TaiBIF | Search | All Living Things


Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790)
SPOTTED EAGLE RAY
Bonnet ray

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Myliobatidae   Aetobatus

Aetobatus narinari
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Aetobatus narinari

Click on map for details about points.

Links

    We parsed the following live from the Web into this page. Such content is managed by its original site and not cached on Discover Life. Please send feedback and corrections directly to the source. See original regarding copyrights and terms of use.
  • Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
  • FishBase

80x5 - 240x3 - 240x4 - 320x1 - 320x2 - 320x3 - 640x1 - 640x2
Set display option above.
Click on images to enlarge.
Aetobatus narinari
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Aetobatus narinari
Aetobatus narinari
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Aetobatus narinari
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • snout: narrow, projecting
  • back: black + white spots
  • tail: long, 2-6 spines
Head squarish with protruding, rounded snout; teeth in 1 series of plates; large triangular "wings" with curved tips (pectoral fin flaps); tail very long and slender with 2-6 barbed spines at base.

Dark grey to black with numerous white spots above, white below.

Size: disc width to 250 cm.

Habitat: often sighted alone or in small groups cruising around the perimeters of reefs, common in estuaries.

Depth: 1-80 m.

Cosmopolitan in tropical to warm temperate seas; southern Baja to the lower 3/4 of the Gulf of California to Ecuador, all the oceanic islands except Clipperton.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 80 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic worms.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=30; Southern limit=-4; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=34; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Estuary; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Data deficient; Listed.
Length Max: 250 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Mid Water; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Acero , A. and Franke, R., 1995., Nuevos registros de peces cartilaginosos del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (Pacifico Colombiano), II. Rayas y Descripcion de una Nueva Especie., Bibl. J. J. Triana, 11:9-21.
  • Acero, A. and Franke, R., 2001., Peces del parque nacional natural Gorgona. En: Barrios, L. M. y M. Lopéz-Victoria (Eds.). Gorgona marina: Contribución al conocimiento de una isla única., INVEMAR, Serie Publicaciones Especiales No. 7:123-131.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1928., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Elasmobranchii from Panama to Lower California., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(1):1-13.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Compagno , L. J. V. and Cook, S. F., 1995., The exploitation and conservation of freshwater elasmobranchs: status of taxa and prospects for the future., Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences, 7:62-90.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Euphrasen,., 1790., Raja (Narinari); beskrifven., Handl. K. Vetensk. Akad., 11:217-219.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1896., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part I., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1-1240.
  • Jordan, D.S., 1895., The fishes of Sinaloa., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2), 5:377-514.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Rubio , R. E. A. and Estupiñan, F., 1990., Ictiofauna del Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga, un Analisis de su Estructura y Perspectivas para su Manejo., Memorias del VII Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias y Tecnologías del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :660-670.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


Supported by
go to Discover Life's Facebook group

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

 
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Myliobatiformes  
 Family Myliobatidae  
 Genus Aetobatus  
  Aetobatus narinari    (Euphrasen, 1790) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Aetobates narinari Aetobatis laticeps Aetobatis latirostris Aetobatis narinari Aetobatus laticeps Myliobatis eeltenkee Myliobatis macroptera Myliobatis punctatus Raia quinqueaculeata Raja narinari Stoasodon narinari   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993) Ebert, D. A., W. T. White, H.-C. Ho, P. R. Last, K. Nakaya, B. Séret, N. Straube, G. J. P. Naylor and M. R. C. de Carvalho (2013) An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyans of Taiwan. Zootaxa 3752 (no. 1): 279-386.
Character: Disc much broader than long; anterior margins convex, posterior concave. Head thick, prominent, narrowing downward and forward on ths sides. Snout narrower, produced. Rostral fins distinct from the pectorals. Nostrils confluent with mouth, free hind margin fringed and deeply emarginated at middle. Eyes small, prominent, lateral,almost in front of mouth angle. Spiralces large, lateral, behind eye, partly visible from above. Teeth uniserial, broad and short, lower pavement projecting slightly. Each tooth is curved or angled forward more or less in the middle. Gill openings subequal, equidistant. One dorsal fin, small, rounded above, with a short free margin and an angle behind the base, origin above the ends of the bases of the ventrals. Ventrals rather narrow and obtuse or convex terminally, nearly half extended behind the ends of the pectorals. Pectorals slightly falciform, not continuous forward th the snout Tail long, slender, bearing a dorsal fin and a serrated spine above the basal portion, Specimen in formalin grayish olive, with gray-white spots on the back. Whitish below. 
Habitat: Commonly found in shallow inshore waters such as bays and coral reefs but may cross oceanic basins. Sometimes enters estuaries. Swims close to the surface, occasionally leaping out of the water, or close to the bottom. Frequently forming large schools dur 
Distribution: Red Sea Arabia, Natal, Madagascar, Seychelles, India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore, East Indies, Philippines, Cochin China, China, Queensland, New South Wales, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Hawaiian group. Taiwan. 
Name Code: 383160
  IUCN Red List:NT       Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
User Response:   upload Comments    upload Photo
 
Previous Page       Home Page

Following modified from FishBase
   Top | See original

http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Aetobatus&speciesname=narinari ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Aetobatus&speciesname=narinari
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Aetobatus&speciesname=narinari ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Aetobatus-narinari.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen , 1790)

Whitespotted eagle ray Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Aetobatus narinari   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Aetobatus narinari (Whitespotted eagle ray) Aetobatus narinari
Picture by Vaske Jr., T.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

() > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Aetobatidae ()
Etymology: Aetobatus: Greek, aetos = eagle + Greek, batis, batidos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335 ) .

Issue
The species Aetobatus laticeps Duméril, 1865 is considered as valid, while status of Aetobatus latirostris Duméril, 1861 requires further investigation. Species information and distribution will be reviewed and corrected (Ref. 114963 ).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 9710 ), usually 1 - ? m (Ref. 55257 ).   Subtropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic and probably Eastern Atlantic.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 99.8 , range 110 - 120 cm
Max length : 330 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048 ); common length : 180 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871 ); max. published weight: 230.0 kg (Ref. 7251 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. An eagleray with a long snout, flat and rounded like a duck's bill, a thick head, and a pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners, and no caudal fin; jaws usually with single row of flat, chevron-shaped teeth (Ref. 5578 ). Each tooth a crescent-shaped plate joined into a band (Ref. 26938 ). Numerous white spots on black or bluish disc; white below (Ref. 5578 ). Long whiplike tail, with a long spine near the base, behind small dorsal fin. No spines on disk (Ref. 7251 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Commonly found in shallow inshore waters such as bays and coral reefs but may cross oceanic basins (Ref. 9862 ). Benthopelagic, found near land at 1-60 m (Ref. 58302 ). Sometimes enters estuaries (Ref. 6871 ). Swims close to the surface, occasionally leaping out of the water, or close to the bottom (Ref. 3175 ). Frequently forming large schools during the non-breeding season (Ref. 7251 ). Feeds mainly on bivalves but also eats shrimps, crabs, octopus and worms, whelks, and small fishes (Ref. 9862 ). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Flesh edible (Ref. 30573 ). Over 3 m disc width and up to 880 cm total length if the long tail is undamaged (Ref. 30573 ). Bears young in litters of 2-4 (Ref. 26938 , 58048 ). Common catch of the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl, inshore gillnet and, to a lesser extent, demersal longline fisheries. Utilized for its meat and cartilage (Ref. 58048 ). Tail used as a decorative item (Ref. 27550 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449 ). Bears up to 4 young (Ref. 5578 , 6871 , 37816 ). Width at birth 17-35 cm (Ref. 37816 ). According to Uchida et al (1990) (Ref. 51119 ) 'the male chases the female in mid water, then nibbles on her dorsal surface. The female stops swimming to begin copulation. The male bites the female on a pectoral fin and bends one clasper forward, then attempts an abdomen to abdomen copulation with either clasper, usually mid-water' (Ref. 49562 ). Copulation lasted for 20 seconds to 1 minute (Ref. 49562 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens , 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690 )




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Bio-Quiz | E-book | Field guide | Identification keys | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

Special reports

Check for Aquarium maintenance | Check for Species Fact Sheets | Check for Aquaculture Fact Sheets

Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 22.3 - 29, mean 27.5 (based on 4014 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tm=4-6; Fec=1-2). Prior r = 0.06, 95% CL = 0.04 - 0.10, Based on 1 stock assessment. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Capuli, Estelita Emily Fish Forum
Comments & Corrections
Sign our Guest Book Back to Search Random Species Back to Top
Accessed through: Not available FishBase mirror site : Stockholm, Sweden Page last modified by : mrius-barile - 20 July 2016
Total processing time for the page : 0.2298 seconds

Updated: 2020-07-12 06:24:24 gmt
TaiBIF | Search | All Living Things | Top
© Designed by The Polistes Corporation