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Calliopsis coloradensis Cresson, 1878
Calliopsis coloradensis fedorensis Cockerell, 1909

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Andrenidae   Calliopsis
Subgenus: Calliopsima

Calliopsis coloradensis, female, face
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Calliopsis coloradensis, female, face

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Calliopsis coloradensis, female, side
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Calliopsis coloradensis, female, side
Calliopsis coloradensis, female, top
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Calliopsis coloradensis, female, top

Calliopsis coloradensis, female, wing
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Calliopsis coloradensis, female, wing
Calliopsis coloradensis FEM mm .x f
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Calliopsis coloradensis FEM mm .x f

Calliopsis coloradensis MALE mm .x f
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Calliopsis coloradensis MALE mm .x f
Calliopsis coloradensis, figure70b
© Copyright source/photographer · 1
Calliopsis coloradensis, figure70b

Calliopsis coloradensis, figure71c
© Copyright source/photographer · 1
Calliopsis coloradensis, figure71c
Calliopsis coloradensis, faces color
© USDA Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Logan Utah · 1
Calliopsis coloradensis, faces color

Calliopsis coloradensis, male, head
© USDA Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Logan Utah · 1
Calliopsis coloradensis, male, head
Calliopsis coloradensis, female, face
© T. B. Mitchell. 1960. Bees of the Eastern United States · 1
Calliopsis coloradensis, female, face

Calliopsis coloradensis, male, face
© T. B. Mitchell. 1960. Bees of the Eastern United States · 1
Calliopsis coloradensis, male, face
Overview
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141.

FEMALE—Length 7 mm.; black; length of face slightly less than distance between eyes above; eyes subparallel; cheeks slightly narrower than eyes; supraclypeal area, triangular lateral maculae and much of clypeus yellow, a pair of dark blotches on each side of clypeus sometimes merging along apical margin, process of labrum dark, apical margin sometimes yellow, the lateral maculae extending narrowly up eye margin much above level of antennae; process of labrum about twice as broad as long, broadly rounded apically; facial foveae deep and distinct, extending slightly below upper point of facial maculae; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli slightly less than distance between them; flagellum ferruginous beneath, median segments slightly broader than long; surface of head shining between deep, distinct punctures, these fine and close between antennae and ocelli, becoming slightly finer and more irregular on vertex laterally, more sparse on cheeks, slightly more coarse and deep below antennae, but obscure on maculated areas; pubescence of head and thorax short but rather dense, somewhat longer on vertex and cheeks, entirely pale, somewhat yellowish on vertex and dorsum of thorax; tubercles reddened; posterior margin of pronotum yellow except for a short median interruption; tegulae yellowish-hyaline, with a small but distinct, yellow, anterior spot; wings subhyaline, rather strongly violaceous, veins and stigma testaceous; 2nd recurrent vein entering 2nd submarginal cell about twice as near apex as 1st does to base; legs piceous, front and mid tibiae with a conspicuous basal yellow spot; spurs yellow; scutum rather dull due to the fine and deep but very close puncturation, this becoming somewhat more sparse on each side of middle of scutellum which is slightly grooved medially, the groove being densely and finely rugoso-punctate; pleura shining, with coarse, deep, well separated punctures; apical margins of abdominal terga depressed, rather deeply so laterally, these areas yellowish-hyaline, microscopically and closely punctate but somewhat shining, discs of terga deeply, closely and finely punctate, those on basal segments slightly more coarse; 2nd and following segments with rather dense, apical, whitish, pubescent fasciae which are more or less interrupted medially on the more basal segments, discal pubescence very short and obscure, but quite dense, fuscous, tergum 5 with a quite dense, pale brownish, apical fimbria.

MALE—Length 7 mm.; black; face slightly shorter than distance between eyes above; eyes slightly convergent below; cheeks much narrower than eyes; entire face below level of antennae, including labrum and mandibles, yellow, lateral maculae extending narrowly up eye margin, much above level of antennae, and scape with an elongate yellow macula anteriorly; process of labrum much broader than long, rounded apically; facial foveae quite shallow and obscure but rather distinct, terminating near the acute upper tip of facial maculae; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli much less than distance between them, only slightly exceeding their diameter; flagellum yellowish beneath, median segments slightly broader than long; face shining, punctures above antennae deep and distinct, close and rather fine, becoming rather minute, irregular and obscure on vertex laterally, very fine and quite sparse on shining cheeks, punctures of maculated areas rather sparse and irregular, quite obscure; pubescence of head and thorax rather long and erect, quite dense but not hiding surface, whitish laterally and beneath but becoming brownish or fuscous on vertex and dorsum of thorax; tubercles slightly reddened; posterior margin of pronotum yellow, this slightly interrupted medially; tegulae yellowish-hyaline, with a small, obscure, yellowish, anterior spot; wings subhyaline, rather strongly violaceous, veins and stigma brownish, 2nd recurrent vein entering 2nd submarginal cell slightly nearer apex than 1st does to base; tibiae, tarsi and spurs entirely yellow, femora largely dark but with yellow apex, the yellow on front femora extending about half way up anterior face; punctures of scutum and scutellum deep and distinct, rather coarse but close, pleura more coarsely and deeply punctate, punctures well separated, intervening spaces shining; apical margins of abdominal terga rather broadly and evenly depressed, these areas microscopically, closely punctate, somewhat shining, becoming narrowly hyaline along rims, discs of terga deeply, distinctly and closely punctate, rather coarsely so on basal tergum but becoming fine on the more apical segments; abdominal terga with whitish apical pubescent fasciae, these rather broadly interrupted medially, discal pubescence very short, but quite dense, fuscous; sternum 5 with an elongate, median, apical protuberance which is parallel- sided and rather abruptly truncate apically, with a double tuft of very short, inconspicuous setae; sternum 6 with a rather broad, median, apical emargination, the two lateral angles thus formed, produced and slightly recurved, bearing a tuft of short setae, a rather deep emargination separating this area from the lateral areas; sternum 7 produced medially into a pair of accuminate lobes which are obscurely divided medially toward apex, these separated from lateral portions of base by a slender pedestal; sternum 8 very much elongated, the slightly broader basal half, abruptly narrowed to form a slender pedestal bearing a spatulate apical projection which is rather densely pubescent; penis valves much elongated, slender, abruptly flexed at tip; gonostyli apparently represented by a pair of broad, apically rounded lobes at base of penis valves; gonocoxites produced apically beneath to form a subacute lobe opposed to the gonostyli.

DISTRIBUTION—This is primarily western in its range, but extends eastward to Illinois, in the north, and through Louisiana and Georgia to North Carolina in the South. It is in flight from May until October.

FLOWER RECORDS—Collected on Aster and Haplopappus in North Carolina. Robertson records it on Bidens aristosa, Boltonia asteroides, Coreopsis tripteris, Rudbeckia triloba and Solidago canadensis.


Reprinted from: Cresson, E.T., 1878. Descriptions of new North American Hymenoptera in the collection of the American Entomological Society. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc.7:65-66.


Short, robust, black: head broader than the thorax, clothed with pale pubescence on vertex and cheeks, face very thinly clothed, the pubescence on vertex slightly tinged with ochraceous; aides of the face extending narrowly nearly to the summit of the eyes, a triangular spot between antean?, clypeus except two cuneiform black marks sometimes nearly confluent, and base of mandibles occasionally, pale yellow; labrum sometimes brown; flagellum testaceous beneath; thorax above clothed with a short dense dull ochracemis pubescence, the sides with longer whitish pubescence; a narrow slightly interrupted yellow band on posterior margin of prothorax; tegulss dull testaceous yellow anteriorly; wings faintly dusky, marginal cell long, obliquely truncated at tip, second submarginal as long as the first, much narrowed towards marginal; legs with pale pubescence, more dense on tibia and tarsi; four anterior knees pale yellowish; abdomen short ovate, depressed, shining, the segments with an apical fringe of dense white pubescence. Length .33 inch. % .?Smaller than the 9, with the sides of face, clypeus entirely, labrum, mandibles, scape beneath, tipa of femora and the tibies and tarsi? bright yellow. Length .30 inch. Hab?Colorado, (Ridings; Morrison). Five specimen?. This closely resembles andrcniformin, Smith, (of which his flavipes is doubtless the male), but is larger, more pubescent and easily dis tinguished by the yellow mark on sides of the face being attenu ated above and extending up on the orbits nearly to the summit of the eye.

Extracted from: Shinn, A.F. 1967. A Revision of the Genus Calliopsis and the biology and Ecology of C. andreniformis (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). U. Kans. Sci. Bull. 46: 753-936.

The species is closest to rozeni and coloratipes. It is separated in the male from them by the long ventral prongs on sternum 6, by having the volsella much expanded, and by having the punctures of tergum 1 much smaller than in rozeni and larger than in coloratipes. It is separated in the female from coloratipes by the dark mandibular base, from rozeni by the much finer punctures of tergum 1, and from both species by the regularly distributed punctures of tergum 1, which are sparse medially in them.

FEMALE. Length, 8.8 mm; forewing length, 5.8 mm; hindwing length, 4.1 mm; clypeal length, 0.62 mm; scutal length, 1.60 mm.

Head. Cream colored areas: (1) as in rozeni; (2) clypeus with a broad T with convex crossbar bordering entire length of horizontal portion of frontoclypeal suture (to somewhat less), bottom of the T with adjacent small spot ( more typically, clypeus light colored except for testaceous apical border and wide, twin, vertical bars of brown arising from its median portion); (3) absent on labrum; (5) subantennal plate with dot (to entirely); (6) absent on mandible. (7) As in rozeni. (8) Hair of vertex fulvous. (10) Punctures beside lower half of frontal line slightly smaller than in rozeni, 1-2 pwa, interspaces shiny. (13) Orbital convergence ratio as 1.82:1.70,1.07. (14) Galea finely pebbled, dull, galeal gap about half length of galea exposed beyond closed mandibles, (0.31 :0.58). (15) Head width to head length as 2.77 :1 :89, 1.47. (17) Eye length, mio, and flagellar length as 1.46:1.70:1.48. (18) lnterocellar, ocellocular, antennocular, and interantennal as 0.51 :0.51 :0.48 :0.43. (19) Ocellolabral slightly greater than clypeal width, 1.62:1.56,1.03. (20) Clypeocellar to outer subantennal sutural as 0.99:0.87,1.14. (21) Basal labial palpomere about 2.5 times length of others combined. (22) Flagellar length about 2.1 times length of scape, 1.48 :0.71.

Mesosoma. (23) Yellowish areas: apex of pronotal lobe, scutellar crest. (24) As in rozeni, except hairs longer. (25) Scutal disc with punctures slightly larger than those of vertex, 1 pwa or less. (26) As in rozeni except ridges narrower, more abundant, shinier. (27) Foreleg with yellow at apex of femur and knee of tibia. (28) Spur exceedingly finely pectinate on apical half, bearing about 10 short teeth, barely distinguishable (30X); spur length abouthalf of length of middle basitarsus, 0.48:0.94. (30) Tegula transparent, light amber. Humeral plate with anterior half yellow. (31) Wing clear (to faintly smoky apically, not so smoky as in rozeni). Stigma tan. (32) Marginal cell 6-9 greater than, and 3-4 less than 9-wt, 1.33:0.90:1.14.

Metasoma. (34) As in rozeni but hairs longer. (35) Tergum 1 with punctures of median area slightly finer than on scutum, fairly regularly spaced, 2-3 pwa.

MALE. Length, 6.3 mm; forewing length, 4.9 mm; hindwing length, 3.52 mm; clypeal length, 0.58 mm; scutal length, 1.41 mm.

Head. Yellow areas: (1) paraocular area below diagonal line originating at upper end ( or between upper end and middle) of outer subantennal suture and extending tangent to facial fovea ending on orbit below midlevel of fovea, angle of upper corner about 40° ( or 10°) ; ( 4) supraclypeal area in some cases with black border between frontoclypeal suture and yellow supraclypeal area; (5) subantennal plate, sometimes reduced to basal spot; (6) mandible basal half; (7) scape with ventral surface yellow except dark brown mesally and apically (through various states of reduction of yellow to all brown scape); yellowish ventral dots on flagellomeres 1-2 ( sometimes absent). (10) As in female. (13) Orbital convergence ratio as 1.60:1.22,1.30. (14) As in female. (15) Head width to head length as 2.41:1:70,1.42. (17) Eye length, mio, and flagellar length as 1.33:1.22:1.51. (18) lnterocellar, ocellocular, antennocular, and interantennal as 0.46:0.46:0.31:0.36. (19) Ocellolabral greater than clypeal width, 1.43:1.26,1.13. (20) Clypeocellar to outer subantennal sutural as 0.85 :0.68,1.25. (21) Basal labial pal po mere about 2.0 times length of others combined. (22) Flagellar length about 2.9 times length of scape, 1.51: 0.53.

Mesosoma. (25) Scutal disc with punctures slightly larger than in rozeni, 0.5-1 pwa, interspaces shiny. (27) Foreleg with yellow on dorsoapical half ( or f;ss) of femur, tibia, basitarsus and second tarsomere, remaining tarsomeres tinged testaceous. (28) Middle leg colored like foreleg but less yellow on femur, brown patch on posterior surface of tibia (sometimes) ; lengths of tibia, basitarsus, and apicotarsus 1.04:0.94:0.99. (29) Hind leg colored like middle leg. (32) Marginal cell 6-9 greater than, and 3-4 less than 9-wt, 1.12: 0.87:0.99.

Metasoma. (35) Tergum 1 with punctures of median area slightly smaller than on scutum, deep, crowded medially, contiguous, interspaces shiny.

TYPE MATERIAL, Lectotype female, 1 female and 2 male paratypes, Colorado (Ridings and Morrison), with no further label data, are at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Types 2187, 2187.2, 2187.4, and 2187.5, respectively. Paratype 2187.3, same data, is a female specimen of C. chlorops. I suggest that the indefinite type locality be restricted to the Colorado counties of Denver, northern half of Jefferson, and eastern half of Boulder, wherespecimens taken agree exactly with the types. The description of the male is principally based on paratype No. 2187.2.

D1STRIBUTION. Alberta to southern Utah and southern New Mexico, east to the Mississippi River, thence through eastern Texas and the Gulf States to the east slope of the Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina. Not yet found in Florida, although it has likely occurred there in the past (cf.remarks regarding Ca/liopsis flavifrons Smith under the following section, Geographic variation). It is a late summer-early autumn bee collected between June 27, 1918, at Winnfield, Louisiana, and Oct. 10, 1961, at Nacogdoches, Texas, but most records are in July and August.

In addition to the type specimens, about 490 others have been studied from the following localities: ALBERTA: Lethbridge; Medicine Hat; Scandia; Tilley. MANITOBA: Balmoral; Stony ,Mountain; Stormy Mountain; Winnipeg. ALABAMA: Pickett Springs, Montgomery Co. ARKANsAs: Chessman Ferry, Stone Co.; Fayetteville, Washington Co.; Polk Co. COLORADO: Boulder; Denver; Hoehne; Limon; Loveland; Roggen; Wray. GEORGIA: Augusta, Richmond Co.; Cartersville, Bar• tow Co,; Nacoochee Valley. lnAtto: Downey; Fort Hall. ILLINOIS: Carlinville. lowA: Sioux City. KANsAs: Blue Rapids; Dodge City (8 mi. N.E.); Douglas Co.; Garnett; Hutchinson; Lakin (4 mi. E.); Riley Co.; Scott Co., 2970 ft.; Sherman Co., 3690 ft.; Smith Co., 1800 ft.; Stafford Co.; Yates Center. LomsIANA: Winnfield, Winn Co. MINNESOTA: Detroit; Moorhead; Powder Plant Woods, Ramsey Co.; University Farms, Ramsey Co. M1ss1ssIPPI: Hattiesburg; Utica .. M1ssouR1: Conway (IO mi. N.); Gilmore; High Hill; Lebanon (12 mi. E.). MoNTANA:' Bozeman; Hill Co.; Missoula; Pompey's Pillar, Yellowstone Co.; Pondera Co. NEBRASKA: Crofton (2 mi. W.; 7 mi. N.W.); Gordan, Sheridon Co.; Harrison (13 mi. N.); Lincoln; West Point. NEw MEXICO: Organ Mountains, Filmore Canyon, Dona Ana Co., 5400 ft.; Roswell (5 mi. E.), Chaves Co. NoRTH CAROLINA: Aberdeen, Moore Co. NoRTH DAKOTA: Beach, Bismarck; Carpio; Crary; Devils Lake; Edgeley; Fargo; Glen Ullin (10 mi. E); Grand Forks; Granville; Hatton; Jamestown; Lakota; McKenzie; Mandan; Minot; Mott; Perth; Sentinel Butte; Valley City; Williston. Sourn DAKOTA: Geddes (5 mi. E.); Fort Thompson. TExAs: Brazos Co.; Fedor; Le-e Co.; Nacogdoches. UTAH: Farr West; Garfield; Knaub; Magna; Petersboro; Price; Topaz; Williard. WYOMING: Waltman, Natrona Co.; Yellowstone National Park.

GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION. This species is more variable than any other species of Calliopsima. The subgenus as a whole consists of rather more closely related species than does either Calliopsis s.s. or Perissander. It is about the same in this respect as Verbenapis whose species are possibly even more closely related than those in Cal/iopsima

The most obvious variation is in size. The size grades from the large robust specimens of Canada and the Rocky Mountain States to the small specimens from the Missouri and Mississippi River valleys from Missouri to Mississippi.

Seven characteristics were investigated for use as total size indicators because of the high variability of total length. These characteristics were measured for 33 male specimens from all pa,ts of the range of the species and the correlations were calculated among them with the results shown in Table 2.

These results suggest that scutal length, clypeal length, and llagellar length are most highly correlated with all the other variables, and that eye length has the smallest correlation with all the others

Based upon these data and similar ones for C. andreniformis, wing length, scutal length, and clypeal length were chosen as suitable measures of the total size of a bee. These are the introductory measurements given for each species treated in this genus.

A summary of tl\e salient differences between male topotypical specimens of coloradensis and those of the Missouri and Mississippi River basins is given in Table 2. The measurements are for the male allotype from Colorado, and for a Missouri River specimen from Gilmore, Missouri. The latter is representative of the specimens from the two river systems and from the south. eastern United States. I do not feel that there is an adequate basis to consider these latter specimens as a species separate from coloradensis. I would like to see more specimens and comparative ecological data before reaching a decision on tbeir status. If they eventually are shown to be a distinct species there is every reason to use the available name Calliopsis fiavifrons Smith, 1853. Smith's description of the flavifrons collected in East Florida would fit only this form of Cal/iopsis which is the only representative of its subgenus in the southeastern United States. Specimens from localities between Colorado and the Mississippi are somewhat variable with respect to the characters given below. However, no clear clinal changes have been uncovered although the average size of males increases steadily from Missouri to Colorado and from North Carolina to Texas. The typical southeastern male is only slightly more than three-fourths the length of the typical Colorado male.

FLOWER RECORDS. Anthemis cotuia, Aplopappus plurif/orus, Aster dumosus, A. praetus, Bidens laevus, B. aristosa, Boltonia asteroides, Chrysopsis, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis tripteris, Eriocarpum gracile, Grindelia perennis, G. squarrosa, Helenium nudifiorum, Heterotheca subaxillaris, Macrotera, Rudbeckia triloba, Silphium, Solidago rigida, S. serotina. Robertson (1922) studied the anthecology of this species at Carlinville, Illinois. His results are given below: FEMALES COLLECTING POLLEN MALES SUCKING NECTAR MALE-FEMALE IN COPULO


Identification
Extracted from Western Bees obtained by the American Museum Expeditions by Cockerell (1921).

COLORADO: 2 if, Denver, August 28,1919, collected by Barbara 1\1. and :\larjorie D. Schwarz; 1 if, Wray, about 3700 ft. alt., in moist place near the head of Dry Willow Creek, August 18, 1919; 2 9, 9 if, Boulder, about 5600 ft. alt., between the town and Orodell, August 11, 1919; 19, 1 if, Ward, about 9300 ft. alt., near town, August 9, 1919, collected by Pierce Bailey, Jr.; 59, 7 if, Meeker, about 6200 ft. alt., in town July 21, 1919, collected by Herbert F. Schwarz and Pearce Bailey, Jr. WYOMING: 19, near the Thumb of Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, about 7750 ft. alt., July 20, 1920. UTAH: 49, 6if, Salt Lake City, about 5000 ft. alt., near Fort Douglas, July 28, 1920, collected by Mrs. F. E. Lutz.

Calliopsis coloradensis fedorensis
The female has the disc of first abdominal segment beset with fine punctures, but I cannot find good characters for the male. One female (Boulder, COLORADO, on the plains at about 5300 ft. alt., August 12, 1919) had the clypeus black except the lower corners and aT-shaped mark. It is only a variant, as three typicalfedorensis females were taken at Boulder, with the same data. One female from Salt Lake City, UTAH, at about 5000 ft. alt., July 28, 1920, collected by Mrs. F. E. Lutz, can be referred here, but the punctures on the first segment are much coarser, and it is presumably an independent mutation from coloradensis. Professor O. A. Stevens has taken fedorensis at flowers of Grindelia squarrosa, at Fargo, North Dakota. He obtained, with normal females, a variant in which the clypeus is entirely black, except a slender line across its upper border. Calliopsis chlorops Cockerell, 1899, is not to be separated from coloradensis. The male differs from Cresson's description in having the tibire brown or piceous posteriorly, but this is not even a good racial character. C. coloratipes (Cockerell) is at least a good subspecies; the male has the face creamy white or very pfLle yellowish, instead of lemon-yellow, and the female lacks the black bars on clypeus. C. coloratipes occurs in New Mexico and Arizona, in the Middle and Lower Sonoran Zones.

Names
Scientific source:

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Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Asteraceae  Chrysopsis @ AMNH_BEE (7)

Chrysothamnus sp @ BBSL (1)

Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus @ BBSL (1)

Grindelia sp @ BBSL (8)

Grindelia squarrosa @ BBSL (26); AMNH_BEE (51); UCRC_ENT (5)

Grindelia @ UCRC_ENT (8)

Solidago rigida @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Solidago sp @ BBSL (2)

Solidago @ AMNH_BEE (1); UCRC_ENT (1)

Sonchus arvensis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Symphyotrichum dumosum @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Symphyotrichum subulatum @ UCRC_ENT (1)
Sapindaceae  Acer @ AMNH_BEE (1)

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