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Alopias superciliosus Lowe, 1841
BIGEYE THRESHER
Alopecias superciliosus Lowe, 1840

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Alopiidae   Alopias

Alopias superciliosus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Alopias superciliosus

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Alopias superciliosus

Alopias superciliosus
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Alopias superciliosus
Alopias superciliosus
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Alopias superciliosus
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Overview
Main identification features
  • flat between eyes; nape: deep groove
  • tail fin broad
  • eye very large, high
Body stout, cylindrical; head short, flat between eyes; deep horizontal groove behind eye; eyes large, dorsal; snout long, bulbous, conical; mouth small, ventral; teeth long, awl-like; gill openings - 5, short, last 2 over pectoral base; first dorsal large, origin just before pelvic origin; second dorsal and anal very small; pectorals very long, narrow, curved, broad tip; pelvics large; upper lobe of tail extremely long, ~equal to body length, fin broad; no keels on tail base

Back purplish grey; belly cream; belly color not extending over pectoral fin.

Size: 480 cm.

Habitat: oceanic, pelagic.

Depth: 0-723 m.

Circumtropical; California to the Gulf of California, Ecuador and nothern Peru, the Revillagigedos and the Galapagos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 723 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; bony fishes.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-6; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=39; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Offshore; Offshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 480 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Bellido-Millán, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:143-152.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of sharks species known to date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(1):1-249.
  • Eitner, B. J., 1995., Systematics of the genus Alopias (Lamniformes: Alopiidae) with evidence for the existence of an unrecognized species., Copeia, 1995:562-571.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Lowe,., 1841., On new species of fishes from Madeira., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 8:36-39.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Species Alopias superciliosus Lowe, 1841

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CAAB : 37012002 Taxon concept Alopias_superciliosus last modified 2015-07-16 08:47:32.147

Species Alopias superciliosus Lowe, 1841

Bigeye Thresher

 

Distribution

States

New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

North West Shelf, WA, Townsville to Fraser Island, QLD, Middleton Reef and Crowdy Head, NSW and off SA; tropical, circumglobal.


IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)

IMCRA

Central Eastern Province (12), Tasman Basin Province (13), Lord Howe Province (14), Central Eastern Transition (15), Kenn Transition (16), Kenn Province (17), Northeast Province (18), Northeast Transition (19), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Southern Province (8)

Ecological Descriptors

Continental shelf, continental slope, epipelagic, marine, oceanic.

Extra Ecological Information

Surface to 700 m

 

General References

Compagno, L.J.V. 2001. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes) . Rome : FAO, FAO Species Catalogue for Fisheries Purposes No. 1 Vol. 2 269 pp. [84]

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World . London : Collins 368 pp. [180]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. [169]

Macbeth, W.G., Vandenberg, M. & Graham, K.J. 2008. Identifying Sharks and Rays; A guide to Commercial Fishers . Sydney : New South Wales Department of Primary Industry pp. 71. [48]

Pepperell, J. 2010. Fishes of the Open Ocean a Natural History & Illustrated Guide . Sydney : University of New South Wales Press Ltd 266 pp. [186]

 

Common Name References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(1) pp. 1-249. [229] ( Bigeye Thresher )

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Bigeye Thresher )

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Apr-2012 16-Jul-2015 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

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Last modified: Thursday, 16 July 2015 8:47:32 AM AEST

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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Lamniformes  
 Family Alopiidae  
 Genus Alopias  
  Alopias superciliosus    (Lowe, 1841) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Alopecias superciliosus Alopias profundus Alopias superciliousus   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: Body cylindrical, massive before first dorsal fin. Caudal fin dorsal lobe extremely long nearly as long as rest of shark. Eyes moderately large in adults, very large only in newborn and fetuses. Orbit expand onto dorsal surface of head. Dorsal profile of head indented and forehead weakly convex in lateral view. Each side of the head above gills possess a deep horizontal groove. Pectoral fins falcate with broad apices. Terminal lobe of caudal fin moderately large. White colour of abdomen not extending over pectoral fin bases. 
Habitat: This species usually found in coastal waters over the continental shelves, sometimes close inshore in shallow waters. Ovoviviparous, Litter size 2-4, but usually 2. Maximum total length about 461 cm. Size at birth estimated to be about 64-106 cm. 
Distribution: Western Atlantic including New York to Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Venezuela, and southern Brazil. Eastern Atlantic including Portugal, Madeira, Senegal, Guinea to Sierra Leone, Angola. Mediterranean Sea. Western Indian Ocean including South Africa, Madagasca 
Utility: This species usually caught with longlines and gill net. Flesh utilized as fresh for human consumption, its liver oil is processed for vitamins, its skin for leather, and fins for shark-fin soup. 
Name Code: 383122
      IUCN Red List:VU  A2bd      Marine     
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Alopias&speciesname=superciliosus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Alopias&speciesname=superciliosus
https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Alopias&speciesname=superciliosus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Alopias-superciliosus.html
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Alopias superciliosus Lowe , 1841

Bigeye thresher Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks) > Alopiidae (Thresher sharks)
Etymology: Alopias: Greek, alopex = fox (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Lowe .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 730 m (Ref. 89423 ), usually 0 - 100 m (Ref. 43278 ).   Subtropical; 46°N - 40°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 54278 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumglobal; tropical and temperate seas. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 154 - 341 cm
Max length : 488 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637 ); common length : 350 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217 ); max. published weight: 363.8 kg (Ref. 40637 ); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 28081 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A large thresher with very large eyes, an indented forehead, a broad caudal tip, and curved broad-tipped pectoral fins; 1st dorsal fin further back than in other threshers (Ref. 5578 ). Upper lobe of caudal fin very long and strap-like almost or quite equal to length of rest of shark; lower lobe short but well developed (Ref. 13570 ). Purplish grey above, cream below, posterior edges of pectoral and pelvic fins and sometimes first dorsal fin dusky; light color of abdomen not expanded over pectoral-fin bases (Ref. 13570 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in coastal waters over continental shelves, sometimes close inshore in shallow waters, and on the high seas far from land (Ref. 247 , 43278 , 58302 ). Oceanic, pelagic and near bottom at 1->500 m (Ref. 58302 ). Depth range to at least 500 m (Ref. 247 ). Feeds on pelagic fishes (lancetfishes, herring, mackerel and small billfishes (Ref. 43278 )) and bottom fishes (hake (Ref. 43278 )) and squids (Ref. 247 ). Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding on yolk sac and other ova produced by the mother (Ref. 43278 , 50449 ). Stuns its prey with its long caudal fin (Ref. 247 ). Utilized for human consumption, liver oil for vitamins, skin for leather, and fins for shark-fin soup (Ref. 247 ). Marketed fresh and may be broiled, baked or grilled, but unsuitable for steaming, boiling or frying; meat may be salted and dried (Ref. 9987 ). Also Ref. 33743.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding on other ova produced by the mother (oophagy) after the yolk sac is absorbed (Ref. 50449 ). With 2-4 young per litter (usually 2) (Ref. 247 ). Size at birth between 64-106 cm (Ref. 247 ); 100-140 cm TL (Ref.58048). No fixed mating or birthing season. Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bd); Date assessed: 20 February 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Appendix II: International trade monitored

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Appendix II: Migratory species conserved through agreements

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 247 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 19.2 - 29, mean 27.1 (based on 6320 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00599 - 0.02007), b=2.91 (2.75 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=7; tmax=20; K=0.088; Fec=2-4). Prior r = 0.23, 95% CL = 0.08 - 0.62, Based on 1 stock assessment. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (84 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Low .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Bailly, Nicolas Fish Forum
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