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Abies lasiocarpa (Hook. ) Nutt.
SUBALPINE FIR
Pinus lasiocarpa

Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Abies

Abies lasiocarpa, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, whole tree - general

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Abies lasiocarpa, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, whole tree - general
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Abies lasiocarpa, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, twig - showing attachment of needles
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - entire needle

Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Abies lasiocarpa, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, twig - showing attachment of needles

Abies lasiocarpa, bark - of a medium tree or large branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, bark - of a medium tree or large branch
Abies lasiocarpa, bark - of a medium tree or large branch
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, bark - of a medium tree or large branch

Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - showing orientation on twig
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, leaf - entire needle

Abies lasiocarpa, twig - after fallen needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, twig - after fallen needles
Abies lasiocarpa, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, twig - showing attachment of needles

Abies lasiocarpa, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, bark - of a large tree
Abies lasiocarpa, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Abies lasiocarpa, whole tree - general

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agaricaceae  Phoma abietis-grandis @ BPI (1)
Anthocoridae  Acompocoris lepidus @ AMNH_IZC (7)

Anthocoris dimorphicus @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Tetraphleps latipennis @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Tetraphleps uniformis @ AMNH_IZC (20)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ AMNH_PBI (4); CSCA_TCN (2)
Auriculariaceae  Auricularia auricula @ BPI (2)
Auriscalpiaceae  Lentinellus montanus @ BPI (2)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Dothiorella @ BPI (1)

Guignardia @ BPI (1)

Macrophoma parca @ 360308A (1); 360308B (1)
Capnodiaceae  Capnodium @ BPI (1)
Ceratiomyxaceae  Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa @ BPI (1)
Ceratocystidaceae  Ceratocystis brunnea @ BPI (1)

Ceratocystis nigra @ BPI (3)

Ceratocystis penicillata @ BPI (3)
Ceratostomataceae  Melanospora chionea @ BPI (1)
Cerinomycetaceae  Cerinomyces pallidus @ BPI (1)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora corrugis @ BPI (3)

Coniophora olivacea @ BPI (2)
Corticiaceae  Corticium corruge @ BPI (3)

Corticium furfuraceum @ BPI (1)

Corticium galactinum @ BPI (1)

Corticium lacteum @ BPI (1)

Corticium lividum @ BPI (1)

Corticium racemosum @ BPI (2)

Corticium radiosum @ BPI (5)

Corticium violascens @ BPI (1)

Corticium @ BPI (2)
Cronartiaceae  Peridermium balsameum @ BPI (3)

Peridermium coloradense @ BPI (1)

Peridermium holwayi @ BPI (3)

Peridermium ornamentale @ BPI (17)

Peridermium @ BPI (5)
Dacrymycetaceae  Dacrymyces alpina @ BPI (1)

Dacrymyces deliquescens @ BPI (2)

Dacrymyces palmatus @ BPI (1)

Ditiola radicata @ BPI (2)

Guepiniopsis alpina @ BPI (7)
Dermateaceae  Dermea rhytidiformans @ BPI (1)

Nothophacidium abietinellum @ BPI (2)
Diaporthaceae  Phomopsis boycei @ BPI (2)

Phomopsis montanensis @ BPI (3)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea unicolor @ BPI (1)
Ganodermataceae  Ganoderma tsugae @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Cenangium abietis @ BPI (1)

Durella compressa @ BPI (1)

Scleroderris abieticola @ BPI (8)

Tympanis abietina @ BPI (1)

Tympanis pinastri @ BPI (2)

Tympanis @ BPI (2)
Hemiphacidiaceae  Rhabdocline lasiocarpae @ BPI (2)
Hericiaceae  Hericium coralloides @ BPI (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus agassizii @ BPI (5)

Dasyscyphus arida @ BPI (37)

Dasyscyphus calyciformis @ BPI (3)

Dasyscyphus @ BPI (5)

Lachnellula agassizii @ BPI (1)

Lachnellula arida @ BPI (2)

Lachnellula chrysophthalma @ BPI (2)

Lachnum seaveri @ BPI (1)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum @ BPI (1)
Lachnocladiaceae  Vararia investiens @ BPI (3)

Vararia @ BPI (1)
Lophiostomataceae  Herpotrichia juniperi @ BPI (3)

Herpotrichia nigra @ 624571D (1); 624571A (1); 624571C (1); 624571B (1); BPI (50)

Herpotrichia quinqueseptata @ BPI (1)
Marasmiaceae  Armillaria mellea @ BPI (1)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora abieti-capraearum @ BPI (6)

Melampsora albertensis @ BPI (1)

Melampsora caryophyllacearum @ BPI (1)

Melampsora epitea @ 022726B (1); 022726A (1); BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Merulius albostramineus @ BPI (2)

Merulius armeniacus @ BPI (1)

Phlebia albida @ BPI (1)

Phlebia centrifuga @ BPI (1)

Phlebia merismoides @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Atractotomus cooperi @ AMNH_PBI (42); BPBM_TCN (2)

Atractotomus kolenatii @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Atractotomus @ AMNH_PBI (8)

Coquillettia pergrandis @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Coquillettia @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Deraeocoris brevis @ AMNH_ENT (27)

Deraeocoris diveni @ AMNH_ENT (31)

Deraeocoris incertus @ AMNH_ENT (75)

Deraeocoris piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (2); AMNH_ENT (25)

Deraeocoris picipes @ AMNH_ENT (25)

Dichaetocoris piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (11); AMNH_ENT (79)

Dichrooscytus convexifrons @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Dichrooscytus latifrons @ AMNH_PBI (8); AMNH_ENT (3)

Dichrooscytus rainieri @ AMNH_PBI (17); AMNH_IZC (67)

Dichrooscytus rubidus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Labopidea nigrisetosa @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Lygus shulli @ AMNH_IZC (3)

Neoborella @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Orectoderus obliquus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Orthops scutellatus @ AMNH_ENT (6)

Pappus luridus @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Pappus piceicola @ AMNH_ENT (8)

Phytocoris apache @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Phytocoris eurekae @ AMNH_ENT (2)

Phytocoris fraterculus @ AMNH_ENT (13)

Phytocoris heidemanni @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Phytocoris juliae @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Phytocoris knowltoni @ AMNH_PBI (3); AMNH_ENT (5)

Phytocoris neglectus @ AMNH_PBI (1); AMNH_ENT (15)

Phytocoris yollabollae @ AMNH_ENT (19)

Pilophorus americanus @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Pilophorus diffusus @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Pilophorus tibialis @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Pinalitus approximatus @ AMNH_ENT (147)

Pinalitus rostratus @ AMNH_ENT (3)

Pinalitus rubrotinctus @ AMNH_ENT (2)

Pinalitus solivagus @ AMNH_PBI (3); AMNH_ENT (220)

Psallovius piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Psallus aethiops @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Slaterocoris robustus @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Mycosphaerella abietis @ BPI (1)
Mytilinidiaceae  Lophium mytilinum @ BPI (1)
Nabidae  Nabis nigrovittatus @ AMNH_IZC (4)
Nectriaceae  Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (2)

Nectria magnusiana @ BPI (1)
Nidulariaceae  Crucibulum vulgare @ BPI (1)
Nitschkiaceae  Acanthonitschkea coloradensis @ 699442A (1); 699442B (1)
Odontotremataceae  Odontotrema subintegrum @ BPI (1)
Parodiellaceae  Parodiella @ BPI (1)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora byssoides @ BPI (1)

Peniophora carnosa @ BPI (1)

Peniophora chaetophora @ BPI (1)

Peniophora gracillima @ BPI (1)

Peniophora hastata @ BPI (2)

Peniophora laxa @ BPI (1)

Peniophora odorata @ BPI (1)

Peniophora pubera @ BPI (1)

Peniophora subalutacea @ BPI (2)

Peniophora subsulphurea @ BPI (2)

Peniophora tenuis @ BPI (1)

Peniophora thujae @ BPI (1)

Peniophora @ BPI (2)
Phacidiaceae  Phacidium abietis @ BPI (2)

Phacidium infestans @ BPI (3)

Phacidium @ BPI (1)
Piedraiaceae  Trichosporum tubercularioides @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes annosus @ BPI (1)

Fomes nigrolimitatus @ BPI (6)

Fomes officinalis @ BPI (1)

Fomes pini @ BPI (5)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (2)

Fomes putearius @ BPI (2)

Lenzites saepiaria @ BPI (2)

Polyporus abietinus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus alboluteus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus borealis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus circinatus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus leucospongia @ BPI (9)

Polyporus picipes @ BPI (2)

Polyporus schweinitzii @ BPI (1)

Polyporus sulphureus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus volvatus @ BPI (1)

Poria calcea @ BPI (1)

Poria callosa @ BPI (1)

Poria cinerascens @ BPI (2)

Poria crustulina @ BPI (3)

Poria ferrugineofusca @ BPI (3)

Poria subacida @ BPI (5)

Poria subincarnata @ BPI (1)

Poria tsugina @ BPI (4)

Poria vesiculosa @ BPI (1)

Poria weirii @ BPI (1)

Poria @ BPI (1)

Trametes mollis @ BPI (1)
Pucciniastraceae  Melampsorella caryophyllacearum @ BPI (20)

Melampsorella cerastii @ BPI (35)

Melampsorella elatina @ 027386A (1); 027386B (1); BPI (35)

Pucciniastrum epilobii @ BPI (3)

Pucciniastrum goeppertianum @ 1100147A (1); 1100147B (1); BPI (28)

Pucciniastrum pustulatum @ BPI (56)

Pucciniastrum @ BPI (1)

Uredinopsis copelandii @ BPI (2)

Uredinopsis longimucronata @ BPI (5)

Uredinopsis osmundae @ BPI (3)

Uredinopsis pteridis @ BPI (1)

Uredinopsis struthiopteridis @ BPI (2)
Reduviidae  Rasahus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Zelus @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Reticulariaceae  Lycogala epidendrum @ BPI (1)
Rhytismataceae  Bifusella abietis @ BPI (9)

Hypodermella abietis-concoloris @ BPI (15)

Hypodermella nervata @ BPI (1)

Hypodermella punctata @ BPI (1)

Hypodermella @ BPI (2)

Lirula abietis-concoloris @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium autumnale @ BPI (7)

Lophodermium decorum @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium piceae @ BPI (5)

Lophodermium pinastri @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium @ BPI (2)
Sarcoscyphaceae  Pithya vulgaris @ BPI (1)
Sarcosomataceae  Conoplea juniperi @ BPI (1)
Schizoporaceae  Hyphodontia hastata @ BPI (1)
Sclerotiniaceae  Botrytis cinerea @ BPI (1)

Botrytis douglasii @ BPI (2)

Ciboria rufofusca @ BPI (2)
Sebacinaceae  Sebacina calcea @ BPI (2)
Steccherinaceae  Odontia abietina @ BPI (1)

Odontia stipata @ BPI (2)
Stereaceae  Aleurodiscus amorphus @ BPI (21)

Aleurodiscus cerussatus @ BPI (1)

Aleurodiscus grantii @ BPI (1)

Gloeocystidiellum radiosum @ BPI (1)

Stereum abietinum @ BPI (2)

Stereum chailletii @ BPI (1)

Stereum rugisporum @ BPI (2)

Stereum sanguinolentum @ BPI (5)

Stereum striatum @ BPI (1)
Strophariaceae  Pholiota adiposa @ BPI (3)
Trichiaceae  Trichia contorta @ BPI (1)
Tubulicrinaceae  Tubulicrinis accedens @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora abietis @ BPI (3)

Valsa abietis @ BPI (4)
Venturiaceae  Phaeocryptopus nudus @ BPI (2)

Rhizosphaera pini @ BPI (1)

Venturia barbula @ BPI (1)
Xylariaceae  Hypoxylon diathrauston @ BPI (6)

Hypoxylon regale @ BPI (1)

Rosellinia diathrausta @ BPI (1)
_  Adelopus balsamicola @ BPI (2)

Calyptospora columnaris @ BPI (32)

Calyptospora @ BPI (3)

Clithris crispa @ BPI (6)

Cystothyrium abietis @ 392353B (1); 392353A (1)

Dasyscypha arida @ BPI (3)

Grandinia granulosa @ BPI (1)

Hirneolina kmetii @ BPI (1)

Pellicularia pruinata @ BPI (1)

Rehmiellopsis abietis @ BPI (3)

Rhopographus hysteriiformis @ BPI (2)

Scoleconectria cucurbitula @ BPI (2)

Scoleconectria scolecospora @ BPI (1)

Stegopezizella balsameae @ BPI (2)

Thaxterogaster pinguis @ BPI (1)

unknown unknown @ AMNH_PBI (6)

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Pinaceae | Abies

6. Abies lasiocarpa (Hooker) Nuttall, N. Amer. Sylv. 3: 138. 1849.

Subalpine fir, alpine fir, sapin concolore

Pinus lasiocarpa Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 163. 1838

Trees to 20m; trunk to 0.8m diam.; crown spirelike. Bark gray, thin, smooth, furrowed in age. Branches stiff, straight; twigs opposite to whorled, greenish gray to light brown, bark splitting as early as 2 years to reveal red-brown layer, somewhat pubescent; fresh leaf scars with red periderm. Buds hidden by leaves or exposed, tan to dark brown, nearly globose, small, resinous, apex rounded; basal scales short, broad, equilaterally triangular, glabrous or with a few trichomes at base, not resinous, margins crenate to dentate, apex sharp-pointed. Leaves 1.8--3.1cm ´ 1.5--2mm, spiraled, turned upward, flexible; cross section flat, prominently grooved adaxially; odor sharp (ß-phellandrene); abaxial surface with 4--5 stomatal rows on each side of midrib; adaxial surface bluish green, very glaucous, with 4--6 stomatal rows at midleaf, rows usually continuous to leaf base; apex prominently or weakly notched to rounded; resin canals large, ± median, away from margins and midway between abaxial and adaxial epidermal layers. Pollen cones at pollination ± purple to purplish green. Seed cones cylindric, 6--12 ´ 2--4cm, dark purple, sessile, apex rounded; scales ca. 1.5 ´ 1.7cm, densely pubescent; bracts included (specimens with exserted, reflexed bracts are insect infested). Seeds 6 ´ 2mm, body brown; wing about 1.5 times as long as body, light brown; cotyledon number 4--5. 2 n =24.

Coastal, subalpine coniferous forests; 1100--2300 m; B.C., Yukon; Alaska, Calif., Oreg., Wash.

The only unique populations in this species come from coastal Alaska (A. S. Harris 1965; C. J. Heusser 1954). They are found at lower elevations (0--900 m) and appear to be isolated with no reported introgression between them and the coastal mountain populations. The population on the Prince of Wales Island has distinct terpene patterns and needs morphological and developmental studies to see if these patterns contrast with neighboring populations.

The only unique populations in this species come from coastal Alaska (A. S. Harris 1965; C. J. Heusser 1954). They are found at lower elevations (0--900 m) and appear to be isolated with no reported introgression between them and the coastal mountain populations. The population on the Prince of Wales Island has distinct terpene patterns and needs morphological and developmental studies to see if these patterns contrast with neighboring populations.

Through central British Columbia and northern Washington, Abies lasiocarpa introgresses with A . bifolia . These trees may have morphologic features resembling either species and may have intermediate terpene patterns; they are best classified as interior subalpine fir ( A . bifolia ´ lasiocarpa ). At the southern end of its range, A . lasiocarpa possibly hybridizes with A . procera (R.S. Hunt and E.von Rudloff 1979). Abies lasiocarpa shares with A . procera a red periderm, crystals in the ray parenchyma (R.W. Kennedy et al. 1968), and reflexed tips of the bracts, features not shared with A . bifolia .

Abies lasiocarpa usually exists in small stands at high elevations and is not often observed. Its differences in comparison to A . bifolia have prompted studies (W.H. Parker et al. 1979) to see if it is A . bifolia introgressed with the sympatric A . amabilis . Abies lasiocarpa and A . amabilis , however, are separated by many morphologic features, and no hybrids have been found (W.H. Parker et al. 1979).

SELECTED REFERENCES

Harris, A.S. 1965. Subalpine fir [ Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.] on Harris Ridge near Hollis, Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. NorthW. Sci. 39: 123--128. Heusser, C.J. 1954. Alpine fir at Taku glacier, Alaska, with notes on its post glacial migration to the territory. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 81: 83--86. Zavarin,E., K.Snajberk, T.Reichert, and Tsien E. 1970. On the geographic variability of the monoterpenes from the cortical blister oleoresin of Abies lasiocarpa . Phytochemistry 9: 377--395.

Updated: 2024-05-27 12:39:09 gmt
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