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Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes, 1840)
STAR-EYE PARROTFISH
Carolines Parrotfish; Stareye Parrotfish; Calotomus xenodon Gilbert, 1890; Callyodon carolinus Valenciennes, 1840

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Scaridae   Calotomus

Calotomus carolinus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Calotomus carolinus

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Calotomus carolinus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Calotomus carolinus
Calotomus carolinus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Calotomus carolinus
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • initial phase : brown + orange below, tail fin margin white
  • terminal phase : blue-green, eye - radiating lines
  • teeth close-packed but not fused
  • side top jaw - canines
Dorsal rays IX, 10; anal rays III, 9; pectoral rays 13; median predorsal 3-4 (usually); a single row of 4-5 scales on cheek below eye; teeth not fully fused to form plates, the individual flattened teeth readily apparent on outer surface of jaws, their tips forming a jagged cutting edge, canines on side of rear of top jaw; no transverse flap under operculum; dorsal fin spines flexible; tail fin slightly rounded in juveniles, straight with pointed tips in adults.

Initial phase mottled reddish to greyish brown, shading to pale orange below; pectoral base dark; rear margin of tail narrowly white; body of terminal phase fish is a mixture of blue green and red brown, head blue green with pinkish orange lines radiating from the eye. Juvenile: body and fins green to green-brown with white and brown spots, two rows of white spots along flank, another along base of dorsal fin; vertical fins grey-green, flecked with brown and white, a large white patch at front of dorsal; pectorals clear; iris green.

Size: grows to 50 cm.

Inhabits rocky and coral reefs.

Depth: 3-25 m.

Widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific from East Africa to the Americas; the tip of Baja to the SW Gulf of California, the Revillagigedos (where it is common), and the Galapagos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 25 m.
Depth Range Min: 3 m.
Diet: benthic microalgae; benthic macroalgae.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=24; Southern limit=-2; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-90; Latitudinal range=26; Longitudinal range=25.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Herbivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 50 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Bellwood , D. R. and Choat, J. H., 1989., A description of the juvenile phase colour patterns of 24 parrotfish species (Family Scarida) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia., Records of the Australian Museum, 41:1-41.
  • Bellwood, D. R., 1991., A phylogenetic study of the parrotfishes family Scaridae (Pisces: Labroidei), with a revision of genera., Records of the Australian Museum, 20:1-86.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Cuvier , G. and Valenciennes, A., 1840., Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome quatorzième. Suite du livre seizième. Labroïdes. Livre dix-septième. Des Malacoptérygiens., Histoire Naturelle Des Poissons, 14:1-464.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Gilbert, C.H., 1890., A preliminary report on the fishes collected by the steamer "Albatross" on the Pacific coast of North America during the year 1889, with descriptions of twelve new genera and ninety-two new species., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 13:49-126.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part II., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1241-2183.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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