the
third network of BioNET to be established, but it has always been the more active network. As a result
it has raised more money (over R 4 000 000) and developed more capacity that the other BioNET networks.
It also tested and questioned BioNET's modus operandi, to enable it to establish a better operational
strategy. As SAFRINET is unlikely to develop and sustain dedicated taxonomic organizations, for many
reasons, it is focussing on the development of electronic tools to enable users to provide their own
taxonomic services; and is creating a new paradigm for capacity building in taxonomy.
- Lead the SAFRINET executive office, and report to the SADC Directorate
for Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) and to the Director of BioNET.
- Control all facets of the project, fund raising, operational and financial
management, project development, budgeting and reporting.
- Write or edit SAFRINET documentation.
- Developed and maintained the SAFRINET website, which is currently dormant,
awaiting the development of a new website, as a page on the proposed ARC website.
- Developed alliances and Memoranda of Understanding with partner organisations:
Gondwana Alive Society, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), BIOTA, FAO,
EcoPort, EAFRINET, WAFRINET, Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP), IPI, API,
Polistes Foundation, Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), US Geological
Survey (USGS), Species2000, Expert Centre for Taxonomic Information (ETI), Millennium
Assessment (MA), DIVERSITAS, Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI), International Plant
Protection Convention (IPPC), CBOL and others. Many of these are part of, or linked to,
the Convention on Biological Diversity's (CBD) activities.
I've developed SAFRINET according to community needs and what aid agencies are interested in funding,
according to their calls for proposals, and avoided things they will not fund, such as buildings, and
vehicles. The pilot project for implementing this new approach is phytosanitary services in SADC
countries, and involves international partners. The project focuses on developing new tools and training
quarantine officers to identify invasive species at ports of importation and exportation. The technology
for creating these electronic tools exist and SAFRINET could be the first organization to apply it
systematically for a specific purpose. SAFRINET could also become involved in improving the technology.
USGS is now adopting these ideas, after being introduced to them by SAFRINET. CBOL has the most promising
tools for this purpose and SAFRINET's participation in their South African Workshop is to develop a strategy
and project proposal for its implementation in SADC phytosanitary services.
Development of the International Pollinator Initiative (IPI) and the African Pollinator Initiative (API)
- The International Pollinator Initiative (IPI) was approved by the Fifth Conference of the Parties (COP5)
to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (Decision V/5, 2000). The United National Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO) was asked to develop the IPI Plan of Action, by the CBD Secretary General,
and employed me to write it in 2000. It was accepted by COP6 (Decision VI/5, 2002), and was expanded to
include natural areas. I have been involved in all the workshops, meetings of the Subsidiary Body for
Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) and COPs in the development of IPI, which received
project development funds from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) in 2004. To enable Africa to fully
participate in IPI I established the African Pollinator Initiative (API) in 1999, and today more African
countries are involved in the IPI-GEF project than any other region, and we're more organized. This project
has been passed onto the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).
- I have played a large role in creating awareness that organisms that provide essential ecosystem services,
such as pollinators, have a unique role in biodiversity conservation. Conservation strategies are needed to
maintain abundance of common species, because minimum population densities are needed to maintain ecosystem
services. The dedication of a day to pollinators and soil organisms (ecosystem services) in a recent UN
University's agrobiodiversity symposium demonstrated increased awareness for pollinator conservation in the
CBD. I prepared pollinator conservation documents and found distribution mechanisms for these at the World
Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD). From this I had several positive responses. DIVERSITAS held a
symposium on sustainable agriculture in October 2005, in Mexico, and I helped organise the pollination section.
- In 2003 I raised US$ 100 000 for a Workshop at Mabula to develop a document and associated strategy to help
implement IPI, i.e., to enable conservationists at policy levels below CBD focal points. This document will
be published in February 2006 and I was the principal editor.
- I'm primarily a bee systematist, but approach the subject holistically to make systematics an integral part
of understanding how ecosystems function and maintain themselves, i.e., the role of taxonomy in the
ecosystem approach to the conservation of biodiversity conservation through protection the essential
ecosystem goods and services, such as pollination, and for sustainable agriculture.
- I have become globally a "consultant" for pollinator conservation, and this without any formal training
in this field. I often find I'm placed as a speaker on the agenda of international meetings at the time
when the meeting is being planned, and before I am even aware of the proposed Meeting. Thus I'm seen as a
key figure in pollinator conservation. I'm asked regularly to study the North American Pollinator Protection
Campaign (NAPPC) documentation to give it an international perspective. I'm also consulted on international
- In my specialist research, Afrotropical bee systematics, and to a lesser extent pollination biology, I:
- Control all aspects of research I initiate, including experimental design, execution and
preparation of results for publication (see research).
- Have been invited to participate in projects initiated by others, and where appropriate I lead
these projects, e.g., CD Michener (USA) suggested that I write a book on African bee genera when
he was asked to do so. This has been done (but not published) and is now being developed into the
world's first electronic key to bee genera. B. Danforth (USA) invited me to join a National
Geographic Society (NGS) project, which he lead. Simon Potts (UK) invited me to join a pollination
project in the Congo as the bee taxonomist.
- Supervise projects of junior staff to ensure their successful completion, this includes inter alia
a specimen database of African bees (all South African collections), a catalogue and full literature
inventory of Afrotropical bees and taxonomic projects in ARC-PPRI. These two project will be published
on the Internet soon. I've also approached scientists who have done good research but neglected to
publish the results, like Dr Vincent Whitehead (Iziko Museum, SA), who worked on the Fideliidae, and
Prof. Howell Daly (Univerity of California, USA), wrote up and published this research.
- Stimulate new ideas for research by colleagues, such as use of bee databases for Geographic
Information Systems (GIS), automated identification systems, publication on CD-ROM etc. These are
all still under construction.
- Networking between people and organizations requires skill, certain desirable personality traits
and a desire to work with people and continually discover and implement new pathways and mechanisms.
I presumably have these talents considering my involvement in SAFRINET, API and IPI are highly appraised,
and I enjoy networking. I believe that I have the intuition to understand the hidden agendas of people
and organizations, including UN organizations, and the aspirations of other people and organizations,
and am able to respond appropriately.
I enjoy working with people, learning their strengths and weaknesses and building these into development projects.
- Human relations is closely linked to networking and leadership. IPI, API and SAFRINET are highly
appraised initiatives. I therefore consider myself to have good leadership and networking qualities,
with fellow South Africans and people form many other nationalities.
- I'm experienced in developing and leading multinational co-operative projects. I enjoy raised funds
and helping people to achieve their goals. I've found finance and candidates, suggested subject matter
for young scientists to undertake fellowships and have had some outstanding results, such as Ms R.
Sithole from the Bulawayo Museum, Zimbabwe, who is developing a carrier in parasitic wasps (Family
Ichneumonidae). I suggested that the BioNET fellowship candidate curate the ARC-PPRI ichneumonoid
collection. This enabled him to receive training and ARC-PPRI benefited from his labour.
- I've been involved directly in policy development in the:
- Development of the IPI plan of work, which is a UN document.
- Contribution to the publication "Policy development in Agrobiodiversity, a guide to best
practices" (in press) for Environmental Liason Centre International (ELCI) and the United
Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
- Contribution to the API strategy and plan of action.
- Review of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC) documentation.
- Contribution to the Millennium Assessment.
- Editing of the Mabula Workshop document.
Other management and planning
- In bodies created by others I:
In bodies I created/helped initiate:
- Participated in numerous meetings and workshops on general management, networking,
strategic development and implementation, from policy development to information technology
inter alia for ARC, ARC-PPRI, the Entomological Society of Southern Africa (ESSA), and
specialised professional bodies, e'g., IUCN (in South Africa), GTI (South Africa), ICIPE
(Kenya), FAO (Italy), Cartagena Protocol (Kenya), Co-evolution Institute (USA), University
of Sao Paulo (in Brazil), BIOTA (Germany) and others.
- Organised training, including course curricula and implementation (lecturers), for local
and international meetings and seminars; for SAFRINET, ARC-PPRI, API, SAFRINET and BioNET.
- Organized meetings and workshops, including a session of APIMONDIA, IPI's First Co-ordinating
Committee Meeting, the Third Global Taxonomy Workshop (3GTW), which had over 300 delegates from
six continents and representatives of many international programmes, the Pollinator Workshop in
Africa, the Mabula Workshop and the 6th Hymenopterist's Congress..
- Was Secretary of ESSA for 13 years and Deputy Treasurer for one year. Secretary for the ESSA
Biosystematics Interest Group (BIG) for two years, participated on a committee for advising the
government on legislation concerning the exportation of invertebrates etc.
- Was an Official South African government representative to SBSTTA3, COP5, the Third Global
Biodiversity Forum (3GBF), the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(CGIAR), the First IPI International Steering Committee (ISC) and others.
- Invited myself to many meeting where I feel ARC-PPRI and/or SAFRINET need to be represented,
i.e., I use aggressive marketing techniques when necessary.
- I created API. After three years it had developed into a network of 84 people from
14 African countries, and held its first workshop (for which I raised the finance). All
this was achieved with an informal "steering committee" of "self-appointed" people. In
2002 I was elected as the first Chairperson of API. I've now been elected the API
representative to the IPI-ISC.
- In the late 1980s Brian Huntley recommended that insect taxonomists group themselves to
enable them to qualify for financial support. This resulted in the formation of BIG, of
which I was the first secretary. Initially it was an active group, but since I resigned
as Secretary it has more or less died.
- I helped create the BioNET-International Advisory Group, but it was managed by the BioNET
Secretariat and has achieved little.
- My interests in science lie in:
Building SAFRINET and API resulted in most of my time during the past eight years being spent
in networking, management and policy development. If I dedicate my time to bee systematics I could
revise the Afrotropical Apoidea within 10-15 years, and this I began in 2005. This decision resulted
in six scientific revisions being published/ submitted during 2005. I'm also now training a Kenya
woman and a Ghanaian woman to become bee taxonomists. Towards this end I'm completing a catalogue of
the Afrotropical bees (over 4 000 species names, 2 700 of which are valid, and ten of thousands of
references) and I've scanned all the literature as pdf file. This is being prepared for publication
on the Internet.
- Academic research (taxonomy and phylogenetic studies).
- Making science of benefit to people to improve their livelihoods (SAFRINET).
- Conservation of biodiversity (API).
- Helping young scientists develop their carriers (API & SAFRINET).
Bees are the most important group of pollinators and vitally important for agriculture and the
conservation of biodiversity. My proficiency in bee systematics is demonstrated by my status as a
scientist; for example C.D. Michener's suggestion that I develop the course material for an African Bee
Course - this has been done.
Most of my research has been published. Unpublished work is either incomplete or resulted from contract
research that could not be developed to give a high quality scientific result. All published results have
been placed in suitable, high quality, international journals or, by invitation, in books. None of my
articles have been rejected nor required major revision. Each project on which I have embarked has been
concluded within the required time-frame and budget. I was recently invited to contribute to a special issue
of the Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society to commemorate Jeromy Rozen's 70 birthday, and given 10
free pages (US$ 400).
Biosystematics and biodiversity
- My principal study group is Afrotropical bees, in which I am regarded as a world authority.
During the 1990's most other solitary Afrotropical bee specialists retired or passed away. For a
time I was the only professional Afrotropical bee systematist, but recently there has been a small
renewed interest in the systematics of Afrotroical bees, with Alain Pauly and Denis Michez, Belgium,
and Michael Kuhlmann and Kim Timmermann, Germany, joining the field. Others specializations are:
- Specialist taxa are sawflies, ants, stinging wasps and parasitic wasps.
- Contributions to systematic philosophy and methodology, include cladistics, using computer
software and contributing to cladistic theory.
- Statistical analysis; primarily principal component analysis.
- Related fields included in biosystematics: zoogeography, behaviour, field surveys, assessments
and biodiversity, and I'm moving into molecular systematics and GIS.
- Data basing the collections of Afrotropical bees. Those in Africa have been databased, and
I'm now focussing on the Afrotropical material in North American and European Museums, as part
of GBIF. This is a venture to move biosystematists from data provision to information provision
to improve the relevance of taxonomists.
- A catalogue of Afrotropical bees is being developed and will be published on the Internet soon.
SAFRINET was commissioned to develop an information hub for the detection and rapid elimination of invasive
alien species. I acquired seed finance for this project from the United States Geological Survey (USGS),
but felt that to use this finance to place information on the Web would not produce a sustainable
information hub. I, therefore, developed the idea of computer automated identification, with links to
information on species, and involved phytosanitary services, as the user in a pilot project. This has
become the model for the USGS information hub, and simultaneously is developing far beyond invasive alien
species. In the development of the Hub I have the written support of the heads of phytosanitary services
in SADC countries, the approval of the director of the SADC Directorate for Food, Agriculture and Natural
Resources (FANR); the support of international organizations like the International Plant Protection
Convention (IPPC) and the United National Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and many software
developers (Discoverlife, DAISY, LUCID, ETI and ABIS). This project has investigated many semi-automated
and fully automated organism identification techniques but found them, for different reasons, unsuitable.
CBOL is the latest attempt, and appears promising. The development of an alien invasive species early
warning website in collaboration with the South African Department of Agriculture (DoA) is under discussion.
- Working for an agricultural research organization I'm often asked to give advice on applied
entomological problems or refer people to the correct specialist. Activities in applied entomology
- Impact assessment of beneficial insects and pest. I have published on the introduction
of a new saw fly into South Africa and on pollinators.
- Control methods and their suitability. Mostly general knowledge, frequently asked for advice
on carpenter bee damage and studied the prospects for biocontrol of introduced saw flies.
- Biology of beneficial insects and pests/potential pests; e.g., bee behaviour and introduced
saw fly biology.
- Increasing population density of beneficial insects, such as pollinators.
- Surveys of the insects, beneficial and pests in agricultural systems and nature reserves. I've participated in many surveys.
- Pollination research, see below.
My interest in applied entomology is in the conservation of beneficial organisms, such as pollinators.
- Pollination of subtropical fruit, vegetables, pastoral grasses and other pastoral plants. Some
of this work has been published, but for other work the contract was terminated before publishable
results were obtained.
- My current interest is in keeping stingless bees for pollination and honey production. A proposal,
developed in collaboration with Kenya, Ghana, Botswana, UK and the Netherlands has been submitted to
the EU. The other large proposal that will soon be submitted for funding is the IPI/GEF project.
- I'm a bee systematist. Therefore ecology has been a sideline, but an alert taxonomist gains
a lot of ecological knowledge during fieldwork. This includes:
- Nesting, foraging biology and host plant records of bees.
- Behaviour of bees, wasps and sawflies, and less so other insect groups.
- Ecological impact in natural vegetation and agricultural systems, such as environmental
factors that affect bee abundance and diversity.
- Progress in ARC institutes during the period of change, i.e., from government to semi-government
organization in a climate of political change, has been dismal. In this environment innovation has been
the key to personal career development, and I think I've been one of those who've progressed in a
retrogressive environment. Some examples of my innovation are:
I have a keen interest to develop my career in project development and mangement; in
particular taking a problem, the existing human capacity, other resources, and outside funding to
help resolve problems, build human capacity and provide scientific information.
- I've designed and constructed my experimental and field equipment that was not
readily available. Some designs were unique and have been copied but other institutions,
e.g., Humboldt University Museum, Berlin, uses my malaise trap design.
- I remoulded SAFRINET from a programme to build traditional-type taxonomic organizations
in SADC to computer automated identifications undertaken by the users of taxonomic services.
- I created API so that Africa could fulfil its role in IPI, and this resulted in API
leading IPI, and I've been instrumental in the development of IPI and enabling it to
fulfil both the requirements of the user community, FAO and GEF.
- Currently I'm developing a mechanism to partly automate databasing the information
associated with Afrotropical bees in European museums. My previous Director, Mr Mike
Walters, on his retirement commented on the large number of new ideas I had presented
to help make ARC-PPRI a financially viable organization.
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
(consultancy and information transfer)
- SCIENTIFIC SERVICES
- Scientific information transfer is part of the mandate of the ARC. This includes participation in
working groups such as the IUCN, GTI, FAO. In these I provide:
I've written many project proposal, some have been successful and several are currently been appraised,
and I believe that I'm now proficient at this task.
- Highly specialised advice and information on bees, wasps, ants and sawflies. Less specialized
and generalized information on all groups of insects of agricultural and environmental importance.
This service is usually given free on a daily basis because the clients are poor, students with small
grants or because the time spent on the task is small. To make it pay we need to add value to this
data and create information. This is being done in the development of a bee database. I've also helped
develop scientific projects and policy with international organizations, e.g., I was invited to Brazil
to help in the development of a Brazil Pollinator Initiative (BPI) and the US State Department invited
me to organize the Mabula Workshop, to name but a few examples - many such invites I do not accept.
- Client requested research. The pollination biology on the subtropical fruit fell in this category.
I revised the stingless bees at the request of ICIPE.
- Advice on writing scientific papers, review of scientific articles and books (some reviews are
published), peer review for scientists both local and from abroad and writing report, minutes and
meeting proceedings. I did not keep record of the articles I review, or those that I helped write.
I'm an associate editor of the Journal for Tropical Insect Science and was Chairman and Editor for
the proceeding of the solitary bee section of the 2001 APIMONDIA congress.
In a recent survey of the standard of curation in the Biosystematics Division's insect collection, by Ros
Urban the collection manager, my collection proved to be the best curated. I've also been complimented by
foreign bee biologists on the standard of curation in my collection.
(Insect identifications and technical information service)
- Curation. Technical services in organism identification are given daily, for conservationists, farmers,
quarantine staff, industry and general public, both local and abroad. Identification of Afrotropical bees is
my speciality, and I'm the most qualified specialist in the world. Identification of all other groups of
insects of agricultural and environmental importance, often not to species but I know who to consult for
species determinations and, by the nature of the problem whether a species name is necessary.
Consultation on the presentation of technical information and review of technical publications. This mainly is
done in ARC-PPRI and SAFRINET training courses.
- Information is given on the biology, ecology, control etc. of all insects (more specialised on bees, wasps,
ants and sawflies).
- I have knowledge of all aspects on the collection of insects and arachnids, and on their preparation and
curation for the development of a collection or for use in research. I've lectured on this in a course on
collecting and curation offered by ARC
Information management and the availability of electronic information are fundamental to my activities in
ARC and SAFRINET.
- Consultation on networking is usually more discussion with other network co-ordinators. I have experience in networks driven from top-down (SAFRINET) and IPI) and bottom-up (API).
- I have a broad general knowledge on agriculture that I have developed during 25 years of experience in
- I've developed a management system for literature and information retrieval for bees, ants, stinging and
some parasitic wasps and sawfies. My literature collection on African bees is the most comprehensive outside
the University of Kansas, USA (possibly the most comprehensive in the world). It is being used to prepare
catalogues to all the Afrotropical bees (about 2 600 valid species), with several hundred-thousand records.
This will be put on the Internet soon.
- I write scientific, semi-scientific and technical papers, requests for funding and report on all aspects of my
activities, including operational and financial management (annual, progress and financial reports) for
- I am involved in the development of a relational database for the National Collection of Insects, and this will
expand it into a global database through GBIF.
- SAFRINET is developing into an information network, and I'm working towards it becoming SADC's
Directorate for Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) information mechanism.
- Currently I use Windows2000, on PC and Apple machines, and other every-day software like
Omnipage, Photoshop, Corel, etc. I have used and/or received training on a variety of other
software; scientific, statistical, accounting, auditing, data bases, word processing, illustration
and management and have little difficulty in learning to use new hardware and software.
- I've also used Hennig86, which is a cladistics analysis programme.
- Rearing insects to obtain material for research, to study life cycles and general biology and
to develop a quality collection by taking immature insects and rearing them to maturity has been undertaken.
- SAFRINET is a neat example of project development. Initially it was a "good idea" for expanding
traditional mechanisms for building taxonomic capacity, but did not materialize into a fundable project.
I've therefore developed it into a project tailored for a specific need and introduced unique methodology
to achieve my goal. Through this process I've learned a lot about project development.
- IPI has been the more successful project I contributed to because I've put more time to it and mobilized
more active partners, like FAO.
TRAINING AND EDUCATION
I have been involved in training at different levels:
- Lecturing Taxonomic Techniques for Applied Entomology, an ARC course.
- Lecturing Plant Quarantine Organisms, Collecting Techniques and Classification.
- Lecturing SAFRINET course in Practical Entomology and Arachnology.
- Presentation of scientific and technical papers at numerous congresses and workshops; local and international.
I've presented a huge number of talks and have not kept records.
- Visiting or being visited by technicians, scientists, farmers etc. for the transfer of
information and skills. I spend a lot of time networking, particularly for pollinators and SAFRINET.
The result is that the API is the most advanced regional network of the IPI and SAFRINET is the
leading network in BioNET.
- I've Participation in numerous Workshop; a careful record of which has not been kept.
I finance my project running costs, and am one of two or three systematists in ARC-PPRI that manages this. It is
difficult to obtain finance for taxonomy that includes scientist's salaries and overheads. This is because we're
requesting "grant finance" for an organization that is not concerned with tertiary training. Nevertheless, I believe
that several of my international drives for financing big projects will soon mature - this is already happening with
the IPI=GEF project.
Apart from in-house funding (ARC-PPRI), SAFRINET's primary finance was from the Swiss Agency for
Development and Cooperation (SDC), the UK Department for International Development (DFID), USA and
the BioNET Fund. Several agencies, including the Government of Finland, USA and international organisations
(IUCN, ICIPE, Catagena Protocol), financed SAFRINET people to participate in meetings and workshops.
This finance has exceeded US$ 5 000 000, since 1997.
Pollinator biodiversity conservation
Since 1997 I've raised over US$ 150 000. By the nature of taxonomic research, and the APC-PPRI
embargo on employment of new staff, this has mostly been spent on my own research.
- Some of my more successful accomplishments are:
- Revision of 269 valid species, 71 of which were new to science, excluding 6 articles
in press and preparation. These were all dealt with in monographic revisions of higher taxa.
- Completion of two theses: MSC and PhD, and did a BCompt(Hons) degree while doing my PhD.
- Completion of a cladistic analysis of the Ammobatini.
- Catalogued every reference to an Afrotropical bee, this is being prepared for electronic
publication on ARC website.
- Collected copies of every article concerning Afrotropical bees.
- Developed the biggest collection on southern African bees. This collection has been
professionally curated and every species is recorded on a data base. I've also databased
the material in the Transvaal and Durban museums.
- Developed SAFRINET into a highly acclaimed network. Co-operation between SAFRINET and other
leading international organisations and initiatives has been sought by GISP, IPI, GTI, IUCN,
FAO, GBIF, CBOL and others.
- Initiated API. Other regions of the globe are following suit in the development of regional
pollinator protection networks. I was recently nominated by the API members to represent API
in the IPI-GEF project.
- I lead the development of the IPI in its initial stages.
- Moulded SAFRINET into the first node (hub) for a global project to develop an invasive alien
species network, phytosanitary services network and a mechanism to document life (see
www.discoverlife.org). I moulded these initiatives into one programme.
- 1989 Award from the government (Administration: House of Assembly) for exceptional productivity.
- 1998 Medal from Agricultural Research Council for Excellent Performance.
- 1985-2004 In internal ARC evaluations I always come in the top category.
Scientific and technical publications
- Thirty-two scientific articles:
- 14 of which are major systematic revisions.
- 17 technical/semi-scientific articles.
- 1 book.
- seven book reviews.
- five report
- Over 14 meeting proceedings.
- 1 poster.
- three electronic publications.
I also have and am responsible for the information on bees in EcoPort (www.ecoport.org). EcoPort is
a comprehensive Internet site for biological diversity.
I've not kept careful records of semi-scientific and popular articles, meeting proceedings. A publication
list is appended. Every article is of exceptional high quality, indicating that quality has never been
sacrificed to achieve outstanding productivity.
Contributions to numerous newsletters, internal reports, client reports etc. of which detailed records have
not been kept.
Presentations at scientific congresses
Numerous presentations at congresses, symposia, workshops and meetings were delivered. An
accurate record of these was not kept.
I do carpentry and repair my own motor vehicles, and consider myself to be technically talented.
Skills have been developed to enable me to fulfil all aspects of my position as a research scientist,
net-worker and/or manager of multinational, multidisciplinary projects, and to enable me to continue
improving client services and my research, both qualitatively and quantitatively. It has been developed
from formal and informal tuition, literature and my own research.
Apart from my obvious interests in research in pure science and applied agricultural science, I have always had
a keen interest in business and business management and the application of science and technology. I delivered several
seminars on agricultural economics, where I was expected to choose my own subject matter, for my BSc(Hons.) degree.
Previously this subject had not been included in this course. I also undertook a Hons. BCompt degree (the academic
qualifications needed for a Charted Accountant, I have not written the CA Board exam) to gain professional training in
During my career I have had to adapt from being a research scientist involved in pure science to applied science,
a consultant, a project manager, involving the management of people, operations and financial accountability, a
net-work co-ordinatior, a project developer and a fund raiser. All these have been achieved with outstanding success
(the medal for Excellent Performance was awarded after these career changes were made).
I have visited most European museums with large and important collections, and all the southern Africa museums,
to develop my scientific and technical knowledge, to undertake comparative study and as a networking exercise for SAFRINET.
I have also visited and studied at numerous scientific and agricultural institutions in southern Africa and abroad, and
spent time at the CAB-INTERNATIONAL (CABI) institutes, UK, to deal with SAFRINET and BioNET-INTERNATIONAL matters. CABI
was visited to deal with SAFRINET reporting, project management, strategic planning and fund raising, and to improve my
technical knowledge on insects, nematodes and micro-organisms.
I have visited the natural history museums and other scientific and agricultural institutions in Austria, Belgium, Botswana,
Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ghana, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia,
Tanzania, United Kingdom, USA, Zambia and Zimbabwe. This was done in varying capacities, as a consultant, research scientist,
project manager and/or to participate in workshops and congresses.
I attended/participated in international meeting as the South African Government representative for Agriculture (SBSTTA, COP,
GBF, CGIAR and IPI), the BioNET-INTERNATIONAL/SAFRINET representative at countless meeting in SADC and abroad and as a bee
specialist at many meetings.
- Election to executive committees of learned societies
||Entomological Society of Southern Africa
||Entomological Society of Southern Africa
||Biosystematics Interest Group of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa
||BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Action Group
||Steering Committee for the implementation of the Sao Paulo Declaration
||Insect Science and its Application
||Secretary of the IPI
||The COP/FAO IPI initiative Coordinating Mechanism
- Consultations and review requests (publications and projects)
- Frequent requests to referee articles for international scientific journals,
including African Entomology, the Journal of Natural History, Journal of Hymenoptera Research, Zoological
Journal of the Linnean Society. Book reviews are included in the publication list (publications # 25, 27,
28 and 35).
- Member of the Sub-regional Committee for the SAFRINET Needs Assessment Exercise (this is independent of the
network coordinator's duties).
- Peer reviews of South African scientists for NRF and on request by foreign institutions.
Other examples to illustrate scientific status
- Researchers abroad studying Afrotropical bees consult with me regarding future research, placing me in
a position to determine priorities for bee research in Africa. Recent examples are Mr M. Schwarz, from Linz,
Austria and Dr M. Kuhlmann in Ahlen, Germany.
- Complementary correspondence from leading bee systematists. Some of these are as follows: Dr L. Packer
(the most recent), stated on 30 October 1997, when requesting me to do a peer review, that my "papers
are probably the most attractively produced works I see". Dr J. Rozen, currently the worlds leading bee
scientist, stated that "I continue to be impressed by the progress that you've made in sorting out the
bees of Africa". The reports from the external examiners of my theses are also highly favourable. For
example, the external examiner of my MSc, Prof. H. Daly, of the University of California, stated that
"In comparison to other Master' theses that I have judged critically during the last 22 years, I find
Mr Eardley's thesis to be among the best". These plus many other letters of this nature are available on request.
- Invitation to contribute to scientific and technical books, included in publication list. The most recent
is a monograph on the bees of Madagascar. I am the only employed bee systematists in the Afrotropical Region.
Another resides in Europe and I'm beginning to train a Kenya scientist to become a bee taxonomist. A few
amateurs reside in Europe (there are a few amateurs in Europe). As most of the American bee systematists with
expertise on African bees approach retirement my expertise become increasingly important for pollinator
biodiversity research in Africa. Mentoring is also vital, as I get older.
South Africa Council for Natural Scientific Professionals, since its inception.
Entomological Society of Southern Africa.
International Society of Hymenopterists.
The National Geographic Society.
- Learned scientists abroad
- Dr B. Gemmill, Environmental Liaison Centre International (ELCI), P.O. Box 72461,
Nairobi, Kenya. E-mail bg11 @mac.com (Director of ELCI).
- Prof. C.D. Michener, c/o Snow Entomological Museum, Snow Hall, University of Kansas,
Lawrence Kansas 66045,USA. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org (the worlds leading bee expert, retired,
does not know me personally).
- Dr W.J. Pulawski, Department of Entomology, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park,
San Francisco, CA 94118, U.S.A. E-mail wpulawski @ casmail.calacademy.org. (leading wasp scientist,
visited me for study purposes several times).
- Dr Rolf Oberprieler, CSIRO - Entomology, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA. E-mail
Rolf.Oberprieler @ ento.csiro.au. (ex-colleague).
- Dr M.W. Mansell, PPRI, Private Bag x134, Pretoria, 0001. South Africa.E-mail email@example.com.
- Dr A. Dippenaar, PPRI, Private Bag x134, Pretoria, 0001. South Africa.E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Dr M. Hamer, Department of Zoology & Entomology, University of Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209.
I declare that the particulars furnished are true and correct.
Publication list for C.D. Eardley
An asterix indicates semi-scientific and technical publications and published reports.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1983. A taxonomic revision of the genus Xylocopa Latreille (Hymenoptera:
Anthophoridae) in southern Africa. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture, Republic of
South Africa No. 58, 67pp.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1983. Systematic research on South African bees. Agricultural News 4 February 1983 p.2.
- PRINSLOO, G.L. & C.D. EARDLEY, 1985. Order Hymenoptera (Sawflies, wasps, bees, ants). [In]
Scholtz, C.H. & E. Holm [Eds]. Insects of Southern Africa, Butterworths, Durban p.393-395.
- PRINSLOO, G.L. & C.D. EARDLEY, 1985. Suborder Apocrita. [In] Scholtz, C.H. & E. Holm [Eds].
Insects of Southern Africa, Butterworths, Durban p.399-429.
- C.D. EARDLEY, 1985. Vespoidea. [In] Scholtz, C.H. & E. Holm [Eds]. Insects of Southern Africa,
Butterworths, Durban p.429-430.
- C.D. EARDLEY, 1985. Sphecoidea. [In] Scholtz, C.H. & E. Holm [Eds]. Insects of Southern Africa,
Butterworths, Durban. p.430-436.
- C.D. EARDLEY, 1985. Apoidea. [In] Scholtz, C.H. & E. Holm [Eds]. Insects of Southern Africa,
Butterworths, Durban. p.436-443.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1987. Catalogue of Apoidea (Hymenoptera) in Africa south of the Sahara. Part I.
The genus Xylocopa Latreille (Anthophoridae). Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and
Water Supply, Republic of South Africa No. 70. 20pp.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1988. A revision of the genus Lithurge Latreille (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)
of sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 15(2): 251-263.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1989. Diversity and endemism of southern African bees. Plant Protection News
- EARDLEY, C.D., (1990). The Afrotropical species of Eucara Friese, Tetralonia Spinola and
Tetraloniella Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Entomology Memoir, Department of Agricultural
Development, Republic of South Africa No. 75, 62pp.
- EARDLEY, C.D. AND R.W. BROOKS, (1990). The genus Anthophora Latreille in southern Africa (Hymenoptera:
Anthophoridae). Entomology Memoir, Department of Agricultural Development, Republic of South Africa
No. 76, 55pp.
- EARDLEY, C.D., (1991). The Melectini in subsaharan Africa (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Entomology
Memoir, Department of Agricultural Development, Republic of South Africa No. 82, 49pp.
- EARDLEY, C.D. AND M. SCHWARZ, 1991. The Afrotropical species of Nomada Scopoli (Hymenoptera:
Anthophoridae). Phytophylactica 23(1): 17-27.
- EARDLEY, C.D., (1991). The genus Epeolus Latreille from subsaharan Africa (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae).
Journal of Natural History 25: 711-731.
- EARDLEY, C.D., (1991). The southern African Panurginae (Andrenidae: Hymenoptera). Phytophylactica
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1993. Complementary descriptions and new synonyms of some Afrotropical Anthophoridae
(Hymenoptera). African Entomology 1(2): 145-150.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & M.W. MANSELL, 1993. Preliminary report on the natural occurrence of insect pollinators
in an avocado orchard. South African Avocado Grower's Association Yearbook 16: 127-128.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & M.W. MANSELL, 1993. Preliminary report on the natural occurrence of insect pollinators
in a mango orchard. South African Mango Grower's Association Yearbook 13: 127-128.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1993. The African species of Pachymelus Smith (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae).
Phytophylactica 25: 217-229.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1993. Book review: Ecology and Natural History of Tropical Bees (Cambridge Tropical
Biology Series) by David W. Roubik. Cambridge University Press. [In]: African Entomology 1:130-131.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & M.W. MANSELL, 1994. Report on the natural occurrence of insect pollinators in an
avocado orchard: second report. South African Avocado Grower's Association Yearbook 17: 117-118.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & M.W. MANSELL, 1994. Report on the natural occurrence of insect pollinators in a mango
orchard. South African Mango Grower's Association Yearbook 14: 65-66.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & M.W. MANSELL, 1994. Preliminary report on the natural occurrence of insect pollinators
in a litchi orchard. South African Litchi Grower's Association Yearbook 6: 13-14.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1994. Book review: Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 10. Hymenoptera: Apoidea
by J.C. Cardale. [In]: African Entomology 2:77.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1994. The genus Amegilla Friese (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) in southern Africa.
Republic of southern Africa, Department of Agriculture, Entomology Memoir 91: 1-68.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1994. Book review: Bees of the World by C.O'Toole & A. Raw. [In]: African Entomology
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1994. Book review: Hymenoptera and Biodiversity by J. LaSalle & I.D. Gauld Eds.
[In]: African Entomology 2:189-190.
- URBAN, A.J. & C.D. EARDLEY, 1995. A recently introduced sawfly, Nematus oligospilus Förster
(Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), that defoliates willows in southern Africa. African Entomology 3:23-27.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & M.W. MANSELL, 1995. Report on the natural occurrence of insect pollinators in a
litchi orchard. South African Litchi Grower's Association Yearbook 7:33-34.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & M.W. MANSELL, 1995. The natural occurrence of insect pollinators in a Mango orchard:
Final Report. South African Mango Grower's Association Yearbook 15: 89-91.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1996. The genus Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). African
Entomology 4: 37-92.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & A.S. DIPPENAAR, 1996. Collecting and Preparation of Material. [In] Uys V.M. & R.P.
Urban [Eds]. How to Collect and preserve Insects and Arachnids, Plant Protection Research Institute
Handbook No. 7, Biosystematics Division, Plant Protection Research Institute p. 23-35.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & M.W. MANSELL, 1996. The natural occurrence of insect pollinators in an avocado
orchard. South African Avocado Grower's Association Yearbook 19:36-38.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1996. Book Review: The Pollen Wasps. by S.Gess [In]: African Entomology 4(2): 291.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1997. SAFRINET - a new regional network for biosytematic co-operation. Rostrum 46:1.
- URBAN, A. & C.D. EARDLEY, 1997. Willow sawfly: a contentious issue. Plant Protection News 47:20-24.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & R.G. OBERPRIELER, 1997 [compiled by]. A directory of insect and arachnid taxonomists
in southern Africa. A separate publication of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. 12pp.
- EARDLEY, C.D.& A.S. DIPPENAAR-SCHOEMAN, 1997. Collecting methods. [In] MILLAR, I.M. Collecting and
Preserving Insects and Arachnids. Plant Protection Research Institute, Biosystematics Division, Plant
Protection Research Institute p. 34-55.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & M.W. MANSELL, 1997. The natural occurrence of insect pollinators in a litchi orchard.
South African Litchi Grower's Association Yearbook 8:27-29.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & D.J. BROTHERS, 1997. Phylogeny of the Ammobatini and revision of the Afrotropical
genera (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae: Nomadinae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1997. Proceedings of First LOOP Co-ordinating Committee Meeting of SAFRINET.
SAFRINET Document 4. pp 56.
- JONES, T. & C.D. EARDLEY 1998. SAFRINET Manifesto & Portfolio. SAFRINET Document 5. pp.63.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1998. Biosystematic Resources in the SADC Sub-region: Towards a Strategic Plan.
SAFRINET Document 6. pp 57.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1998. Proceedings of Second LOOP Co-ordinating Committee Meeting of SAFRINET.
SAFRINET Document 7. pp 36.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & P. CANNON, 1998. Annual Report 1997. SAFRINET Document 8. pp 49.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & M.W. MANSELL, 1998. Natural Occurrence of Insect Pollinators. [In] E.A. de
Villiers [Ed.] The Cultivation of Mangoes. Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, p. 118-124.
- EARDLEY, C.D. 1998. Where bees buss plants flourish. Plantlife 19: 26-27.
- IMMELMAN, K. & C.D. EARDLEY., 2000. Gathering of grass pollen by solitary bees (Halictidae:
Lipotriches) in South Africa. Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Zool. Reihe 76 (2): 263-268.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 2000. Daures-biodiversity of the Brandberg Massif, Namibia, Apoidea (Hymenoptera).
Cimbebasia Memoir 9: 365-370.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 2000. Afrotropical Bees Now: what next. http://www.ecoport.org/EP.exe$PassCheckStart?ID=4.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 2001. Pollinators: a conservation priority. Science in Africa issue 2.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 2001. Book Review: Hymenoptera Evolution, Biodiversity and Biological Control. by
A.D. Austin and M. Dowton [Eds] [In]: African Entomology.Johannsmeier, M.F [Ed.]. 2001.
(Contributing author). Beekeeping in South Africa. Third edition, revised. Plant Protection Research
Institute Handbook No 14. 288pp.
- PAULY, A., R. BROOKS, A. NILSSON, Y. PSENKO, C. EARDLEY, M. TERZO, T. GRISWOLD, M. SCHWARZ., S.
PATINY, J. MUNZINGER AND Y. BARBIER., 2001. Hymenoptera Apoidea de Madagascar et des iles voisines.
Annales Sciences Zoologiques 286: 1-390. 16 pls.
- GEMMILL, B., C.D. EARDLEY et. al. (in press). Agrobiodiversity Policy Development Guidelines. UNEP.
- SMIT, I. & C.D. EARDLEY (in press). Analysis of the distribution of Xylocopa senior Vachal.
- WHITEHEAD V.B. & EARDLEY, C.D., 2003. African Fideliini: Genus Fidelia Friese (Hymenoptera:
Apoidea: Megachilidae: Fideliinae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 76(2): 250-276.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 2002. Taxonomic services: Afrotropical bees.
- EARDLEY, C.D. (in press). Afrotropical Bees now: what next? Pollinating Bees. The Conservation
Link Between Agriculture and Nature, 105-114.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 2004. Afrotropical Ctenoplectrini (Hymenoptera: Apidae). African Plant Protection 9(1): 1-18.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 2004. Afrotropical Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). African Plant Protection 10(2): 63-96.
- DAVIES G.B.P., EARDLEY C.D. & BROTHERS D.J., 2005. Eight new species of Scrapter (Hymenoptera:
Apoidea: Colletidae) with descriptions of S. albifumus and S. amplispinatus females and a major range
extension of the genus. African Invertebrates 46: 141-179.
- EARDLEY, C.D. & URBAN R.P., 2006. Taxonomic name changes in Afrotropical bees (Hymenoptera:Apoidae).
African Entomology 14(1): 161-174.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 2006. Southern and East African Melitta Kirby (Apoidea: Melittidae). African
Entomology 14(2): 293-300.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 2006. The southern Africa species of Andrena Fabricius (Apoidea: Andrenidae).
African Plant Protection12: 51-57.
- CORTOPASSI-LAURINO, M., Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L., Roubik, D.W., Dollin, A., Heard, T., Aguilar,
I. Venturieri, G.C., Eardley, C., Noguerira-Neto, P., 2006. Global meliponiculture: Challenges
and opportunities. Apidologie 37: 275-292.
- MICHEZ, D., Eardley C., Kuhlmann M. & Patiny S., 2007. Revision of the bee genus Capicola
(Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Melittidae) distributed in the Southwest of Africa. European Journal of
Entomology 104: 311-340.
- EARDLEY, C. & Daly H.V., 2007. Bees of the genus Ceratina Latreille in Southern Africa
(Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomofauna Supplament 13: 1-93.
- Eardley, C., 2007. Three new species of Sphecodopsis Bischoff (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Nomadinae).
African Entomology 15(1): 193-196.
Those in press and in final stages of preparation are not included.
Publications contributed to:
- Plan of Action of the African Pollinator Initiative, 2003.
- International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 24 (1). A special issue for African pollination ecology.
- Pollinators and Pollination: a resources book for policy and practice, in press.
Presentations at scientific congresses
(presentations for which there were proceedings or printed programmes only)
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1983. A method of associating the sexes and colour varieties of carpenter
bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Proceedings of the Fourth
Entomological Congress organised by the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, Johannesburg. p.32.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1985. On the diversity in nest structure of southern African bees.
Proceedings of the Fifth Entomological Congress organised by the Entomological Society of Southern
Africa, Grahamstown. 12.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1989. Distribution of southern African Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Proceedings
of the Seventh Entomological Congress organised by the Entomological Society of Southern Africa,
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1994. Phylogeny and systematics of the Afrotropical Ammobatini (Hymenoptera:
Anthophoridae). Annual Research Meeting, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Natal,
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1996. The natural occurrence of insect pollinators in an avocado orchard. SAAGA
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1996. A method for grouping species for cladistic analysis. Abstracts of the
15th Meeting of the Willi Hennig Society. p.20.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1998. BioNET-INTERNALTIONAL Biosystematic Support services to IPM.
- EARDLEY, C.D., 1998. Afrotropical Bees Now: What Next.
- EARDLEY, C.D. 1999. Bees: A Priority Group for Biodiversity Research.
- EARDLEY, C.D. 1999. The Biodiversity of Pollinators in Africa.
- EARDLEY, C.D. 2001. Pollinator Biodiversity a Co-ordinated Global Approach. [In] Proceedings
of the Eighth International Pollination Symposium. Acta Horticulturae 561: 331-332.
- EARDLEY, C.D. 2000. African Pollinator Initiative.
- EARDLEY, C.D. AND M.W. MANSELL, 2002. Pollinator survival for Human Survival. Society for
Conservation Biology. 16th Annual Meeting. p A40.
- EARDLEY, C.D. AND V. FONSECA-IMPERATRIZ, 2002. South America / Africa Collaboration in Bee
Research. V Encontro Sobre Abelhas, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.
I've given dozens of talks at congresses and workshop, both locally and abroad. I have not kept track of these
talks or the published abstracts. I've also written case studies that have been published electronically and
have not kept track of these.
Updated: 30 July, 2007