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Andrena simulata Smith, 1879
Andrena aureocincta Cockerell, 1896

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Andrenidae   Andrena
Subgenus: Callandrena

Andrena simulata, face
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 1
Andrena simulata, face

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Andrena simulata, side
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 1
Andrena simulata, side
Andrena simulata, top
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 1
Andrena simulata, top
Reprinted with permission of the University of Nebraska State Museum from:
LaBerge, W. E. 1967. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part I. Callandrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 7: 1-316.

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A. simulata is the first of several small bees which are unrelated to any of the foregoing species except, perhaps, A. fulvipennis to which they bear some resemblance. A. simulata is similar to fulvipennis in having a well-developed mandibular basoventral lamella in the female and in the relatively long clypeus in both sexes. It is distinct from the foregoing species in its coloration, as described below, the extremely short female facial foveae, the relatively long antennae, the flattened and protruding clypeus and the short, almost entire labral process.

FEMALE. MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. N = 3; length, 9-10 mm; width, 3.0-3.5 mm; wing length, M = 3.35 0.285 mm; FL/FW, M = 1.19 0.074; FOVL/FOVW, M = 2.96 0.085.

INTEGUMENTAL COLOR. Black except as follows: mandible with apical half rufescent; flagellar segments 3-10 reddish-brown below; tegulae testaceous; wing membranes hyaline, colorless to slightly yellowed apically, veins red; terga 1-4 broadly hyaline apically, colorless to rufescent at bases of hyaline area, rufescent especially on terga 1 and 2; sterna 2-5 narrowly hyaline apically, yellow; hind tibia orange or broadly banded once or twice with orange; hind basitarsus with basal fourth to two-thirds yellowish-orange; middle tibia and fore, middle and hind femora rufescent on one specimen; distitarsi rufescent; tibial spurs pale yellow.

STRUCTURE. Antenna moderately long, scape slightly longer than flagellar segments 1-3; flagellar segment 1 slightly longer than segments 2 plus 3, segments 2 and 3 subequal in length and shorter than 4; segment 4 quadrate; segments 5-9 slightly longer than broad. Eye about three and one-half times as long as broad, inner margins parallel. Malar area linear. Mandible bidentate; outer mandible extends in repose beyond middle of labrum by one-fourth its length or less; basoventral angle well developed with well-formed lamella, maximum width (at angle) about twice minimum width; subgenal coronet present. Galea turned clown at sides rather abruptly, lateral surface equals half or slightly less of dorsal surface; impunctate, opaque, dulled by fine regular tessellation. Maxillary palpus shorter than galea when extended forward, segmental ratio about 1.1:1.0:0.6:0.5:0.4:0.7. Labial palpus with first segment long, flattened, curved in basal halt, segmental ratio about 2.7:1.0:0.8:1.3. Labral process short, about three times as broad as long, simple or with extremely shallow, small apical emargination. Clypeus somewhat flattened medially, protruding beyond tips of compound eyes by about half its length; broadly impunctate along midline, laterally with large, round, irregularly spaced punctures separated by halt to two puncture widths, at extreme periphery punctures smaller; surface shiny, unshagreened except at periphery. Supraclypeal area with minute round distinct punctures separated by half a puncture width or slightly more and reticular shagreening dulling surface. Genal area almost one and one-half times as broad as eye in profile; with minute round punctures separated mostly by one-half to one puncture width, surface shiny to moderately shiny, lightly shagreened posteriorly. Vertex short, above facial ocellus equals slightly less than one ocellar diameter; crowded punctures above ocelli, scattered punctures and coarse reticular shagreening laterally. Face above antennal fossae with fine longitudinal rugulae which do not reach median ocellus but reach lateral ocelli, interrugal spaces and unrugose area below median ocellus with abundant coarse round or elongate punctures, surface slightly dulled by fine irregular shagreening. Facial fovea short, deep, extending below to or to just above level of upper margin antennal fossa, converging towards ocelli, slightly narrower below than above, separated from lateral ocellus by at least three-fourths of one ocellar diameter.

Pronotum normal, with small round punctures crowded above, scattered on sides, surface dulled by reticular shagreening. Mesoscutum with distinct round punctures separated by half a puncture width or slightly more, surface shiny or moderately so, reticular shagreening fine; parapsidal line shorter than from its posteriori end to margin of scutum, tegulae normal, impunctate. Scutellum like mesoscutum. Metanotum with minute crowded punctures and fine irregular shagreening, moderately shiny at apex. Propodeum with dorsal enclosure with sides bowed slightly outward, surface roughened by extremely fine rugulae, irregular basally and largely transverse apically, dulled by fine reticular shagreening; dorsolateral and posterior surfaces with deep punctures separated by one to two puncture widths, surface dulled by coarse reticular shagreening; corbicular area shiny, with scattered punctures and coarse reticular shagreening. Mesepisternum with deep large punctures separated by half a puncture width or slightly more, surface shiny, unshagreened or delicately so. Metepisternum with lower area like corbicular area, upper third dulled by small punctures and coarse shagreening. Middle basitarsus with evenly curved sides, about as broad medially as hind basitarsus or narrower. Fore wing with three submarginal cells; second submarginal cell short, along posterior margin equals in length slightly more than one-third first cell, receiving vein 1st m-cu at two-thirds distance from base of cell; pterostigma long, about as broad as from inner margin prestigma to wing margin. Claws and tibial spurs normal.

Metasomal tergum 1 with small round punctures in basal area separated mostly by two puncture widths or more, in narrow apical area by one to two puncture widths, surface shiny, unshagreened or extremely delicately so. Terga 24 with large round punctures separated mostly by half to one puncture width or less, surfaces shiny, unshagreened or only delicately so. Pygidial plate broad, V-shaped, apex narrowly rounded, with small, raised, internal triangle. Sterna 2-5 with narrow apical areas impunctate, basomedially impunctate, laterally and apically with scattered punctures becoming crowded along impunctate margins, surfaces shiny, delicately shagreened.

VESTITURE. Generally yellowish-ochraceous, brighter on thoracic dorsum. Terga 2-4 with apical pale pubescent fasciae, broadly interrupted medially on tergum 2, narrowly interrupted on 3; terga 5 and 6 with long ochraceous hairs, golden medially. Sterna 2-5 with weak subapical fimbriae of long erect hairs, sparse erect hairs basally. Basitarsi with outer surface brown to ochraceous; inner surfaces tarsi golden-yellow. Propodeal corbicula incomplete anteriorly, with long plumose hairs internally at least in upper half. Trochanteral flocculus complete, sparse. Tibial scopal hairs plumose throughout.

MALE. MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. N = 5; length, 9-10 mm; width, 2.0-2.5 mm; wing length, M = 3.03 0.241 mm; FL/FW, M = 1.17 0.037; FS1/FS2, M = 1.74 0.061.

INTEGUMENTAL COLOR. Black except as follows: mandible with apical third rufescent; clypeus yellow except lateral angles, maculae mesad and below tentorial pits and apical margin dark brown to Alack; flagellar segments 2-11 dark rufescent below; tegulae testaceous; wing membranes hyaline, colorless, veins red; terga 1-5 with apices hyaline, orange basad of hyaline areas and bases of terga 2-6 orange, thus forming five orange bands, tergum 5 occasionally and often terga 4 and 3 with orange coloring lacking (in holotype two distinct orange bands present, third band present but less orange and indistinct); tarsi yellowish-orange; hind tibiae yellowish-orange at apex, along anterior margin and in basal half or entirely yellowish-orange; tibial spurs white to pale yellow.

STRUCTURE. Antennae long, extend beyond tegulae in repose; scape equals about first two and one-half flagellar segments in length; flagellar segment 1 slightly longer than segment 3, segment 2 distinctly shorter than 3, segments 3-11 distinctly longer than broad. Eye slightly longer than three times as long as broad, inner margins converging slightly towards mandibles. Malar space as in female. Mandible as in female but basoventral angle absent; subgenal coronet absent. Galea as in female. Maxillary palpus as in female but segmental ratio about 1.0:1.0:0.7:0.6:0.5:0.8. Labial palpus as in female but ratio about 2.1:1.0:0.8:1.1. Labral process trapezoidal in outline, slightly longer than one-third width, extremely shallowly emarginate medially, not at all bidentate. Clypeus sculptured as in female but median impunctate area usually broader, peripheral punctures coarser and peripheral shagreening absent. Supraclypeal urea as in female. Genal area as in female but about as broad as eye in profile. Vertex as in female but usually above lateral ocellus equals about one ocellar diameter. Face above antennal fossa as in female but rugulae shorter and less distinct and punctures coarser and more crowded.

Thorax as in female except as follows: mesoscutum and scutellum moderately dulled peripherally by fine tessellation; propodeum with dorsal enclosure more coarsely rugulose, basally occasionally with short longitudinal rugulae, lateral surfaces dulled by coarse punctures, irregular rugulae and fine tessellation; mesepisternum with surface often moderately dulled by reticular shagreening. Terga 2-5 sculptured as in female terga 2-4; tergum 1 with punctures separated mostly by one to two puncture widths, not noticeably smaller than punctures of succeeding terga. Tergum 7 with extremely narrow, slightly raised, moderately shiny pseudopygidial area. Sterna 2-5 sculptured as in female. Sternum 6 flat, shallowly emarginate medially.

Genitalia and sterna 7 and 8 (Figs. 204-208) as figured. No the following: gonoforceps with few hairs, rather blunt; penis valves blunt in lateral view, narrow viewed dorsally; volsellae of moderate size; sternum 7 with deep v-shaped emargination but apicolateral lobes not distinctly set-off laterally, hairs sparse; sternum 8 with apex broadened, entire, neck region with sides gently concave.

VESTITURE. Generally pale ochraceous, brighter at vertex a thoracic dorsum. Terga 2-5 with basal areas with erect hairs, apical areas with pale fasciae, interrupted medially on tergum 2; terga 6 and 7 with long pale ochraceous hairs. Sterna 2-5 with subapical fimbriae of long erect hairs, weak on sternum 2, basally with scattered suberect hairs. Leg hairs white to pale ochraceous except inner surfaces tarsi pale golden.

TYPE MATERIAL. The holotype female (BM 17-a-1391) of simulata from Mexico is in the British Museum (Natural History). The holotype male (USNM No. 18228) of aureocincta from Santa Fe, New Mexico, was collected by Marion Boyle: DISTRIBUTION. A. simulata is known from Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado. In addition to the holotype, 4 females and 7 males have been examined. The data for these and for one additional published record are given below in full.

ARIZONA: Oak Creek Canyon. 1 male, August, F. M. Snow. Flagstaff. 1 female, September 20, 1938, on Aster sp., I. McCracken. Springerville (32 miles W.). 2 females, September 14, 1961, on Viguiera annua, P. D. Hurd. COLORADO: 1 male labeled, "Col." NEW MEXICO: Fort Wingate. 1 male, August 21, 1908, John Woodgate. Pecos. 1 male, September 4, T. D. A. Cockerell. San Ignacio. 1 male, September 1, Wilmattae Porter (Cockerell, 1900). San Marco. 1 male, August 18, 1962, R. and K. Dreisbach. Santa Fe (8 miles N.E. at Hyde State park), 1 male, August 18, 1961, G. C. Eickwort. Willow Creek. 1 female, September 3, 1933.

Scientific source:

Andrena simulata Smith, 1879, Descriptions of New Species of Hymenoptera in the Collections of the British Museum, p. 52; Morice and Cockerell, 1901, Canadian Entomologist, vol. 33, p. 152; Cockerell, 1906, Psyche, vol. 13, p. 36.

Andrena aureocincta Cockerell, 1896, Annals of the Magazine of Natural History, ser. 6, vol. 18, p. 88 (new synonymy); 1898, Bulletin of the Denison University Science Laboratory, vol. 11, p. 48; 1900; Annals of the Magazine of Natural History, ser. 7, vol. 5, p. 406; Lanham, 1949, University of California Publications in Entomology, vol. 8, p. 226.

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