Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1960 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 141. |
FEMALE—Length 7 mm.; black; length of face slightly less than distance between eyes above; eyes subparallel; cheeks slightly narrower than eyes; supraclypeal area, triangular lateral maculae and much of clypeus yellow, a pair of dark blotches on each side of clypeus sometimes merging along apical margin, process of labrum dark, apical margin sometimes yellow, the lateral maculae extending narrowly up eye margin much above level of antennae; process of labrum about twice as broad as long, broadly rounded apically; facial foveae deep and distinct, extending slightly below upper point of facial maculae; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli slightly less than distance between them; flagellum ferruginous beneath, median segments slightly broader than long; surface of head shining between deep, distinct punctures, these fine and close between antennae and ocelli, becoming slightly finer and more irregular on vertex laterally, more sparse on cheeks, slightly more coarse and deep below antennae, but obscure on maculated areas; pubescence of head and thorax short but rather dense, somewhat longer on vertex and cheeks, entirely pale, somewhat yellowish on vertex and dorsum of thorax; tubercles reddened; posterior margin of pronotum yellow except for a short median interruption; tegulae yellowish-hyaline, with a small but distinct, yellow, anterior spot; wings subhyaline, rather strongly violaceous, veins and stigma testaceous; 2nd recurrent vein entering 2nd submarginal cell about twice as near apex as 1st does to base; legs piceous, front and mid tibiae with a conspicuous basal yellow spot; spurs yellow; scutum rather dull due to the fine and deep but very close puncturation, this becoming somewhat more sparse on each side of middle of scutellum which is slightly grooved medially, the groove being densely and finely rugoso-punctate; pleura shining, with coarse, deep, well separated punctures; apical margins of abdominal terga depressed, rather deeply so laterally, these areas yellowish-hyaline, microscopically and closely punctate but somewhat shining, discs of terga deeply, closely and finely punctate, those on basal segments slightly more coarse; 2nd and following segments with rather dense, apical, whitish, pubescent fasciae which are more or less interrupted medially on the more basal segments, discal pubescence very short and obscure, but quite dense, fuscous, tergum 5 with a quite dense, pale brownish, apical fimbria.
MALE—Length 7 mm.; black; face slightly shorter than distance between eyes above; eyes slightly convergent below; cheeks much narrower than eyes; entire face below level of antennae, including labrum and mandibles, yellow, lateral maculae extending narrowly up eye margin, much above level of antennae, and scape with an elongate yellow macula anteriorly; process of labrum much broader than long, rounded apically; facial foveae quite shallow and obscure but rather distinct, terminating near the acute upper tip of facial maculae; space between margin of vertex and lateral ocelli much less than distance between them, only slightly exceeding their diameter; flagellum yellowish beneath, median segments slightly broader than long; face shining, punctures above antennae deep and distinct, close and rather fine, becoming rather minute, irregular and obscure on vertex laterally, very fine and quite sparse on shining cheeks, punctures of maculated areas rather sparse and irregular, quite obscure; pubescence of head and thorax rather long and erect, quite dense but not hiding surface, whitish laterally and beneath but becoming brownish or fuscous on vertex and dorsum of thorax; tubercles slightly reddened; posterior margin of pronotum yellow, this slightly interrupted medially; tegulae yellowish-hyaline, with a small, obscure, yellowish, anterior spot; wings subhyaline, rather strongly violaceous, veins and stigma brownish, 2nd recurrent vein entering 2nd submarginal cell slightly nearer apex than 1st does to base; tibiae, tarsi and spurs entirely yellow, femora largely dark but with yellow apex, the yellow on front femora extending about half way up anterior face; punctures of scutum and scutellum deep and distinct, rather coarse but close, pleura more coarsely and deeply punctate, punctures well separated, intervening spaces shining; apical margins of abdominal terga rather broadly and evenly depressed, these areas microscopically, closely punctate, somewhat shining, becoming narrowly hyaline along rims, discs of terga deeply, distinctly and closely punctate, rather coarsely so on basal tergum but becoming fine on the more apical segments; abdominal terga with whitish apical pubescent fasciae, these rather broadly interrupted medially, discal pubescence very short, but quite dense, fuscous; sternum 5 with an elongate, median, apical protuberance which is parallel- sided and rather abruptly truncate apically, with a double tuft of very short, inconspicuous setae; sternum 6 with a rather broad, median, apical emargination, the two lateral angles thus formed, produced and slightly recurved, bearing a tuft of short setae, a rather deep emargination separating this area from the lateral areas; sternum 7 produced medially into a pair of accuminate lobes which are obscurely divided medially toward apex, these separated from lateral portions of base by a slender pedestal; sternum 8 very much elongated, the slightly broader basal half, abruptly narrowed to form a slender pedestal bearing a spatulate apical projection which is rather densely pubescent; penis valves much elongated, slender, abruptly flexed at tip; gonostyli apparently represented by a pair of broad, apically rounded lobes at base of penis valves; gonocoxites produced apically beneath to form a subacute lobe opposed to the gonostyli.
DISTRIBUTION—This is primarily western in its range, but extends eastward to Illinois, in the north, and through Louisiana and Georgia to North Carolina in the South. It is in flight from May until October.
FLOWER RECORDS—Collected on Aster and Haplopappus in North Carolina. Robertson records it on Bidens aristosa, Boltonia asteroides, Coreopsis tripteris, Rudbeckia triloba and Solidago canadensis.
Reprinted from: Cresson, E.T., 1878. Descriptions of new North American Hymenoptera in the collection of the American Entomological Society. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc.7:65-66.
Short, robust, black: head broader
than the thorax, clothed with pale pubescence on vertex and cheeks, face
very thinly clothed, the pubescence on vertex slightly tinged with ochraceous;
aides of the face extending narrowly nearly to the summit of the eyes, a
triangular spot between antean?, clypeus except two cuneiform black marks
sometimes nearly confluent, and base of mandibles occasionally, pale yellow;
labrum sometimes brown; flagellum testaceous beneath; thorax above clothed
with a short dense dull ochracemis pubescence, the sides with longer whitish
pubescence; a narrow slightly interrupted yellow band on posterior margin
of prothorax; tegulss dull testaceous yellow anteriorly; wings faintly dusky,
marginal cell long, obliquely truncated at tip, second submarginal as long as
the first, much narrowed towards marginal; legs with pale pubescence, more
dense on tibia and tarsi; four anterior knees pale yellowish; abdomen short
ovate, depressed, shining, the segments with an apical fringe of dense white
pubescence. Length .33 inch.
% .?Smaller than the 9, with the sides of face, clypeus entirely, labrum,
mandibles, scape beneath, tipa of femora and the tibies and tarsi? bright
yellow. Length .30 inch.
Hab?Colorado, (Ridings; Morrison). Five specimen?. This
closely resembles andrcniformin, Smith, (of which his flavipes is
doubtless the male), but is larger, more pubescent and easily dis
tinguished by the yellow mark on sides of the face being attenu
ated above and extending up on the orbits nearly to the summit
of the eye.
Extracted from: Shinn, A.F. 1967. A Revision of the Genus Calliopsis and the biology and Ecology of C. andreniformis (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). U. Kans. Sci. Bull. 46: 753-936.
The species is closest to rozeni and coloratipes. It is separated in the male
from them by the long ventral prongs on sternum 6, by having the volsella
much expanded, and by having the punctures of tergum 1 much smaller than
in rozeni and larger than in coloratipes. It is separated in the female from
coloratipes by the dark mandibular base, from rozeni by the much finer
punctures of tergum 1, and from both species by the regularly distributed
punctures of tergum 1, which are sparse medially in them.
FEMALE. Length, 8.8 mm; forewing length, 5.8 mm; hindwing length, 4.1
mm; clypeal length, 0.62 mm; scutal length, 1.60 mm.
Head. Cream colored areas: (1) as in rozeni; (2) clypeus with a broad T
with convex crossbar bordering entire length of horizontal portion of frontoclypeal
suture (to somewhat less), bottom of the T with adjacent small spot
( more typically, clypeus light colored except for testaceous apical border and
wide, twin, vertical bars of brown arising from its median portion); (3)
absent on labrum; (5) subantennal plate with dot (to entirely); (6) absent
on mandible. (7) As in rozeni. (8) Hair of vertex fulvous. (10) Punctures
beside lower half of frontal line slightly smaller than in rozeni, 1-2 pwa, interspaces
shiny. (13) Orbital convergence ratio as 1.82:1.70,1.07. (14) Galea
finely pebbled, dull, galeal gap about half length of galea exposed beyond
closed mandibles, (0.31 :0.58). (15) Head width to head length as 2.77 :1 :89,
1.47. (17) Eye length, mio, and flagellar length as 1.46:1.70:1.48. (18) lnterocellar,
ocellocular, antennocular, and interantennal as 0.51 :0.51 :0.48 :0.43. (19)
Ocellolabral slightly greater than clypeal width, 1.62:1.56,1.03. (20) Clypeocellar
to outer subantennal sutural as 0.99:0.87,1.14. (21) Basal labial palpomere
about 2.5 times length of others combined. (22) Flagellar length about
2.1 times length of scape, 1.48 :0.71.
Mesosoma. (23) Yellowish areas: apex of pronotal lobe, scutellar crest.
(24) As in rozeni, except hairs longer. (25) Scutal disc with punctures
slightly larger than those of vertex, 1 pwa or less. (26) As in rozeni except
ridges narrower, more abundant, shinier. (27) Foreleg with yellow at apex of
femur and knee of tibia. (28) Spur exceedingly finely pectinate on apical half,
bearing about 10 short teeth, barely distinguishable (30X); spur length abouthalf of length of middle basitarsus, 0.48:0.94. (30) Tegula transparent, light
amber. Humeral plate with anterior half yellow. (31) Wing clear (to faintly
smoky apically, not so smoky as in rozeni). Stigma tan. (32) Marginal cell
6-9 greater than, and 3-4 less than 9-wt, 1.33:0.90:1.14.
Metasoma. (34) As in rozeni but hairs longer. (35) Tergum 1 with punctures
of median area slightly finer than on scutum, fairly regularly spaced,
MALE. Length, 6.3 mm; forewing length, 4.9 mm; hindwing length, 3.52
mm; clypeal length, 0.58 mm; scutal length, 1.41 mm.
Head. Yellow areas: (1) paraocular area below diagonal line originating
at upper end ( or between upper end and middle) of outer subantennal suture
and extending tangent to facial fovea ending on orbit below midlevel of fovea,
angle of upper corner about 40° ( or 10°) ; ( 4) supraclypeal area in some
cases with black border between frontoclypeal suture and yellow supraclypeal
area; (5) subantennal plate, sometimes reduced to basal spot; (6) mandible
basal half; (7) scape with ventral surface yellow except dark brown mesally
and apically (through various states of reduction of yellow to all brown
scape); yellowish ventral dots on flagellomeres 1-2 ( sometimes absent).
(10) As in female. (13) Orbital convergence ratio as 1.60:1.22,1.30. (14) As
in female. (15) Head width to head length as 2.41:1:70,1.42. (17) Eye length,
mio, and flagellar length as 1.33:1.22:1.51. (18) lnterocellar, ocellocular, antennocular,
and interantennal as 0.46:0.46:0.31:0.36. (19) Ocellolabral greater
than clypeal width, 1.43:1.26,1.13. (20) Clypeocellar to outer subantennal
sutural as 0.85 :0.68,1.25. (21) Basal labial pal po mere about 2.0 times length of
others combined. (22) Flagellar length about 2.9 times length of scape, 1.51:
Mesosoma. (25) Scutal disc with punctures slightly larger than in rozeni,
0.5-1 pwa, interspaces shiny. (27) Foreleg with yellow on dorsoapical half ( or
f;ss) of femur, tibia, basitarsus and second tarsomere, remaining tarsomeres
tinged testaceous. (28) Middle leg colored like foreleg but less yellow on
femur, brown patch on posterior surface of tibia (sometimes) ; lengths of
tibia, basitarsus, and apicotarsus 1.04:0.94:0.99. (29) Hind leg colored like
middle leg. (32) Marginal cell 6-9 greater than, and 3-4 less than 9-wt, 1.12:
Metasoma. (35) Tergum 1 with punctures of median area slightly smaller
than on scutum, deep, crowded medially, contiguous, interspaces shiny.
TYPE MATERIAL, Lectotype female, 1 female and 2 male paratypes, Colorado
(Ridings and Morrison), with no further label data, are at the Academy
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Types 2187, 2187.2, 2187.4, and 2187.5,
respectively. Paratype 2187.3, same data, is a female specimen of C. chlorops.
I suggest that the indefinite type locality be restricted to the Colorado counties
of Denver, northern half of Jefferson, and eastern half of Boulder, wherespecimens taken agree exactly with the types. The description of the male is
principally based on paratype No. 2187.2.
D1STRIBUTION. Alberta to southern Utah and southern New Mexico, east
to the Mississippi River, thence through eastern Texas and the Gulf States to
the east slope of the Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina. Not yet
found in Florida, although it has likely occurred there in the past (cf.remarks
regarding Ca/liopsis flavifrons Smith under the following section, Geographic
variation). It is a late summer-early autumn bee collected between June 27,
1918, at Winnfield, Louisiana, and Oct. 10, 1961, at Nacogdoches, Texas, but
most records are in July and August.
In addition to the type specimens, about 490 others have been studied from the following
localities: ALBERTA: Lethbridge; Medicine Hat; Scandia; Tilley. MANITOBA: Balmoral; Stony
,Mountain; Stormy Mountain; Winnipeg. ALABAMA: Pickett Springs, Montgomery Co. ARKANsAs:
Chessman Ferry, Stone Co.; Fayetteville, Washington Co.; Polk Co. COLORADO: Boulder; Denver;
Hoehne; Limon; Loveland; Roggen; Wray. GEORGIA: Augusta, Richmond Co.; Cartersville, Bar•
tow Co,; Nacoochee Valley. lnAtto: Downey; Fort Hall. ILLINOIS: Carlinville. lowA: Sioux City.
KANsAs: Blue Rapids; Dodge City (8 mi. N.E.); Douglas Co.; Garnett; Hutchinson; Lakin (4 mi.
E.); Riley Co.; Scott Co., 2970 ft.; Sherman Co., 3690 ft.; Smith Co., 1800 ft.; Stafford Co.; Yates
Center. LomsIANA: Winnfield, Winn Co. MINNESOTA: Detroit; Moorhead; Powder Plant Woods,
Ramsey Co.; University Farms, Ramsey Co. M1ss1ssIPPI: Hattiesburg; Utica .. M1ssouR1: Conway
(IO mi. N.); Gilmore; High Hill; Lebanon (12 mi. E.). MoNTANA:' Bozeman; Hill Co.; Missoula;
Pompey's Pillar, Yellowstone Co.; Pondera Co. NEBRASKA: Crofton (2 mi. W.; 7 mi.
N.W.); Gordan, Sheridon Co.; Harrison (13 mi. N.); Lincoln; West Point. NEw MEXICO: Organ
Mountains, Filmore Canyon, Dona Ana Co., 5400 ft.; Roswell (5 mi. E.), Chaves Co. NoRTH
CAROLINA: Aberdeen, Moore Co. NoRTH DAKOTA: Beach, Bismarck; Carpio; Crary; Devils Lake;
Edgeley; Fargo; Glen Ullin (10 mi. E); Grand Forks; Granville; Hatton; Jamestown; Lakota;
McKenzie; Mandan; Minot; Mott; Perth; Sentinel Butte; Valley City; Williston. Sourn DAKOTA:
Geddes (5 mi. E.); Fort Thompson. TExAs: Brazos Co.; Fedor; Le-e Co.; Nacogdoches. UTAH:
Farr West; Garfield; Knaub; Magna; Petersboro; Price; Topaz; Williard. WYOMING: Waltman,
Natrona Co.; Yellowstone National Park.
GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION. This species is more variable than any other species
of Calliopsima. The subgenus as a whole consists of rather more closely
related species than does either Calliopsis s.s. or Perissander. It is about the
same in this respect as Verbenapis whose species are possibly even more closely
related than those in Cal/iopsima
The most obvious variation is in size. The size grades from the large
robust specimens of Canada and the Rocky Mountain States to the small specimens
from the Missouri and Mississippi River valleys from Missouri to
Seven characteristics were investigated for use as total size indicators because
of the high variability of total length. These characteristics were measured
for 33 male specimens from all pa,ts of the range of the species and the
correlations were calculated among them with the results shown in Table 2.
These results suggest that scutal length, clypeal length, and llagellar
length are most highly correlated with all the other variables, and that eye
length has the smallest correlation with all the others
Based upon these data and similar ones for C. andreniformis, wing length, scutal length, and clypeal length were chosen as suitable measures of the total
size of a bee. These are the introductory measurements given for each species
treated in this genus.
A summary of tl\e salient differences between male topotypical specimens
of coloradensis and those of the Missouri and Mississippi River basins is given
in Table 2. The measurements are for the male allotype from Colorado, and
for a Missouri River specimen from Gilmore, Missouri. The latter is representative
of the specimens from the two river systems and from the south.
eastern United States. I do not feel that there is an adequate basis to consider
these latter specimens as a species separate from coloradensis. I would like to
see more specimens and comparative ecological data before reaching a decision
on tbeir status. If they eventually are shown to be a distinct species there
is every reason to use the available name Calliopsis fiavifrons Smith, 1853.
Smith's description of the flavifrons collected in East Florida would fit only
this form of Cal/iopsis which is the only representative of its subgenus in the
southeastern United States. Specimens from localities between Colorado and
the Mississippi are somewhat variable with respect to the characters given
below. However, no clear clinal changes have been uncovered although the
average size of males increases steadily from Missouri to Colorado and from
North Carolina to Texas. The typical southeastern male is only slightly more
than three-fourths the length of the typical Colorado male.
FLOWER RECORDS. Anthemis cotuia, Aplopappus plurif/orus, Aster dumosus,
A. praetus, Bidens laevus, B. aristosa, Boltonia asteroides, Chrysopsis,
Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis tripteris, Eriocarpum gracile, Grindelia
perennis, G. squarrosa, Helenium nudifiorum, Heterotheca subaxillaris, Macrotera,
Rudbeckia triloba, Silphium, Solidago rigida, S. serotina.
Robertson (1922) studied the anthecology of this species at Carlinville,
Illinois. His results are given below:
FEMALES COLLECTING POLLEN MALES SUCKING NECTAR MALE-FEMALE IN COPULO