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Andrena raveni Linsley & MacSwain, 1961
Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Andrenidae   Andrena
Subgenus: Onagrandrena


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Overview
Text used courtesy of the Illinois Natural History Survey from: LaBerge, W. E., Thorp, R. W., 2005. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part XIV. Subgenus Onagrandrena. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 37: 1-63.

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Andrena raveni is very distinctive in both sexes because metasomal terga 1-5 have relatively strong, metallic, bluish or violaceous reflections. The only other species of this subgenus with such reflections is Andrena vanduzeei in which the metallic reflections are very much subdued and are strongest on terga 4 and 5 (and 6 in the male sex).

FEMALE: MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. — N = 20; length, 11-13 mm; width, 3.0-3.5 mm: WL, M = 4.04 ± 0.170 mm; FL/FW, M = 1 .05 ± 0.008; FOVL/FOVW, M = 3.07 ± 0.066.

DIAGNOSIS. — Vestiture black; wing membranes hyaline, yellowish, slightly infumate; veins dark reddish brown to black; metasomal terga black with dark blue metallic reflections, apical areas, especially on terga 5 and 6, often with violaceous reflections. Galeae as in oenotherae but dulled by fine dense tessellation; labral process as in oenotherae but apical part slightly thicker, equals width of base of scape or slightly broader, apex usually slightly emarginate. Clypeus with punctures small, round, dense, separated by hall a puncture or less, without median impunctate line, shiny; vertex above lateral ocellus equals about one ocellar diameter or slightly less. Pronotum as in oenotherae. Mesoscutum densely punctate, punctures separated by half a puncture width or less, interpunctural surface moderately shiny posteriorly or dull, reticular shagreening fine; scutellum similar but punctures denser and moderately shiny only near anterior margin. Propodeum sculptured as in oenotherae; mesepisterna distinctly punctured below, punctures crowded, surface dulled by fine tessellation. Terga 2-4 with apical areas punctate except in narrow apical margin, punctures separated mostly by one to three puncture widths, basal area punctures separated mostly by half to one puncture width, surfaces shiny. Thoracic dorsum with hairs much longer than width of scape; propodeum without distinct corbicula laterally, hairs long, plumose; scopal hairs long, simple, sparse.

MALE: MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. — N = 20; length, 10-12 mm: width, 2-3 mm; WL, M = 3.59 ± 0.249 mm; FL/FW, M = 1.10 ± 0.006; FS1/FS2, M = 1 .39 ± 0.017.

DIAGNOSIS. — Vestiture black except as follows, vertex with long white hairs, rarely face below ocelli with a few to several pale hairs; mesoscutum and scutellum with white hairs; propodeum without white or with a few on each side anteriorly; mesepisterna entirely black or with a few pale hairs intermixed; metasomal tergum 1 often and tergum 2 occasionally with basal area hairs white in part or nearly entirely. Wing membranes hyaline, slightly infumate, yellowish, veins dark reddish brown; metasomal terga with metallic, bluish or violaceous reflections. Galeae and vertex as in female; labral process large, bidentate; flagellar segment 2 longer than either segment 1 or segment 2. Pronotum as in oenotherae; mesoscutum and scutellum sculptured as in female: propodeum as in female; mesepisternum dull, punctatorugulose and finely tessellate. Metasomal terga 2-5 sculptured as in female terga 2-4 but basal area punctures sparser, separated mostly by one to two puncture widths or slightly more, apical areas with apical impunctate rim broader than in female, surfaces shiny. Metasomal tergum 2 with basal area hairs long, mediobasally half as long as those of tergum 1 or longer; hind tibiae with outer surface hairs long, sparse, as in oenotherae. Sternum 7 with apicomedian lobes flattened apically as in blaisdelli but apicomedian emargination much deeper: sternum 8 with apex weakly capitate, shallowly emarginate apicomedially, with neck region broad and hairs dense (Figs. 55 and 56).

TYPE MATERIAL. — The holotype female (CAS No. 6,707) of Andrena (O.) raven; was collected from 9.5 mi. W of Austin, Lander Co., Nevada. June 7, 1959, visiting Camissonia (as Oenotherae) claviformis integrior flowers by. MacSwain.

DISTRIBUTION. — Andrena raveni is known from California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington (Fig. 4). It has been collected from May 3 through July 16 but mainly in May and June. In addition to the holotype, a total of 772 Females and 79 males were examined from localities listed below.

CALIFORNIA. LASSEN CO.: Hallelujah Junction: Madeline (0.5 mi. N); Ravendale (2 mi. N, 2.4 mi. NW, 3.5 mi. S and 19 mi. SE); Termo (5.5 and 6.5 mi. N). MONO CO.: Benton Inspection Sta. S1SK1YOU CO.: Lake Shastina (1 mi. NE); Macdoel; Tulelake (5 mi. S). TRINITY CO.: Long Ridge. (South of Zenia). NEVADA. EUREKA CO.: Emigrant Pass (4 mi. E and 22 mi. W): Eureka (28.5, 33.8. 36.2 and 37 mi. W; 7.6, 17.1, 50.2, 70.8 and 73.3 mi. N). HUMBOLDT CO.: Golconda: Winnemucca (11 mi. N). LANDER CO.: Austin (9.5, 9.7, 11, 14.5 and 14.7 mi. W); Austin Summit (2.5 and 12 mi. E); Railroad Pass (3 mi. E). WASHOE CO.: Reno (10 mi, S); Steamboat Springs (10 mi. S of Reno). OREGON. HARNEY CO.: Fields (10.7 mi, S): Narrows (9 mi. S). KLAMATH CO.; Bonanza (NE of Round Prairie). LAKE CO.: Hart's Mountain (1.2 mi. W of Antelope Refuge HQ). MALHEUR CO.: Harper (3 mi. SW). MORROW CO.: Boardman Bomb Range: Irrigon. SHERMAN CO.: Meryhill Ferry (3 mi. E of Briggs). UMATILLA CO.: Umatilla. WASCO CO.: The Dalles (7 mi. E). UTAH. TOOELE CO.: Tooele (3.6 mi. S). WASHINGTON. ADAMS CO.: Ritzville (4 mi. N).

NEST BIOLOGY. — Linsley et al. give the following short account of the nest of A. raveni. “Burrows of A. raveni are excavated in loose sandy soil and the entrances are commonly located in surface irregularities. The burrow entrance is vertical and surrounded by a large tumulus."

FLORAL RECORDS. — Andrena (O.) raveni is an oligolege of the genus Camissonia and has been collected from the following plants.

Agoseris glauca, Camissonia claviformis citrina, C. c. claviformis, C. c. cruciformis, C. c. integrior, C. tanacetifolia, Euphorbia sp., Heterotheca (as Chrysopsis) villosa. Madia ramii, Oenotherae alyssoides, O. deltoides piperi, O. pallida (and as latifolia). Sisymbrium altissimum, S. officinale, Stanleya pinnata, Taraxacum officinale, Thelypodium laciniatum.

Identification
Female.- integument black with evanescent bluish or violaceous reflection; metasoma bright blue or violet-blue; pubescence black. Head with clypeus convex, moderately shining but without indication of median impunctate line, densely, subcontingously punctate at base, less closely toward apex where the punctures are seperated by one or more diameters, labrum with apical process as long as or slightly longer than broad; vertex with a smotth area on each of ocelli; antennae with flagellum brownish, first segment, measured along anterior margin, a little longer than second and third combined. Mesosoma with mesoscutum feebly shining, dnsely punctate, punctures mostly less than one diameter apart, surface between punctures very finely, shallowly, reticulate, areas enclosed by reticulations square-shaped; mesoscutellum fiinely, closely punctate; mesopeura densely punctate, the punctures coarser than those of mesoscutum; propodeum coarsely, contigously and more or less confluently punctate, basal enclosure moderately coarsely, regulary rugose, median and basal ridges longitudinal, postero-lateral ridges oblique; wings lightly tinted with blackish; legs with scopae of posterior tibiae long and dense. Metasoma moderately narrow, shining, second tergum with most discal hairs long, predominantly plumose, terga two to four with a narrow impunctate apical margin. Length approx. 11mm., anterior wing 8.5mm

Male. Integument b;lack; metasoma bright blue or violet-blue; pubescence long, predominantly black, with whitish or yellowish- white hairs on vertexm, on genae below mandibles, dorsum , sides and venter of thorax and on first metasomal tergum. Head with clypeus densely punctate; labrum with apical process broad, shining, shallowly emarginate; antennae with first segment, measured along anterior margin, a little longer than second. Mesosoma with mesoscutum dull, moderately closely punctate but some discal punctues seperated by at least one diameter, pubescence thin, not obscuring surface, mesoscutellum a little more densely punctate, more densley clothed with long pale hairs, propodeum coarsely rugoso-punctate, basal enclosure regularly rugose, basal and medin ridges longitudinal postero-lateral ridges oblique. Metasoma with a narrow impunctate apical margin. length aprrox. 11mm., anterior wing 8.5mm. Holotype female and allotype male (Californa acad. of Sciences, Entomology) from 9.5 miles W of Austin, Alnder co, Nevada, June 7 1959, visiting Oenothers clavaeormis integrior, at 8:06 am and 8:29am., respectively (J,W. Macswain) and 388 paratypes (Calif. Insect Survey, University of calif. Berkeley) as follows: same locality and flowers; 2 females, June 6 1959 between 9-9:10 amd ; 49 females june 6 1959 between 3:51-6:27 pm. (some taking pollen); 1 male and 46 females, june 7 1959 (none with pollen); 1 female from 11 miles W of Austin, June 6 1959, visiting Oenothers Clavaeformis intgrior, between 8:50-8:55am; 11 females from 14.5 miles, jun 6-7, 1959 visiting Oenothera clavaeformis integroir, between 8:30-8:45 am and 7:53-9:25 am; 61 females, 9.5 miles W of Austin, june 6 1960, visting same type of flower (25 with pollen), between 4:08am and 6:16 am; 55 females, sam locality and flowers (4 with pollen), june 7 1960, betwee 6:02and 7:14 am; 43 females same locality and flowers (16 with pollen) june 7 1960 between 3:54 and 5:59 pm (J.W. MAcSwain); 16 females 9.7 miles west of austin, resse river valley, june 6 1960, visiting same flower (no pollen), between 6:15 and 7:12 am; 25 females same locality and flowers (2 with pollen), june 6 1960, between 4:06 and 5:29pm; 2 males, 1 female, same locality, june 5 1960, taking necatar from Sisymbrium altissimum at 11:01 to 11:12 am and 4:45 pm. respectively (E.G. Linsley); 1 male, 4 females, 14.5 miles west of Austin, June 5 1960, visiting Oenothera clavaeformis integrior (none with pollen); 1 male, 12 miles east of austin, june 11 1960, visiting smae flower (j.w. MacSwain); 2 males, 44 femles, 3 miles east of Railroad Pass Lander County, Nevada, June 7 1960, visiting flowers of same flower between 5:51 and 6:55 am ; 2 males,1 female, 2.5 miles east of autin summit, lander county, nevada, june 6 1960, taking necatr from Taraxacum officinale (E.G. Linsley). Additional Specimens not designated as paratypes are as follows: one female, Umatilla County, Orgeon, June 24 1882; 4 females, Steamboat Springs, 10 miles south of Reno, Washoe County, Nevada, Amy 29 1959, collecting pollen from Oenothera clavaeformis cruciformis, between 7:40-8:11 am (pH.Raven); 4 females, Reno 10 miles south of U.S. Highway 395, Washoe County, nevada june 18-19 1959, collecting pollen from the same flower type at 7:03, and 7:09, amd 6:42 am.( E.G. Linsely, R.W. Thorp, G.I. Stage.); 2 males, 48 females, same lcality and flowers (12 with pollen) june 10 1960, between 5:42am and 7:38am (E.G. Linsley, J.W. MacSwain); 3 females, 4 miles east of emigrant pass, eureka county, nevada, june 14 1960 vistng flowers of oenothers clavaeformis integrior ( all with pollen), between 6:05 and 6:35 am; 1 female, 22 miles west of emigrant pass, june 14 1960, visiting same flowers( without pollen, at 7:05 am (J.W. MAcSwain); 16 females, 28.5 miles west of Eureka , eureka co. Nevada., June 8 1960 visiting flowers of Oenothera clavaefrmis integrior (6 with pollen), between 6:48 and 8:02am. (E. G. Linsley amd J.W. MacSwain); 9 females, same locality and date, visting flowers of Stanleya pinnata (none with pollen), between 7:27 and 8:45am, (J.w. MacSwain); 34 females, same locality, June 9 1960 visiting flwers of Oenthera Clavaeformis interior (18 with pollen), between 6:20 and 8:58 am (e.g. linsley, J.W. MacSwain); 5 females same locality and date, visiting flowers of Staleya pinnata (none with pollen), between 7:25 and 8:45 am., 5 females, same locality, June 11, 1960, visting fflowers of Oenthera clavaeformis integroir ( 1 with pollen), between 4:33 and 5:54 pm (J.W. MacSwain; 3 females, 33.8 miles west of Eureka, June 7, 1960, visting flowers of Oenothera clavaeformis integior (1 with pollen in the afternoon), 1 at 10:10am and 2 between 4:05 and 4:08 pm (E.G. LInsley, J.W. MacSwain); 7 females, 36.2 miles west of eureka, June 7, 1960, visiting flowers of Oenothera clavaeformis integrior( 5 with pollen), between 3:38 and 3:45pm. (E.G. Linsley); 2 females, 37 miles west of Eureka, June 7, 1960, visiting same flowers (none with pollen), between 3:47 abd 3:48 pm (J.W. Mac Swain); 7 females, same locality, June 8, 1960, visiting flowes of Oenothera clavaeformis integroir (1 with pollen), between 7:12 and 7:24 am. ( E.G. Linsley); 5 females 7.6 miles north of eureka June 13,1960, visiting flowers of Oenothera clavaeformis integrior (none with pollen), between 6:05 and 6:15 am.,; 5 females 50.2 miles north of Eureka June 13, 1960, visiting flowers of Oenothera clavaeformis integrior (without pollen), between 7:15 and 7:30 am.; 4 females, 73.3 miles north of Eureka, June 13,1960, visiting flowers of Oenothera clavaeformis intergrior (2 with pollen), between 7:30 and 7:45 am; 1 female, 2 males, 28.5 miles west of Eureka, Eureka County, Nevada, June 7,1959, visiting Oenothera clavaeformis integrior, between 11:30 and 12:00 noon; 1 female, 3.6 miles south of Tooele, Tooele County, Utah, June 16, 1959, visiting Oenothers latifolia (J.W. MacSwain); 1 female 3.5miles south of Ravendale, Lassen County, California, June 20 1959, Visiting Oenothera tanacetifolia at 7:12 am. (G.I. Stage); 21 females, 6.5 miles north of Termo, Lassen Co.,California, June 21,1959, taking pollen from Oenothera tanacetifolia betwen 6:34-8:24 am (G,I, Stage); and 17 females, 0.5 miles north of Madeline, Lassen County, California June 21 1959, taking pollen from Oenthera tanacetifolia between 6:34-7:59am. (R.W. Thorp); 2 females, June 9, 1960, visiting flowers of Oenothers tanacetifolia (2with pollen), between 8:47 and 9:56 am; 1 male, 1 female, same locality date and flowers at 7:31 am and 1:40 respectively (without pollen); 1 female, same locality and date, visiting flowers of Madia rammi for nectar at 10:34; 2 males, same locality and dte, 1 cruising bush at 9:12 a.m.,., the other visiting Agoseris glauca for nectar between 11:10 and 11:20 am.; 1 female, same locality, June 11, 1960, visiting flowers of Oenothera tanacetifolia (with pollen), at 8:29am; 1 female, 2 miles north of Ravendale, Lassen County, California, June 10,1960, on ground at 7:26 am. (G.I. Stage); and 4 females, 5.5 miles north of Terma, June 23 1960, visiting flowers of Oenothera tanacetifolia (1 with pollen), between, 6:58 and 8:12am (J.W. Macswain).

This species differs at once from other members of the oenotherae complex by the blue coloration of the abdomen in both sexes. It can also be differentiated by having the producded aoex of the labrum short, not or scarcely longer than wide. Also, the mesoscutum is feebly shining and the surface between the punctures is very finely, shallowly reticulte with the network being composed of square-shaped enclosures.

Names
Scientific source:

References
Andrena (Onagrandrena) raveni Linsley and MacSwain, 1961, Pan-Pacific Ent., 37: 118-121; Linsley, MacSwain, and Raven, 1963, Univ. California Publ. Ent., 33: 31-36.

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Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Onagraceae  Camissonia claviformis @ BBSL (1)

Camissonia tanacetifolia @ BBSL (1)
_  Withheld @ BBSL (1)

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