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Reprinted with permission of the University of Nebraska State Museum from:|
LaBerge, W. E. 1967. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part I. Callandrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 7: 1-316.
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This is a large western species which is closely related to A. helianthi. The female vulpicolor is distinguished from that of helianthi by the large rectangular labral process and the more dense tergal fasciae. The male of vulpicolor differs from that of helianthi in the shape of the labral process, by having an apical pa1e fascia on tergum 1 as well as the succeeding terga, and by the usually darker flagellar segments.
FEMALE. MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. — N = 20; length, 12-15 mm; width, 3.5-4.5 mm; wing length, M = 4.25 ± 0.213 mm; FL/FW, M = 1.02 ± 0.007; FOVL/FOVW, M = 2.75 ± 0.034.
INTEGUMENTAL COLOR. — Black except as follows: mandible with apical third rufescent; flagellar segments 3-10 slightly reddened below; tegulae dark rufescent; wing membranes hyaline, infumate near tips, veins reddish-brown; terga 1-5 with apical areas rufescent; sterna 2-5 with narrow hyaline apices yellow, rufescent just basad of hyaline area; distitarsi rufescent; hind basitarsi often rufescent (as in lectotype); tibial spurs yellow.
STRUCTURE. — Antennae as in helianthi. Eye about four times as long as broad, inner margins slightly curved, converging slightly towards mandibles. Malar space linear, minimum length less than one-sixth basal width of mandible. Mandible and galea as in helianthi. Maxillary palpus short, barely reaching tip of galea in repose, segmental ratio about 1.1:1.0:0.7:0.7:0.6:0.7; segments 1-5 flattened, elongated triangles. Labial palpus with segment 1 strongly curved along inner margin, almost straight along outer margin, flattened, segmental ratio about 1.7:1.0:0.6:0.7. Labral process large, rectangular, about twice as broad as long, not emarginate. Clypeus evenly rounded from side to side, protruding beyond ends of compound eyes by about one-third its median length; impunctate along midline, punctures round, separated mostly by half a puncture width (much less in some specimens), smaller peripherally, surface shiny to moderately shiny, and in most specimens shagreening restricted to peripheral areas, in some clypeus moderately dulled by fine transverse shagreening throughout. Supraclypeal area minutely punctate, shagreened, moderately shiny. Genal area slightly less than one and one-half times as broad as eye in profile, with minute punctures separated mostly by two puncture widths and fine reticular shagreening dolling surface. Vertex moderate, above lateral ocellus equals slightly more than one ocellar diameter, sculptured as in helianthi. Facial fovea shallow, extends to below lower margin of antennal fossa, rounded below, broader and rounded above, separated from lateral ocellus by almost one ocellar diameter.
Pronotum as in helianthi. Mesoscutum and scutellum with extremely shallow, obscure punctures separated medially by three to four puncture widths, peripherally by one to two puncture widths, surfaces dulled by coarse regular tessellation; parapsidal line moderate in length, almost as long as from anterior end to margin of scutum. Tegula normal, impunctate. Metanotum with shallow crowded punctures and coarse tessellation dulling surface. Propodeum as in helianthi but dorsal enclosure with internal basal f triangular area finely roughened in addition to coarse tessellation dulling surface. Mesepisternum with small round punctures separated mostly by two puncture widths except in ventroposterior quarter which is almost impunctate, surface tessellate. Metepisternum sculptured as in corbicular area except punctate upper third. Middle basitarsus as in helianthi. Tibial claws and spurs normal. Front wing with three submarginal cells; vein 1st m-cu meets second cell at or slightly beyond middle of cell; second submarginal cell along posterior margin equals half of first cell; pterostigma as in helianthi.
Metasomal terga 1-4 with basal areas almost impunctate, with shallow sparse minute punctures obscured by fine dense tessellation (punctures more distinct in a few specimens) dulling surfaces. Terga 2ó1 with apical areas with minute crowded punctures. Pygidial plate V-shaped with apex relatively sharply pointed. Sterna 2-5 with apical areas impunctate, basal areas with small punctures separated by two to four puncture widths, sparser basally and more crowded near impunctate margins, surfaces shiny, reticular shagreening extremely delicate.
VESTITURE. — Generally white to dull ochraceous, occasionally bright fox-red (as in lectotype), thoracic dorsum and vertex brighter and darker than sides or below. Tergum 1 with lateral patches of apical white fascia about one-fifth width of tergum or less. Terga 2-4 with apical fasciae of thick, decumbent, white hairs, usually extremely narrowly interrupted on tergum 2. Terga 5 and 6 with long white hairs, often golden medially. Sterna 2-5 with sparse, short, erect hairs basally becoming long and semidecumbent near apical margin to form weak subapical fimbriae which are interrupted medially. Propodeal corbicula incomplete anteriorly, with long internal hairs in anterodorsal third or less. Trochanteral flocculus and tibial scopa as in helianthi. Legs pale ochraceous to white except inner surfaces tarsi pale golden.
MALE. MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS. — N = 20; length, 11-14 mm; width, 3-4 mm; wing length, M = 3.80 ± 0.131 mm; FL/FW, M = 1.09 ± 0.005; FS1/FS2, M = 1.90 ± 0.026.
INTEGUMENTAL COLOR. — Black except as follows: mandible with apical third rufescent; clypeus pale yellow except small maculae mesad and below tentorial pits and brown apical margin; flagellar segments 2-11 brown (allotype) to dark reddish-brown below; tegulae testaceous to rufescent; wing membranes hyaline, colorless or slightly infumate apically, veins yellow to dark red; terga 1-5 hyaline apically and rufescent just basad of hyaline areas; sterna narrowly hyaline apically, yellow, rufescent just basad of hyaline areas; distitarsi rufescent; hind basitarsi dark reddish-brown to red.
STRUCTURE. — Antennae surpassing tegulae in repose; scape and flagellar segments as in helianthi. Eyes as in helianthi but inner margins converging towards mandibles. Malar space, mandible and galea as in female. Maxillary palpus as in female but ratio about 1.0:1.0:0.9:0.8:0.6:0.9. Labial palpus as in female but ratio about 1.7:1.0:0.6:0.7. Labral process about twice as broad as long, rectangular, shallowly and broadly emarginate apically, not at all bidentate. Clypeus as in female but median longitudinal impunctate area usually absent or narrow, surface shiny, unshagreened or only slightly so. Supraclypeal area, genal area and vertex as in female. Face above antennal fossae as in female but longitudinal rugulae usually less well developed. Sculpturing of thorax as in female except as follows: mesoscutal and scutellar punctures slightly more evident and tessellation less coarse, shinier; dorsal enclosure of propodeum with basomedian internal area of weak rugulae slightly more coarsely sculptured; lateral propodeal areas with scattered punctures throughout and duller. Sculpturing of abdomen as in female except as follows: terga 1-5 with basal area punctures deeper, larger and usually more abundant. Sternum 6 not reflexed, apical emargination deep, U-shaped but with sides diverging laterally, forming two long apical rounded teeth.
Genital capsule and sterna 7 and 8 (Figs. 79-83) similar to those of braccata.
VESTITURE. — In general white to pale ochraceous, vertex and thoracic dorsum slightly brighter or darker than sides or below. Terga 1-5 with distinct, uninterrupted, apical, pale fasciae, basally with abundant, erect, short, white hairs. Terga 6 and 7 with long white hairs. Sterna 2-5 with short, erect, sparse hairs basally, with weak subapical fimbriae of decumbent hairs. Leg hairs white to pale ochraceous except inner surfaces tarsi pale golden.
TYPE MATERIAL. — The lectotype (PANS) female (here designated) of vulpicolor, was collected by T. D. A. Cockerell in September at Embudo, New Mexico. The holotype female of nubilipennis Viereck (PANS) is without data.
DISTRIBUTION. — A. vulpicolor appears to be distributed from Wyoming and New Mexico west to Oregon and California (Fig. 6) chiefly in arid and semiarid mountainous regions. It has been collected from July through October 25th but chiefly during September and early October. In addition to the types listed above, 75 females and 39 males have been examined from localities listed below.
ARIZONA: Rustlers Park, Chiricahua Mts. CALIFORNIA: Baldwin Park; Barton Flats; Bentons Crossing, Mono Co.; Bridgeport; Deep Creek (mouth of), San Bernardino Co.; Deep Springs, Inyo Co.; Doyle (5 miles S.); Fort Tejon; Hallelujah Junction, Lassen Co.; Lava Beds National Monument, Siskiyou Co.; Rock Eek (1 mile W. of Tom's place). Mono Co.; Sierraville; South Fork Camp, San Bernardino Mts.; Upper Santa Ana River, San Bernardino Co.; Walker Pass, Kern Co. COLORADO: Great Sand Dunes. IDAHO: Brunneau (8 miles W.). NEVADA: Carson City; Ely (9 miles S.); Washoe Co. NEW MEXICO: Embudo; Quemado; Torrance Co. OREGON: Hermiston (6 miles E.), Umatilla Co. UTAH: Blue Creek, Box Elder Co.; Cliff; Moab; Monticello; Pahvant; Pine Mts., Washington Co. WYOMING: Jackson, Teton Co.
FLORAL RECORDS. — Except for one male taken on Erigeron, all records of vulpicolor on flowers are for some species of Chrysothamnus (rabbitbrush). It is, therefore, assumed that A. vulpicolor is an oligolege of Chrysothamnus. Flowers from which this bee has been taken are listed below.
Chrysothamnus sp., C. nauseosus, C. nauseosus albicaulis, C. n. consimilis, C. parryi, C. viscidiflorus pumilis, C. v. stenopliyllus, Erigeron neomexicana.
REMARKS, Cockerell (1897) named A. vulpicolor from a series of females which represent an extreme in color, that is the vestiture being bright fox-red. This variant appears relatively rarely in populations from New Mexico, Colorado and Utah. The California, Oregon and Nevada populations appear to average slightly smaller and are considerably paler in color than the more eastern populations. There is a continuous gradation in color and size from the typical vulpicolor form to the pale California type.
Andrena vulpicolor Cockerell, 1897, Annals of the Magazine of Natural History, ser. 6, vol. 20, p. 512; 1898, Bulletin of the Denison University Science Laboratory, vol. 11, p. 49; 1931, American Museum Novitates No. 458, p. 13.
Andrena nubilipennis Viereck, 1904, Canadian Entomologist, vol. 36, p. 193 (new synonymy).
Andrena (Pterandrena) nubilipennis: Lanham, 1949, University of California Publications in Entomology, vol. 8, p. 200.
Andrena (Pterandrena) vulpicolor: Lanham, 1949, University of California Publications in Entomology, vol. 8, p. 200.
Updated: 2022-05-21 05:11:13 gmt