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Batrachoides surinamensis (Bloch and Schneider, 1801)
PACUMA TOADFISH
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Batrachoididae   Batrachoides


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Batrachoides surinamensis, Pacuma toadfish : fisheries, aquarium
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Batrachoides surinamensis ( Bloch & Schneider , 1801 )

Pacuma toadfish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Batrachoides surinamensis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Batrachoides surinamensis (Pacuma toadfish) Batrachoides surinamensis
Picture by Isaac, V.J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Batrachoidiformes (Toadfishes) > Batrachoididae (Toadfishes) > Batrachoidinae
Etymology: Batrachoides: Greek, batrachos = frog + Greek, oides = similar (Ref. 45335 ) .
More on authors: Bloch & Schneider .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 36 m (Ref. 13608 ). Tropical; 16°N - 14°S, 87°W - 34°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Central Atlantic: Honduras to Salvador (Bahia) in Brazil.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 20.0   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 57.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3273 ); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3273 ); max. published weight: 2.3 kg (Ref. 5217 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 28-30; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 25 - 27. Supraorbital and interorbital region smooth, without any filament; scaled area on head extending to middle of eye and opercle spine; 9 discrete pores on inner face of pectoral fin; body brown, with black spots and saddle-shaped blotches (Ref. 13608 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Mainly in brackish water (Ref. 5217 ). Found on sandy-muddy bottoms in shallow warm water. Not so active, lingers over the substrate disguised. Feeds on small gastropod mollusks, crustaceans like crabs (Calappidae, Portunidae, Xanthidae, etc.), shrimps (Penaeidae, Palaemonidae, Alphaeidae, etc.) and fishes. Females are mature at around 20 cm length, males at 25 cm. Spawns 400 to 500 eggs, with a size of 4 to 5 mm (Ref. 35237 ). Marketed fresh.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Collette, Bruce B. | Collaborators

Collette, B.B. , 1978. Batrachoididae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 1. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3273 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 04 February 2009

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
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BRUVS
References
Aquaculture
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Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
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Ciguatera
Speed
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Gill area
Otoliths
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Tools

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Special reports

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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201 ): 27.1 - 28.3, mean 27.6 °C (based on 300 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00485 - 0.01241), b=3.15 (3.01 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.7   ±0.62 se; based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100). Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown . Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 102 [53, 175] mg/100g; Iron = 0.946 [0.603, 1.455] mg/100g; Protein = 18 [17, 19] %; Omega3 = 0.26 [0.15, 0.46] g/100g; Selenium = 48 [27, 94] μg/100g; VitaminA = 22 [9, 54] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.29 [0.98, 1.75] mg/100g (wet weight);

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Updated: 2024-05-28 05:08:31 gmt
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