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Andrena helianthiformis Viereck & Cockerell, 1914
Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Andrenidae   Andrena
Subgenus: Callandrena_sensu_lato

Andrena helianthiformis, f, back, Pennington Co., SD
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Andrena helianthiformis, f, back, Pennington Co., SD

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    Note: Some males may have small yellow spots just outside of the clypeal area.
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Andrena helianthiformis, f, face, Pennington Co., SD
© Copyright source/photographer · 7
Andrena helianthiformis, f, face, Pennington Co., SD
Andrena helianthiformis, f, right, Pennington Co., SD
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Andrena helianthiformis, f, right, Pennington Co., SD

Andrena helianthiformis, face, Pennington County, SD
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Andrena helianthiformis, face, Pennington County, SD
Andrena helianthiformis, side, Pennington County, SD
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Andrena helianthiformis, side, Pennington County, SD
Overview
Reprinted with permission of the University of Nebraska State Museum from:
LaBerge, W. E. 1967. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part I. Callandrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 7: 1-316.


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This is a large early summer species of the western great plains and is not related closely to any of the foregoing species. It is, perhaps, related to A. helianthi which it resembles in its shiny and flattened clypeus and its relatively short, rounded, labral process. It differs from helianthi in its dark wing membranes, short facial foveae in the female, dark tarsi and basitarsi, and sculpturing of the head and terga as described below. In its tergal sculpturing and short facial foveae of the females helianthiformis resembles aliciae and can be distinguished from aliciae by the dark wing membranes, the shiny clypeus, and the shape of the basitarsus of the female.

FEMALE. MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. N = 20; length, 12-16 mm; width, 3.5-5.0 mm; wing length, M = 5.52 0.468 mm; FL/FW, M = 1.06 0.005; FOVL/FOVW, M = 2.45 0.034.

INTEGUMENTAL COLOR. Black except as follows: flagellar segments 4-10 below and mandibles slightly rufescent; tegulae bright rufescent to testaceous, translucent; wing membranes deeply infumate, brown, veins, dark-brown to black; tergal apices extremely narrowly hyaline, brownish; sternal apices hyaline, yellow.

STRUCTURE. Scape equal in length to slightly more than flagellar segments 1-3; flagellar segment 1 slightly shorter than segments 2-4, segments 2-4 subequal in length to each other. Eye about three and one-half times as long as broad, inner margins parallel or extremely slightly converging toward mandibles. Malar space and mandible as in helianthi. Galea and maxillary palpus as in helianthi, but palpal segments in ratio of about 1.8:2.0:1.3:1.3:1.0:1.4. Labial palpus as in helianthi with segments in ratio of about 3.7:1.7:1.2:1.0, Labral process short and evenly rounded as in helianthi but distinctly emarginate medially although emargination usually shallow. Clypeus protruding beyond ends of eyes by about one-third its median length, flattened, sculptured much as in helianthi. Supraclypeal area with crowded punctures, usually with fine longitudinal rugulae converging dorsally, surface shiny, unshagreened. Genal area broader than eye in profile, eye equals about three-fourths of genal area, with small to minute punctures near eye margin crowded in a zone of about four to five puncture widths, posteriorly separated by one to two puncture widths, surface moderately dulled by fine reticular shagreening. Vertex of moderate height, above lateral ocellus equals about two ocellar diameters, above ocelli with distinct crowded punctures, laterally punctures distinctly separated but yet abundant, surface dulled by fine tessellation. Face above antennal fossae with extremely weak longitudinal rugulae not extending more than about half distance from fossae to ocelli, with abundant, close-set, round punctures, surface shiny. Facial fovea short, extending about to level of middle of antennal fossa or shorter, rounded to slightly flattened above and separated from lateral ocellus by slightly less than one ocellar diameter, narrowly rounded below near eye margin.

Pronotum normal, with abundant, small punctures crowded above and well-separated at sides, surfaces dulled by fine reticular shagreening. Mesoscutum, scutellum and metanotum with moderate-sized, crowded punctures separated mostly by half a puncture width or less, surface dulled by fine reticular shagreening. Propodeum opaque, dulled by extremely fine, irregular rugulae and fine tessellation; dorsolateral and posterior surface with distinct punctures separated by half to one puncture width or slightly more, surface dulled by fine tessellation; corbicular area moderately shiny with small scattered punctures throughout, surface reticularly shagreened. Mesepisternum with small shallow punctures separated mostly by half to one puncture width, surface opaque, densely and finely tessellate. Metepisternum below similar to corbicular area but impunctate. Middle basitarsus not markedly expanded medially, with evenly curved sides, equal in width to hind basitarsus. Claws and tibial spurs normal. Wing venation as in helianthi.

Metasomal tergum 1 with narrow apical area impunctate: reticulotransversely shagreened, basad of this apical area with crowded round deep punctures; basal area with sparser punctures separated by two to three puncture widths; surfaces finely tessellate. Terga 2-5 with extremely narrow apical margins impunctate, apical areas with crowded deep round punctures, basal area with deep round punctures separated mostly by one to two punctures widths; surfaces finely tessellate, opaque. Tergum 5 with basal area with coarse punctures separated mostly by one to three puncture widths, surface opaque, finely tessellate. Pygidial plate V-shaped with small rounded apex. Sterna 2-5 with narrow apical margins impunctate, with basal areas with well-separated, round punctures near apical areas, punctures becoming sparser basad; surfaces dulled by reticular shagreening.

VESTITURE. In general pale ochraceous to bright yellow; vertex and dorsum of thorax usually dark ochraceous to yellow, paler at sides and below. Tergum 1 without apical fascia, basal area with short, erect, pale ochraceous hairs. Terga 2-4 with weak, white, apical fasciae; basal areas with short, erect, pale ochraceous hairs. Terga 5 and 6 with long golden-yellow to brownish hairs. Sterna 2-5 with long erect to suberect hairs along apical hyaline margins, hairs becoming shorter posteriorly, ochraceous. Propodeal corbiculum incomplete anteriorly, with long dorsal fringe, with long internal hairs scattered throughout. Trochanteral flocculus complete, thick. Tibial scopal hairs plumose throughout, each with several branches in apical half, hairs short along posterior margin, long and normal medially and anteriorly. Leg hairs pale ochraceous to white except as follows: inner surfaces tarsi usually yellow, outer surfaces middle and hind basitarsus often brownish.

MALE. MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. N = 6; length, 12-14 mm; width, 3.0-3.5 mm; wing length, M = 4.92 0.375 mm; FL/FW, M = 1.08 0.004; FS1/FS2, M = : 2.38 0.069.

INTEGUMENTAL COLOR. As in female except as follows: clypeus yellow except brown apical margin and lateral angles and small, triangular maculae below and mesad of tentorial pits; tegulae testaceous; wing membranes infumate, yellowish-brown to brown; distitarsi rufescent.

STRUCTURE. Antennae short, just reaching tegulae in repose; scape subequal to flagellar segments 1-3; flagellar segment 1 slightly shorter than segments 2-4, segment 2 subequal to 3 and each shorter than segment 4. Eye about three and one-halt times as long as broad or slightly less; inner margins converging slightly towards mandibles. Malar space, mandibles and galea as in female. Maxillary palpus as in female but segments in ratio of about 1.8:2.0:1.3:1.3:1.0:1.4. Labial palpus as in female but segments in ratio of about 3.7:1.7:1.2:1.0. Clypeus as in female but less flattened medially and punctures slightly coarser, medially separated mostly by half to one puncture width or slightly more. Genal area, vertex and face above antennal fossae as in female except genal area not much broader than eye. Sculpturing of thorax as in female except as follows: propodeum with lateral surfaces with more abundant punctures and surface dulled by tessellation at least above. Wings, claws and tibial spurs as in female.

Terga 1-5 as in female terga 1-4. Sterna 2-5 with apical areas impunctate; basal areas with small, well-separated punctures, separated mostly by two to three puncture widths; surfaces moderately shiny, reticularly shagreened. Sternum 6 strongly reflexed apically, with extremely broad, shallow, median emargination.

Genitalia and sterna 7 and 8 (Figs. 124-128) as figured. Note especially the following structures: gonoforceps slightly upturned near apices; penis valve expanded near base with distinct lateral lamellae in expanded area; sternum 7 with apical emargination V-shaped, apicolateral lobes pointed; sternum 8 without expansion in neck region, apex broadened and shallowly emarginate, almost entire neck region hairy.

VESTITURE. In general pale ochraceous to yellow, slightly darker on vertex of head and thoracic dorsum. Tergum 1 without apical pale fascia. Terga 2-5 with weak apical white fimbriae. Terga 1-5 with basal areas with erect, abundant, white to pale ochraceous hairs. Terga 6 and 7 with yellow to brownish hairs. Sternal hairs pale ochraceous, suberect to erect, forming weak bands near apical hyaline zones. Leg hairs white to ochraceous except inner surfaces tarsi yellow.

TYPE MATERIAL. The holotype female of helianthiformis is from Montana (PANS No. 4084).

DISTRIBUTION. A. helianthiformis ranges from Kansas north to Montana and North Dakota. It has been collected from June 1st to July 21st, chiefly during June. In addition to the holotype 58 females and 20 males have been examined. Locality records are listed below.

KANSAS: Baldwin; Baxter Springs (5 miles S. and 5 miles E.); Blue Rapids; Cottonwood Falls, Chase Co.; Cowley County; Douglas County; Franklin County; Kansas City; Marysville; Meade; Meade County State Park; Ottawa; Scott State Park, Scott Co.; Stockton; Trego County; Yates Center (3 miles E.). MONTANA: "Montana" NEBRASKA: Cams; Pine Ridge, Dawes Co.; West Point. NORTH DAKOTA: Marmarth; Minot. SOUTH DAKOTA: Hot Springs; Key Stone; Whitewood.

FLORAL RECORDS. This species seems to be an oligolege of the genus Echinacea (Compositae). Of a total of 38 specimens bearing floral data 33 (28 females, 5 males) have been taken from Echinacea. A. helianthiformis has been collected from flowers of the following plants: Amorpha canescens, Echinacea augustifolia, E. pallida, Gaillardia sp., Heliopsis helianthioides, Melilotus officinalis.

Names
Scientific source:

References
Andrena helianthiformis Viereck and Cockerell, 1914, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. 48, p. 26.

Andrena (Pterandrena) helianthiformis: Lanham, 1949, University of California Publications in Entomology, vol. 8, p. 200.

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FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Asteraceae  Echinacea pallida @ BBSL (1); AMNH_BEE (10); UCRC_ENT (1)

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Updated: 2021-05-08 14:32:22 gmt
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