Shark Bay (25°50'S) to Dampier Archipelago (20°28'S), WA, also Rowley Shoals (17°20'S) and Scott Reef (14°03'S), WA, Ashmore Reef, Timor Sea, Christmas Island, and northern Great Barrier Reef, QLD (12°00'S) to Port Kembla, NSW (34°29'S), also Coringa-Herald Cay and Lihou Reef, Coral Sea, Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island; tropical, Indo-west-central Pacific.
Lord Howe Province (14), Northeast Province (18), Timor Province (2), Norfolk Island Province (21), Christmas Island Province (23), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Northwest Transition (3), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)
Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea(Randall et al.,1990);
The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.6(FAO, 2001)
Dorsal-fin rays IX, 25-27 ; anal-fin rays III, 24-26 ; pectoral-fin rays 16-17. Body pale brown head broader with irregular lines on head; orange band between eyes, continued behind each eye to gill cover. Each side of caudal peduncle with single, sharp, forward-pointing erectile spine; spine largely covered by cream sheath; groove surrounded by a black area. Dorsal fin with soft part having longer base than spinous part. Minute scales. Gill rakers 22-26 in anterior row, 23-27 in posterior row. Caudal fin lunate in adults.
Generally found on seaward reefs at depths greater than 10m, a schooling species, occurs singly or in groups. Feeds on surface film of fine green and blue-green algae, diatoms, and detritus covering sand. It is a pair-spawner, mainly diurnal.
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Hawaiian and Line Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Rowley Shoals, southern Great Barrier Reef and Lord Howe Island, Guam in Micronesia; absent from most of central Pacific. Taiwan: South, Hsiaoliuchiu, Penghu, La
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Indo-Pacific: East Africa (including the Mascarene Islands, Ref. 37792) to the Hawaiian and Line islands, north to southern Japan, south to Rowley Shoals, southern Great Barrier Reef and Lord Howe Island. Absent from most of central Pacific.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 54.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. reported age: 28 years (Ref.
: 24 - 26. Pale brown body; broader, irregular lines on head; orange band between eyes, continued behind each eye to gill cover. Each side of caudal peduncle with single, sharp, forward-pointing erectile spine; spine largely covered by cream sheath; groove surrounded by a black area. Dorsal fin with soft part having longer base than spinous part. Minute scales. Gill rakers 22-26 in anterior row, 23-27 in posterior row. Caudal fin lunate in adults (Ref.
Schooling species, usually occurring in seaward reefs at depths greater than 9 m (Ref.
). Adults mainly on deep coastal reef slopes and outer reef walls, often on deep shipwrecks. Juveniles found on algae-rocky reef (Ref.
). Benthopelagic (Ref.
). Occur singly or in groups (Ref.
). Feed on surface film of fine green and blue-green algae, diatoms, and detritus covering sand (Ref.
). Pair-spawner (Ref.
). Mainly diurnal. (Ref.
). Utilized as a food fish (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 20.3 - 28.9, mean 27.2 (based on 2904 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03020 (0.01880 - 0.04851), b=2.94 (2.81 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=28; K=0.29).
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei
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