Ningaloo Reef (22°00'S), Rowley Shoals (17°20'S) and Scott Reef (14°03'S), WA, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Timor Sea (12°15'S), and northern Great Barrier Reef, QLD (12°00'S) to Wooli, NSW (29°52'S); Lord Howe Island and Middleton Reef, NSW, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands; tropical, Indo-west-central Pacific.
Lord Howe Province (14), Timor Province (2), Cape Province (20), Cocos (Keeling) Island Province (22), Christmas Island Province (23), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Northwest Transition (3), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)
An elongate, robust fish with rounded body (in cross section). Preopercular edge smooth or sometimes denticulate in juveniles; a distinct horizontal groove in front of eye; teeth in both jaws in bands, with 2 strong canines anteriorly; vomerine tooth patch crescent-shaped. Dorsal fin with X spines and 11 soft rays; anal fin with III spines and 8 soft rays; first gill arch gill rakers on lower limb including rudiments) 14 or 15. Pectoral fins short, rounded, about equal to snout length with 17 rays; caudal fin deeply forked, with pointed lobes; dorsal and anal fins scaleless. Scales moderate-sized, about 48 to 50 in lateral line; scale rows on back parallel with lateral line. Color dark green to bluish or blue-grey.
Inhabits inshore reef areas, from the surface down to 100 m depth. Usually seen solitarily. Feeds mainly on fishes, but also on shrimps, crabs, cephalopods and planktonic organisms. Spawning has been recorded in January and November off East Africa.
Widely distributed in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to East Africa and southern Japan southward to Australia. Also recorded from South Africa. It is found in eastern and southern Taiwanese waters.
Marketed mostly fresh; also dried and salted. Excellent eating.
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: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body elongate and robust; very distinct horizontal groove on snout ventral to nostrils; teeth in both jaws in bands, with strong canines anteriorly; teeth on roof of mouth in chevron- or crescent-shaped patch on vomer and in elongate band on each palatine; maxilla without scales or longitudinal ridges; interorbital region flattened; gill rakers on first gill arch 7-8 + 13-16 = 20-24; preopercular edge smooth, sometimes denticulated in juveniles; last soft ray of both dorsal and anal fins well produced, longer than next to last ray; caudal fin forked; short pectoral fins, less than 1/2 length of head, about equal to length of snout; D X,11 soft rays; membranes of dorsal and anal fins without scales; tubed lateral-line scales 48-50. Colour of body dark green, bluish, or grey-blue (Ref.
Adults inhabit open waters of deep lagoons, channels, or seaward reefs (Ref.
). Found in benthopelagic waters (Ref.
). Usually seen singly, but also in groups. They feed mainly on fishes, but also on shrimps, crabs, cephalopods and planktonic organisms (Ref.
). Mainly marketed fresh but also dried and salted. Excellent eating. Large individuals may be ciguatoxic (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 23.9 - 29, mean 27.9 (based on 2222 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.01187 - 0.01681), b=2.95 (2.90 - 3.00), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.3 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.29; tm=4-5).
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
Luna, Susan M.
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