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Achirus scutum A. Günther, 1862
NETWORK SOLE
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Achiridae   Achirus

Achirus scutum
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Achirus scutum

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Achirus scutum
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Achirus scutum
Achirus scutum
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Achirus scutum

Achirus scutum
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Achirus scutum
Achirus scutum
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Achirus scutum
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • brown + ~20 pale wavy, bars
  • scales without hairs
  • body round
Dorsal rays 53-59; anal rays 42-44; pectoral rays 3-4; blind side of head with short fleshy tentacles; lower lip of eyed side fringed; body rounded; no hair-like filaments on scales.

Dark brown with ~20 tan or whitish bars, these generally wavy and becoming branched or joined with adjacent bars to form a maze-like pattern; median fins with pale wavy bands.

Size: reaches 19 cm.

Inhabits flat sand or mud bottoms of bays and estuaries; enters freshwater streams.

Depth: 5-45 m.

The tip of Baja and the SE Gulf of California to Peru.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 45 m.
Depth Range Min: 5 m.
Diet: bony fishes; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic worms.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=24; Southern limit=-4; Western limit=-110; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=28; Longitudinal range=32.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Estuary; Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Soft bottom only; Freshwater.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 19 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Continent only; TEP endemic; Continental TEP endemic; Mexican + Panamic provinces endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine; Freshwater.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Günther, A., 1862., Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Acanthopterygii Pharyngognathi and Anacanthini in the collection of the British Muesum., Brithish Museum (Natural History)4:1-534.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part III., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:2183-3136.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Achirus scutum, Network sole : fisheries
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Achirus scutum ( Günther , 1862 )

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Achirus scutum   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Achirus scutum (Network sole) Achirus scutum
Picture by Allen, G.R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Achiridae (American soles)
Etymology: Achirus: Greek, a = without + Greek, cheir = hands (Ref. 45335 ) .
More on author: Günther .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 13 - 46 m (Ref. 9047 ), usually 13 - 25 m (Ref. 9047 ). Tropical; 32°N - 5°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Central Pacific: Gulf of California to Ecuador.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763 ); common length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9047 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits coastal waters and penetrates estuaries (Ref. 9047 ). Feeds on small crustaceans and polychaetes (Ref. 9047 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Ramos, Robson T.C. | Collaborators

Krupp, F. , 1995. Achiridae. Suelas. p. 845-850. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9047 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 29 April 2008

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

More information

Countries
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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201 ): 21.8 - 28.5, mean 26.2 °C (based on 32 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00764 - 0.02382), b=3.07 (2.92 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.3   ±0.39 se; based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (18 of 100). Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

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