- Harvard University, Biology, A.M. 1976; Ph.D. 1980
- University of Illinois, Honors Biology, B.S. 1973 (high departmental & university honors)
Appointments and Professional Experience
- University of Georgia, Athens -- Faculty member
- Odum School/Institute of Ecology, 1994-present
- Department of Entomology, 1984-95
- Institute of Bioinformatics, member, 2006-present
- University of California, Berkeley
- Postgraduate Research Entomologist, Div. of Biological Control, 1982-84
- Research Associate, Div. of Entomology & Parasitology, 1981-82
- Miller Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Entomological Sciences, 1979-81
- Green Champion, Go Green Alliance, University of Georgia, 2010
SMART initiative for outstanding efforts related to sustainability (www.discoverlife.org/smart)
- Mellon Senior Research Fellowship, 1996-98
Organization for Tropical Studies, Costa Rica
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama
- Outstanding Upper Division Advisor Award, University of Georgia, 1996
- Special Sandy Beaver Award for Teaching Excellence, University of Georgia, 1994
- Outstanding Conference Paper Presentation, GRASS Users Conference, Berkeley, 1991
- Postdoctoral Fellowship, Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science, 1979-81
- Predoctoral Fellowship, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 1976-77
- Richmond Fellow, Harvard University, 1974-79
- Bronze Tablet, University of Illinois, 1973
My goal is to understand changes in the diversity, abundance, distribution and dispersal
of all living things across local to global scales.
Clearly, I cannot accomplish this alone. Hence, the advent of
Discover Life (www.discoverlife.org) --
a website with the technology to enable an army of scientists, students and
volunteers to work together, study biodiversity and share information on a grand scale.
For over a decade my almost single-minded passion has been to build this interactive encyclopedia.
Currently it and its partner databases provide information on 1.27 million species.
This website has had 1.69 billion hits.
In April, 2013, it served 65 million pages and images to 538,000 IP addresses.
Its online tools include a global mapper (www.discoverlife.org/map)
that enables users to compare the distribution of 607,000 species across geographic scales.
I am broadly trained as a biologist.
I specialize in the natural history of the Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps, and sawflies),
the epidemiology and virulence of infections, and sex ratio theory.
In addition to natural history research, I have worked in public health and agriculture.
My field methods include comparative inventories across tropical and temperate sites and
long-term monitoring of populations and communities in response to environmental and experimental changes.
My current focus is "Mothing" (see http://www.discoverlife.org/moth).
We photograph moths at lights before dawn every night to document how communities
change seasonally and across years in response to changes in temperature, air quality
and other variables.
Besides field and microscope work, my laboratory builds interactive guides to identify species,
integrates databases so that web users can easily map and share information, and
pioneers barcode technology to track museum specimens.
I started programming computers in 1972 and have considerable
experience in designing, building and running systems. My forte is
using unix, perl scripts and natural language processing to automate the integration of databases
from disparate sources and to serve them in composite pages on the web.
In 1991, my collaborators, students and I started the Insect Diversity Project
to quantify how climate, biogeography, habitat type, disturbance, land-use and landscape fragmentation
affect species abundance, diversity and trophic interactions within ecosystems.
We have collected over 300 trap-years of insect samples from 12 tropical and 8 temperate sites in the New World.
Don Windsor and I have an on-going monitoring project that has collected weekly
Malaise trap samples from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, since June, 1992.
In total my lab has mounted and labelled over 300,000 individual insects
and is currently using digital photography to document more.
By modelling data across sites, we hope to answer how seasonality,
El Niño cycles and other large-scale factors
affect community structure and diversity in time and space.
In 1997, I co-founded the Great Smoky Mountains National Park's All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory -- a comprehesive study of species in the park.
In 1998, I began Discover Life to support biodiversity studies and serve as a general portal to natural history information.
In 2002, I co-founded the Polistes Foundation (www.discoverlife.org/polistes),
the mission of which is to assemble and share knowledge about nature
in order to improve education, health, agriculture, economic development,
and conservation throughout the world. This non-profit foundation is the legal umbrella of Discover Life.
In 2007, I co-founded the International Center for Public Health and Environmental Research
to help advance our research and educational goals. PHER is centered at the University of Georgia
and has an international team of over 75 associated scientists employed at other institutions.
In 2009, I co-founded the Proceedings of Life. This publication will be online,
interactive, peer reviewed and free to all users. It will provide authors with a means to get academic
credit and a permanent scientific citation for building and maintaining high-quality databases on the web.
In 2011, I co-founded the Georgia Natural History Survey (see http://www.discoverlife.org/gnhs).
In 2012, I co-founded the Kentucky and Massachusetts Natural History Surveys.
All Species Foundation, Advisor, 2000-2004
American Museum of Natural History, Visiting Scientist (research.amnh.org/iz/staff), 2009-present
Biodiversity Science & Education Initiative, Smithsonian Institution, Executive Committee, 2005-2007
CONABIO -- National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity of Mexico, Scientific Advisory Committee, 2011-present
Discover Life in America, Board of Directors, 1998-2002; Chairman, 1998-1999
Encyclopedia of Life, Smithsonian Institution, Steering Committee, 2004-2005
E. O. Wilson Foundation, Technical advisor, 2007-present
Georgia ForestWatch, Board of Directors, 2000-2002
Harvard University, Schools and Scholarships Committee member, 2008-present
Lion Conservation Fund (www.lionconservationfund.org), Board of Directors, 2005-present
National Moth Week (http://nationalmothweek.org), Science Advisory Board, 2012-present
Polistes Corporation, President, 1999-present
Polistes Foundation (www.discoverlife.org/polistes), President & CEO, 2002-present
Recent Support (see www.discoverlife.org/pa/or/polistes/pr)
Hill, Robert. 2011.
Liking lichens (and other biota): applying ecological knowledge to Georgia's performance standards in science.
Improving Teacher Quality State Grant Title II, Part A of Public Law 107-110, the "No Child Left Behind Act".
Ascher, J. and J. Rosen. 2010.
Collaborative Research: Collaborative Databasing of
North American Bee Collections Within a Global Informatics Network.
National Science Foundation, Division of Biological Infrastructure.
Pickering, John. 2010.
Web tools to identify, report, and map invasive species.
5-year Cooperative Agreement between USGS-NBII and the Polistes Foundation.
Losey, J., L. Allee, L. Hesler, M. Catangui and J. Pickering. 2008.
Have you spotted me: Learning lessons by looking for ladybugs.
National Science Foundation, Informal Science Education.
Pickering, J. 2005.
The development and continuing service-support of online systems for the shorefishes
of the Tropical Eastern Pacific and the Greater Caribbean.
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.
- Pickering, J. 2004.
Web tools to identify, report, and map invasive species in North America.
5-year Cooperative Agreement between USGS-NBII and the Polistes Foundation.
Pickering, J. 2003. Equipment grant in support of Discover Life. Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Pickering, J. 2003.
Web identification guides and maps of North American Invasive Species.
National Biological Information Infrastructure, U. S. Geological Survey.
Pickering, J. 2002.
Web-based bee identification guide.
Biological Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey.
Pickering, J., B. Scholtens, R. Turner, D. Wagner & K. Yatskievych. 2002.
Web-based identification guides for common North American butterflies, moths, caterpillars, wildflowers, and
National Biological Information Infrastructure, U. S. Geological Survey.
Pickering, J. & E. L. Skillen. 1997-2002. Diversity of parasitic wasps in the Great Smoky
Mountains National Park. Friends of Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Pickering, J. & M. J. Sharkey. 1996-2001. Diversity and trophic
interactions of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) in tropical
lowland forests. Mellon Fellowship. Organization for Tropical Studies and
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
Pickering, J. et al. 1998-1999. A community science, technology, and education partnership
to increase minority student participation in the study of natural history in national parks.
The National Park Service. (www.discoverlife.org/ed/tt/acc.proposal.1998.html)
Coley, P. D. & J. Pickering. 1998-1999. The regulation of herbivores by the third
trophic level: an El Niño experiment. Ecological Studies Program, The National Science Foundation.
Pickering J. 1995-1997. Calibration of Malaise traps for studying
insect diversity. Biotic Surveys and Inventories Program, The National Science Foundation.
Pickering, J. 1980. Larval competition and brood sex ratios in the gregarious parasitoid Pachysomoides stupidus.
Nature 283: 291-292. (cited by 27)
Bremermann, H. J. and J. Pickering. 1983. A game-theoretical model of parasite virulence.
J. Theoretical Biology 100: 411-426. (cited by 250)
Getz, W. M., and J. Pickering. 1983. Epidemic models: thresholds and population regulation.
American Naturalist 121: 892-898. (cited by 129)
Holt, R. D., and J. Pickering. 1985. Infectious disease and species coexistence: a model of Lotka-Volterra form.
American Naturalist 126:196-211. (cited by 196)
Pickering, J., J. A. Wiley, N. S. Padian, L. E. Lieb, D. F. Echenberg and J. Walker. 1986.
Modeling the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in San Francisco, Los Angeles, and New York.
Mathematical Modelling 7: 661-688. (cited by 38)
Wenzel, J. W., and J. Pickering. 1991. Cooperative foraging, productivity, and the central limit theorem.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 36-38. (cited by 54)
Hargrove, W. W. and J. Pickering. 1992. Pseudoreplication: a sine qua non for regional ecology.
Landscape Ecology 6: 251-258. (cited by 166)
Bartlett, R., J. Pickering, I. Gauld and D. Windsor. 1999.
Estimating global biodiversity: tropical beetles and wasps send different signals.
Ecological Entomology 24: 118-121. (cited by 39)
Pickering, J., A. F. Read, S. Guerrero and S. A. West. 2000.
Sex ratio and virulence in two species of lizard malaria parasites.
Evolutionary Ecology Research 2: 171-184. (cited by 47)
Pickering, J., L. L. Getz and G. S. Whitt. 1974. An esterase phenotype correlated with dispersal in Microtus.
Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 67:471-475.
Pickering, J. 1980. Sex ratio, social behavior and ecology in Polistes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae),
Pachysomoides (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) and Plasmodium (Protozoa, Haemosporida).
Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 362 pp.
Guerrero, S. and J. Pickering. 1984. Malaria survey in Anolis lizards of Puerto Rico.
J. Parasitology 70: 162-164.
Hochberg, M. E., J. Pickering and W. M. Getz. 1986. Evaluation of phenology models using field data:
case study for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the blue alfalfa aphid, Acyrthosiphon kondoi
Environmental Entomology 15: 227-231.
Padian, N. and J. Pickering. 1986. Female-to-male transmission of AIDS: A reexamination of the African sex ratio of cases.
J. American Medical Association 256: 590.
Pickering, J., J. D. Dutcher and B. S. Ekbom. 1989. An epizootic caused by Erynia neoaphidis and
Erynia radicans (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae) on Acyrthosiphon (Homoptera: Aphididae) on legumes
under overhead irrigation.
J. Applied Entomology 107: 331-333.
Pickering, J., D. W. Ross and W. C. Berisford. 1989. An automated system for timing insecticidal sprays for
Nantucket pine tip moth control.
Southern J. Applied Forestry 13: 185-187.
Ross, D. W., J. Pickering, J. D. Berg and W. C. Berisford. 1989. Mapping Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
development in Georgia.
J. Entomological Sci. 24: 405-412.
Pickering, J., J. D. Dutcher and B. S. Ekbom. 1990. The effect of a fungicide on fungal
induced mortality of pecan aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in the field.
J. Economic Entomology 83: 1801-1805.
Pickering, J., W. W. Hargrove, J. D. Dutcher and H C Ellis. 1990.
RAIN: A novel approach to computer-aided decision making in agriculture and forestry.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 4: 275-285.
van de Laar, M. J. W., J. A. R. van den Hoek, J. Pickering, G. J. P. van Griensven, R. A. Coutinho and H. P. A. van de Water. 1990.
Dalende trend van gonorroe in Nederland: betekinis voor de AIDS-epidemic?
Nederlands Tijdscrift Geneeskunde 134: 647-652.
van de Laar, M. J. W., J. Pickering, J. A. R. van den Hoek, G. J. P. van Griensven, R. A. Coutinho and H. P. A. van de Water. 1990.
Declining gonorrhea rates in The Netherlands, 1976-1988; Evidence for the AIDS epidemic?
Genitourinary Medicine 66: 148-155.
Ekbom, B. S. and J. Pickering. 1990. Pathogenic fungal dynamics in a fall population of the blackmargined aphid
Entomol. exp. et appl. 57: 29-37.
Pickering, J. and A. P. Gutierrez. 1991.
Differential impact of the pathogen Pandora neoaphidis (R. & H.) Humber (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales)
on the species composition of Acyrthosiphon aphids in alfalfa.
Canadian Entomologist 123: 315-320.
Holzman, S., M. J. Conroy and J. Pickering. 1992. Home Range, movements, and habitat use of coyotes in southcentral Georgia.
J. Wildlife Management 56: 139-146.
Pearson, S. M., J. M. Walsh, and J. Pickering. 1992. Wood stork use of wetland
habitats around Cumberland Island, Georgia, U.S.A.
Colonial Waterbirds 15:33-42.
Camann, M. A., A. K. Culbreath, J. Pickering, J. W. Todd and J. W. Demski. 1995.
Spatial and temporal patterns of spotted wilt epidemics in peanut.
Phytopathology 85: 879-885.
Gaasch, C. M., J. Pickering and C. T. Moore. 1998.
Flight phenology of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in Georgia's piedmont.
Environmental Entomology 27:606-614.
Pickering, J. 1999. Discover Life in America & the database needs of the
All-Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Metadiversity - The Call for Community. Pages 51-56 in Proceedings of the U. S. Geological Survey
Biological Resources Division & the National Federation of Abstracting &
Information Services Symposium, November, 1998, Natural Bridge, Virginia.
Shapiro, B. A. and J. Pickering. 2000. Rainfall and parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) activity in
successional forest stages at Barro Colorado Nature Monument, Panama and La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica.
Agricultural and Forest Entomology 2:39-47.
Skillen, E. L., J. Pickering and M. J. Sharkey. 2000. Species richness of the Campopleginae and
Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) along a latitudinal gradient in eastern North American old-growth forests.
Environmental Entomology 29: 460-466.
Kaspari, M., J. Pickering, J. T. Longino and D. Windsor. 2001. The phenology of a Neotropical ant assemblage:
evidence for continuous and overlapping reproduction.
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 50: 382-390.
Kaspari, M., J. Pickering and D. Windsor. 2001. The reproductive flight phenology of a Neotropical
ant assemblage. Ecological Entomology 26: 245-257.
Pickering, J., K. Smith, G. Cotter, A. Simpson, R. Magill and E. McNierney. 2006.
International Biogeography Society, news report, March, 2006. (www.discoverlife.org/pa/or/polistes/fe/2006ibs.html)
M. von Konrat, A. Hagborg, L. Söderström, J. Mutke, M. Renner, S. R. Gradstein,
J. Engel, R. -L. Zhu and J. Pickering. 2008. Early land plants today: global patterns
of liverwort diversity, distribution, and floristic knowledge. In: Mohamed H.,
B. B. Baki, A. Nasrulhaq-Boyce and P. K. Y. Lee (eds.), Bryology in the New Millennium.
Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya, pp. 425-438. (www.discoverlife.org/who/CV/von_Konrat_et_al,_2008.pdf)
Mueller, M. P. and J. Pickering. 2010. Bee Hunt! Ecojustice in practice for Earth's buzzing biodiversity.
Science Activities, 47(4): 151-159.
Ascher, J. S. and J. Pickering. 2010.
World Bee Diversity -- Interactive checklists of world bees by country
Ascher, J. S. and J. Pickering. 2011.
Bee species guide (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila)
and World Checklist of Bees (www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?act=x_checklist&guide=Apoidea_species).
Chapters in Books
Pickering, J., J. A. Wiley, N. S. Padian, L. E. Lieb, D. F. Echenberg and J. Walker. 1987.
Modeling the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in San Francisco,
Los Angeles, and New York. Pages 661-688 in M. Witten (ed.), Mathematical Models in Medicine,
Diseases and Epidemics, Pergamon Press, New York. (Reprinted from Pickering et al., 1986.)
Pickering, J. 1988. Epidemiology.
Pages 126-129 in S. P. Parker (ed.), McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 1989. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Pickering, J., J. A. Wiley, L. E. Lieb, J. Walker and G. Rutherford. 1988.
Modelling the incidence of AIDS in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Pages 38-51 in H. C. Jager
and E. J. Ruitenberg (eds.), The Statistical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling of AIDS,
Proceedings EC Workshop Bilthoven 1986, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Hargrove, W. W., J. Balsdon-Wise and J. Pickering. 1991.
Developing a wetness-based fungicide schedule for the control of pecan scab, Cladosporium caryigenum
(Ell. Et Lang.) Gottwald at multiple sites using the Remote Automated Intelligence Network, RAIN.
Pages 107-120 in B. W. Wood and J. A. Payne (eds.), First National Pecan Workshop. Pecan Husbandry:
Challenges and Opportunities. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, ARS-96.
Pickering, J., R. Kays, A. Meier, S. Andrew and K. Yatskievych. 2002.
The Appalachians. Pages 458-467 in P. R. Gil, R. A. Mittermeier, C. G. Mittermeier,
J. Pilgrim, G. Fonseca, W. R. Konstant and T. Brooks (eds.),
Wilderness -- Earth's Last Wild Places. Conservational International. (www.discoverlife.org/co)
Coyle, D. R., Pickering, J., Dyer, K. A., Ghandi, K. J. K., ... 2013. Dynamics of an Unprecedented
Outbreak of Two Native Moth Species, Cissusa spadix and Phoberia atomeris
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on Oak Trees (Quercus spp.) in the Southeastern U.S.A.
-- accepted by American Entomologist.
- Farnsworth, E. J., Chu, M., Kress, J. W., Neill, A. K., Best, J. H., Pickering, J.,
Stevenson, R. D., Courtney, G. W., Vandyk, J. K., Ellison, A. M. Next-Generation Field Guides.
-- submitted to BioScience, 2013.
Ayoub, Nadia A. 1999. Nocturnal and diurnal parasitoid (Hymenoptera:
Braconidae) activity in the forest canopy and understory on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.
Senior honors thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens.
Bartlett, Ryan P. 1997. Diversity, phenology, and sex ratio of Pimplinae
(Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.
Senior honors thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, 63pp.
Bartlett, R. P. 2000. Efficiency of collection methods and flight
activity of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) in three sites in Guanacaste, Costa
Rica. M. S. thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, 59pp.
Crawford, Kelly B. 1994. Biodiversity, abundance, and distribution of Rogadinae
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in a Panamanian tropical forest and North American temperate
habitats. Senior honors thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, 69pp.
Eckman, Hans J. 1992. Male selection in the treefrogs Hyla chrysoscelis and versicolor.
Senior honors thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, 30pp.
Gaasch, Christine M. 1996. Flight phenology and species distribution of parasitic wasps in a
heterogeneous landscape in Georgia's piedmont, with special reference to the
Ichneumoninae and Campopleginae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). M. S. thesis, Univ.
of Georgia, Athens, 200pp.
Kay, Melanie J. 1994. Estimating the biodiversity of Rogas (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in a
tropical moist forest in Panama using Malaise and light trap samples. Senior honors thesis,
Univ. of Georgia, Athens, 61pp.
Lockard, Elizabeth I. 1995. Biodiversity and geographic distributions of parasitic Hymenoptera
(Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae and Ichneumoninae) along a latitudinal gradient in eastern
North America. M. S. thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, 233pp.
McGowan, Amy L. 1996. Diversity and seasonality of Aleiodes and Rogas (Hymenoptera:
Braconidae) in two Panamanian forests. Senior honors thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens,
Middleton, Sarah M. 1994. Species richness and abundance of sawflies (Hymenoptera:
Symphyta) in different habitats along a latitudinal gradient from Panama to Canada. Senior
honors thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, 53pp.
Shapiro, Beth A. 1999. Rainfall and parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) activity
in successional stages of two Neotropical forests: Barro Colorado Nature Monument, Panama.
and La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. M. S. thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, 164pp.
Skillen, Elizabeth I. 2002. Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera (Ichneumonidae:
Campopleginae and Ichneumoninae) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park and
eastern North American forests. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, 178pp.
Wayman, Linda D. 1994. Spatial distribution and sex ratios of parasitic Hymenoptera
(Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae and Ichneumoninae; Braconidae: Aphidius ervi) in a
disturbed Georgia piedmont landscape. M. S. thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, 123pp.
Wright, Lisa M. 1995. Seasonality of the Ichneumonoidea and alate Formicidae in a tropical
moist forest at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Senior honors thesis, Univ. of Georgia,
University of Georgia (selected courses)
(complete list: www.discoverlife.org/who/CV/Pickering,_John.teaching.html)
ECOL 3070 -- Environment and Humans, 2009-2012 (x4)
and for subsequent years see links on www.discoverlife.org/who/Pickering,_John.html)
ECOL 3500 -- General Ecology, 1986-2009 (x21)
ECOL 4110/6110 -- Insect Diversity, 1998-2009 (x7)
ECOL 4130L -- Ecological Methodology, 2005
ECOL 4950 -- Senior Seminar, 2011
ECOL 8170 -- Natural History of the Hymenoptera, 1999-2005 (x4)
FRES 1020-- Natural History seminar, 2001-2006 (x6)
Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
Ecologia de Insectos (Insect Ecology), 1991, (25 students)
2-week, 60 hour, lecture/field course
South African Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa
Discover Life training workshop, 2002, (18 participants)
1-week, 40 hour, computer course
Charles Darwin Research Station, Galapagos Island, Ecuador
Discover Life training workshop, 2004, (12 participants)
1-week, 40 hour, computer course
ASEANET, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Discover Life training workshop, 2005, (18 participants)
2-week, 40 hour, computer course
Discover Life training, 2006
2-weeks of presentations and training workshops at multiple institutions
ASEANET, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Computer training workshop, 2007, (32 participants from 11 countries)
1-week course with Global Invasive Species Information Network