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Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy, &. Gaimard, 1825
BIGEYE TREVALLY
Big-eye Trevally; Great Trevally; Six-banded Trevally; Sixband Trevally; Turrum; Caranx forsteri Cuvier, 1833; Caranx paraspistes Richardson, 1848

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carangidae   Caranx

Caranx sexfasciatus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Caranx sexfasciatus

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Caranx sexfasciatus
© Copyright Clay Bryce, 2006 · 0
Caranx sexfasciatus
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Overview
Main identification features
  • elongate;large eye
  • d: black + white tip
Body relatively elongate; eye large; dorsal rays VIII+I,19-22; anal rays II+I,14-17; gill rakers on first arch (excluding rudiments) 6-8 + 15-19; lateral line with pronounced, but relatively long arch anteriorly; straight part of lateral line with 27-36 strong scutes; breast completely scaled.

Iridescent blue green on back, shading to silvery white below; a small blackish spot near upper end of gill opening; lateral line scutes yellowish to black. Easily identified in the field by its large dark eye and the dark, white-tipped dorsal fin lobe.

Size: reaches 120 cm; at least 14.3 kg..

Habitat: a nocturnal species, usually seen milling in stationary aggregations during the day at the edges of reefs; juveniles in estuaries and into freshwater.

Depth: 1-96 m.

Widely distributed in the tropical Indo-Pacific from East Africa to the Americas; from southern California to the lower Gulf of California to nothern Peru and all the offshore islands.



Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California).
Depth Range Max: 96 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); bony fishes.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-4; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=37; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Estuary; Mangrove; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef and soft bottom; Freshwater; Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 120 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine; Freshwater.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Mid Water; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Acero, A. and Franke, R., 2001., Peces del parque nacional natural Gorgona. En: Barrios, L. M. y M. Lopéz-Victoria (Eds.). Gorgona marina: Contribución al conocimiento de una isla única., INVEMAR, Serie Publicaciones Especiales No. 7:123-131.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Franke , R. and Acero P., A., 1993., Peces Carangoideos del Parque Gorgona, Pacific Colombiano (Osteichthyes: Carangidae, Nemastistiidae y Coryphaenidae)., Revista de Biología Marina, Valparaiso, 28:51-73.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Gill, T.N., 1863., Catalogue of the fishes of Lower California, in the Smithsonian Institution, collected by Mr. J. Xantus. Part 4., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 15:80-88.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Hunter, J. R. and Mitchell, C. T., 1966., Association of fishes with flotsam in the offshore waters of Central America., Fishery Bulletin, 66:13-29.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , and McGregor,., 1898., List of fishes collected at the Revillagigedo archipelago and neighboring islands., Rept. U.S. Fisheries Comm., 24:271-284.
  • Jordan, D.S., 1895., The fishes of Sinaloa., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2), 5:377-514.
  • Kendall , W.C. and Radcliffe, L., 1912., The shore fishes. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer ALBATROSS, from October, 1904, to March, 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garret, U.S.N., Commanding. XXV., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 35(3):75-171.
  • Lea, R.N. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 2000., Observations on fishes associated with the 1997-1998 El Niño off California., CalCOFL Rep., 41:117-129.
  • Lea, R.N. and Walker Jr., H.J., 1995., Record of the bigeye trevally, Caranx sexfasciatus, and Mexican lookdown, Selene brevoorti, with notes on other carangids from California., Calif. Fish & Game, 81:89-95.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1925., The marine fishes of Panama. Part II., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:331-707.
  • Molina, L., Danulat, E., Oviedo, M., González, J.A., 2004., Guía de especies de interés pesquero en la Reserva Marina de Galápagos., Fundación Charles Darwin / Agencia Espeñola de Cooperación Internacional / Dirección Parque Nacional Galápagos, 115pp.
  • Quoy , J. R. C. and Gaimard, J. P., 1824., Description des Poissons. Chapter IX. In: Freycinet, L. de, Voyage autour du Monde...exécuté sur les corvettes de L. M. "L'Uranie" et "La Physicienne," pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820. Paris., Voyage Uranie, Zool., :1-328.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Fishes collected from the Revillagigedo Islands during the 1954-1958 cruises of the "Marijean."., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 4:10pp.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Sánchez Ortíz , C. , Arreola Robles , J. L. , Aburto Oropeza , O. and Cortés Hernández, M., 1997., Peces de arrecife en la región de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:189-200.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/e267183b-dbb9-4ffe-8b7c-a23e299485d3 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/e267183b-dbb9-4ffe-8b7c-a23e299485d3
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

You are here:  Environment home » Biodiversity » ABRS » AFD » ANIMALIA (Kingdom) » CHORDATA (Phylum) » VERTEBRATA (Subphylum) » GNATHOSTOMATA (Higher Taxon) » PISCES (Higher Taxon) » ACTINOPTERYGII (Class) » EUTELEOSTEI (Subdivision) » ACANTHOPTERYGII (Superorder) » PERCIFORMES (Order) » PERCOIDEI (Suborder) » CARANGIDAE (Family) » Caranx Lacépède, 1801 (Genus) » Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1825

Species Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1825

Museums

Regional Maps

External Links

CAAB : 37337039 Taxon concept Caranx_sexfasciatus last modified 2013-02-06 11:56:44.976

Species Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1825

Bigeye Trevally , Big-eye Trevally, Great Trevally, Six-banded Trevally, Sixband Trevally, Turrum

 

Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy

 

Distribution

States

New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

Cape Cuvier, WA (24º24´S) to Sydney Harbour, NSW (33º51'S); Rowley Shoals, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, WA; Ashmore Reef, Coral Sea; Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island; juveniles common in estuaries and creeks and sometimes enter freshwater; tropical, Indo-Pacific.


IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)

IBRA

NSW, NT, Qld, WA: Arnhem Coast (ARC), Brigalow Belt North (BBN), Central Arnhem (CA), Carnarvon (CAR), Central Mackay Coast (CMC), Cape York Peninsula (CYP), Darwin Coastal (DAC), Dampierland (DL), Gulf Coastal (GUC), Gulf Plains (GUP), Northern Kimberley (NK), NSW North Coast (NNC), Pilbara (PIL), South Eastern Queensland (SEQ), Tiwi Cobourg (TIW), Victoria Bonaparte (VB), Wet Tropics (WT)

IMCRA

Timor Transition (1), Lord Howe Province (14), Timor Province (2), Cape Province (20), Norfolk Island Province (21), Cocos (Keeling) Island Province (22), Christmas Island Province (23), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Northwest Transition (3), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Other Regions

Territory of Ashmore & Cartier Islands

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Continental shelf, coral reef, freshwater, inshore, marine, pelagic, schooling.

Extra Ecological Information

To 50 m

 

General References

Allen, G.R. 1982. Inland Fishes of Western Australia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 86 pp. 6 figs 20 pls. [64]

Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. [114]

Allen, G.R., Steene, R.C. & Orchard, M. 2007. Fishes of Christmas Island . Christmas Island : Christmas Island Natural History Association 2 edn, 284 pp. [108]

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers . Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp. [58]

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp. [173]

McCulloch, A.R. 1929. A check-list of the fishes recorded from Australia. Part II. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 5 : 145–329 [188] (as Caranx forsteri )

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [126] (822)

Pepperell, J. 2010. Fishes of the Open Ocean a Natural History & Illustrated Guide . Sydney : University of New South Wales Press Ltd 266 pp. [130]

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. [162]

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 557 pp. figs. [162]

Sainsbury, K.J., Kailola, P.J. & Leyland, G.G. 1984. Continental Shelf Fishes of Northern and North-Western Australia . Canberra : Fisheries Information Service 375 pp. figs & pls. [166]

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1999. Family Carangidae. pp. 2659-2756 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 4 pp. 2069-2790. [2716]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [44] (1025, 1026 as C. forsteri )

Yearsley, G.K., Last, P.R. & Ward, R.D. (eds) 1999. Australian Seafood Handbook . Hobart : CSIRO Marine Research 460 pp. [257]

 

Common Name References

Allen, G.R. 1982. Inland Fishes of Western Australia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 86 pp. 6 figs 20 pls. [64] (Six-banded Trevally)

Allen, G.R. 1989. Freshwater Fishes of Australia . Neptune, New Jersey : T.F.H. Publications 240 pp., 63 pls. [219] (Sixband Trevally)

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes . Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp. [193] (Turrum)

Haling, G., Kennedy, T., Last, P. & Palmer, R. 1988. Recommended Marketing Names for Fish . Canberra : Australian Government Publishing Service 238 pp. [175] (Australian Marketing Name) (Great Trevally)

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers . Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp. [58] ( Bigeye Trevally , Great Trevally)

Kuiter, R.H. 1993. Coastal Fishes of South-eastern Australia . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 437 pp. [174] (Big-eye Trevally)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Bigeye Trevally )

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1999. Family Carangidae. pp. 2659-2756 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, T.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 4 pp. 2069-2790. [2716] (FAO) ( Bigeye Trevally )

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
13-Dec-2012 13-Dec-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

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Last modified: Wednesday, 6 February 2013 11:56:44 AM AEDT

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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

 
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Carangidae  
 Genus Caranx  
  Caranx sexfasciatus    Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Carangus carangus Carangus hippos Carangus marginatus Carangus rhabdotus Caranx belengerii Caranx butuanensis Caranx carangus Caranx elacate Caranx flavocoeruleus Caranx forsteri Caranx fosteri details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); Lin & Shao(1999)
Character: D. VIII, I+20-21; A. II, I+16-17; P. i+17-18; G.R. 6-8+16-17; CLS.49-50; SLS. 0-2 scales, 32-35 scutes; vertebrate 10+15. Head profile gradually curved from snout tip to second dorsal origin. Snout slightly pointed, longer than eye diameter. Breast scaly. Lateral line moderate curved, becoming straight below 4-5th ray of second dorsal fin. Adults with head and body silvery olive to iridescent blue-green above, silvery olive to whitish below; small blackish spot, much smaller than pupil diameter, at upper angle of opercle (this spot evident on specimens of about 14 cm fork length); second dorsal fin olive to blackish, the lobe with a white tip (white tip becomes more obvious with increasing size); anal and caudal fins yellowish to black; lateral-line scutes dark to black. In juveniles and young adults, head, body, and scutes more silvery and fins paler (grey to yellow) except upper half of dorsal-fin lobe and upper lobe of caudal fin usually dark. 
Habitat: Inhabits coastal and oceanic waters associated with reefs. Juveniles may be encountered in estuaries, occasionally entering rivers and penetrating well inland. Forms slow-moving schools in the passes or outside the reef during the day, dispersing at nigh 
Distribution: Broadly distributed in tropical and subtropical waters of Indo-Pacific. It is frequently found in all Taiwanese waters. 
Utility: Marketed fresh, dried or salted and frozen. Consumed broiled and baked. 
Name Code: 381530
  IUCN Red List:LC      
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Caranx+sexfasciatus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Caranx+sexfasciatus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 6
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Caranx sexfasciatus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Caranx sexfasciatus
Caranx sexfasciatus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0086 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

Caranx sexfasciatus
Caranx sexfasciatus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0472 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

Caranx sexfasciatus
Caranx sexfasciatus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0968 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

Caranx sexfasciatus
Caranx sexfasciatus
Big Eye Jack
ID: 0000 0000 1206 0175 [detail]
© 2006 Richard Lang

Caranx sexfasciatus
Caranx sexfasciatus
Big Eye Jack
ID: 0000 0000 1206 0176 [detail]
© 2006 Richard Lang

Caranx sexfasciatus
Caranx sexfasciatus
Big Eye Jack
ID: 0000 0000 1206 0177 [detail]
© 2006 Richard Lang

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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Caranx&speciesname=sexfasciatus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Caranx&speciesname=sexfasciatus
https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Caranx&speciesname=sexfasciatus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Caranx-sexfasciatus.html
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard , 1825

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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous; depth range 0 - 146 m (Ref. 57178 ).   Tropical; 26°C - 29°C; 32°N - 36°S, 25°E - 77°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Hawaii, north to southern Japan and the Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and New Caledonia. Eastern Pacific: southwestern coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico and the Gulf of California to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9283 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 42.0   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987 ); common length : 60.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3287 ); max. published weight: 18.0 kg (Ref. 9987 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 19-22; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 14 - 17; Vertebrae : 25. This species is distinguished by the following characters: dorsal profile moderately convex anteriorly; adipose eyelid well developed, moderate anteriorly, posterior eyelid extends onto eye to rear border of pupil; gill rakers (including rudiments) 6-8 + 15-19 = 21-25; straight part of lateral line with 0-3 anterior scales followed by 27-36 strong, dark scutes; breast completely scaly; vertebrae 10+15; upper jaw with outer row of strong canines widely spaced in adults, and an inner band of small villiform teeth, widest at symphysis; on lower limb of first gill arch jaw with a single row of strong conical teeth widely spaced in adults. Colour in life with adults' head and body silvery olive to iridescent blue-green above, silvery olive to whitish below; small blackish spot, much smaller than pupil diameter, at upper angle of opercle (this spot evident on specimens of about 14 cm fork length); second dorsal fin olive to blackish, the lobe with a white tip (white tip becomes more obvious with increasing size) (Ref. 9894 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit coastal and oceanic waters associated with reefs (Ref. 9283 , 58302 ). Pelagic at 1-96 m (Ref. 58302 ). Often seen in large daytime schools; solitary at night when feeding (Ref. 90102 ). Adults are found in coral reefs and are mostly active at night or during twilight periods. During the day they are usually seen milling in stationary aggregations (Ref. 44894 ); form slow-moving schools in the passes or outside the reef, dispersing at night feed (Ref. 4795 ). Juveniles may be encountered in estuaries (Ref. 9283 , 44894 ), occasionally entering rivers and penetrating well inland (Ref. 2847 , 44894 ). Feed mainly on fishes, squids and crustaceans (Ref. 9283 , Ref. 90102 ). Caught mainly on hook-and-line; also with gill nets, purse seines, and other artisanal gear (Ref. 9894 ). Marketed fresh, dried or salted (Ref. 9283 ) and frozen (Ref. 9987 ). Consumed broiled and baked (Ref. 9987 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | Collaborators

Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley , 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 04 February 2009

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 22.3 - 28.9, mean 27.3 (based on 2054 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.01477 - 0.02242), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.5   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24). Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.62, Based on 1 stock assessment. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Capuli, Estelita Emily Fish Forum
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