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Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)
GOLDFISH
Carp; Crucian Carp; Golden Carp; Native Carp; Prussian Carp; Neocarassius ventricosus Castelnau, 1872; Cyprinus auratus Linnaeus, 1758

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Cyprinidae   Carassius

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Australian Faunal Directory

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Species Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)

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CAAB : 37165001 Taxon concept Carassius_auratus last modified 2017-04-26 15:31:48.598

Species Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Goldfish , Carp, Crucian Carp, Golden Carp, Native Carp, Prussian Carp


Compiler and date details

28 May 2012 - Dianne J. Bray

2006 - Gerald R. Allen, Norbert J. Cross & Douglass F. Hoese

 

Generic Combinations

  • Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758).

 

Distribution

States

Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia


Extra Distribution Information

Freshwaters of the Fitzroy, Dawson & Burnett river catchments, QLD, coastal and inland waters of southern QLD, NSW, VIC, lowland streams, ACT, Western Plateau & Coopers Creek Lake Eyre drainage, SA, and coastal drainages between Moore, Vasse & Blackwood Rivers, Canegrass Swamp & Bromus Dam, southwest, WA, widespread in farm dams, and occasionally in streams and lakes, TAS; temperate, native to China, but introduced worldwide

Introduced from eastern Asia.


IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)
drainage basins and coastal and oceanic zones (map not available)

IBRA

ACT, NSW, Qld, SA, Tas, Vic, WA: Brigalow Belt South (BBS), Ben Lomond (BEL), Broken Hill Complex (BHC), Channel Country (CHC), Coolgardie (COO), Cobar Peneplain (CP), Darling Riverine Plains (DRP), Eyre Yorke Block (EYB), Flinders Lofty Block (FLB), Gawler (GAW), Jarrah Forest (JF), Kanmantoo (KAN), King (KIN), Mallee (MAL), Murray Darling Depression (MDD), Mulga Lands (ML), Nandewar (NAN), New England Tablelands (NET), NSW North Coast (NNC), NSW South Western Slopes (NSS), Riverina (RIV), Sydney Basin (SB), South East Coastal Plain (SCP), South East Corner (SEC), South Eastern Highlands (SEH), South Eastern Queensland (SEQ), Swan Coastal Plain (SWA), Tasmanian Central Highlands (TCH), Tasmanian Northern Midlands (TNM), Tasmanian Northern Slopes (TNS), Tasmanian South East (TSE), Victorian Midlands (VM), Victorian Volcanic Plain (VVP), Warren (WAR)

Original AFD Distribution Data

Australian Region

  • Australia
    • New South Wales: Lake Eyre basin, Murray-Darling basin, SE coastal
    • Queensland: Lake Eyre basin, Murray-Darling basin, NE coastal
    • South Australia: Lake Eyre basin, Murray-Darling basin, S Gulfs, SE coastal
    • Tasmania
    • Victoria: Murray-Darling basin, SE coastal
    • Western Australia: SW coastal

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Freshwater, omnivore.

 

General References

Allen, G.R. 1982. Inland Fishes of Western Australia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 86 pp. 6 figs 20 pls. [27]

Allen, G.R., Cross, N.J. & Hoese, D.F. 2006. Cyprinidae. pp. 345-347 in Hoese, D.F., Bray, D.J., Paxton, J.R. & Allen, G.R. Fishes. In , Beesley, P.L. & Wells, A. (eds) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 35 . Volume 35 Australia : ABRS & CSIRO Publishing Parts 1-3, 2178 pp. [346]

Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. & Allen, M. 2002. Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 394 pp. [360]

Arthington, A. & McKenzie, F. 1997. Review of Impacts of Displaced/Introduced Fauna Associated with Inland Waters. State of the Environment Technical Paper Series (Inland Waters). Department of the Environment : Canberra. 69 pp. [12]

Brumley, A.R. 1996. Family Cyprinidae carps, minnows, etc. pp. 99-106 in McDowall, R.M. (ed.). Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia . Sydney : Reed Books 247 pp.

Cadwallader, P.L. & Backhouse, G.N. 1983. A Guide to the Freshwater Fish of Victoria . Melbourne : F.D. Atkinson Government Printer 249 pp. figs. [161]

Clunie, P., Stuart, I., Jones, M., Schreiber, S., McKay, S., O'Connor, J., McLaren, D., Weiss, J., Gunasekera, L. & Roberts, J. 2002. A risk assessment of the impacts of pest species in the riverine environment in the Murray-Darling basin. Report produced for Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Strategic Investigations and Riverine Program, Project R2006. Department of Natural Resources and Enviroment, Victoria. pp. 250 [71]

Corfield, J., Diggles, B., Jubb, C., McDowall, R.M., Moore, A., Richards, A. & Rowe, D.K. 2008. Review of the impacts of introduced ornamental fish species that have established wild populations in Australia. Prepared for the Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 277 pp.

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes . Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp. [534] (as Carassius carassius )

Hutchins, J.B. 2001. Checklist of the fishes of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement 63 : 9-50 [21]

Kailola, P.J., Williams, M.J., Stewart, P.C., Reichelt, R.E., McNee, A. & Grieve, C. 1993. Australian Fisheries Resources . Canberra : Bureau of Resource Sciences and the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation 422 pp. [214]

Koehn, J., Brumley, A. & Gehrke, P. 2000. Managing the impacts of Carp. Bureau of Rural Sciences (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia), Canberra.

Lintermans, M. 2009. Fishes of the Murray-Darling Basin — An Introductory Guide . Canberra : Murray-Darling Basin Commission 157 pp. [MDBC Publication Number 10/07]

McCulloch, A.R. 1930. A check-list of the fishes recorded from Australia. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 5 (1–4): 1-534 [53]

McDowall, R.M. (ed.) 1980. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia . Sydney : A.H. & A.W. Reed 208 pp., figs, 32 pls. [84]

McKay, R.J. 1984. Introductions of exotic fishes in Australia. pp. 177-199 in Courtnay, W.R. Jr & Staffer, J.R. Jr (eds). Distribution, Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes . Baltimore : John Hopkins University Press.

Merrick, J.R. & Schmida, G.E. 1984. Australian Freshwater Fishes Biology and Management . Sydney : J.R. Merrick 409 pp. figs 280 col. figs. [331]

Mitchel, B.D. 1979. Aspects of growth and feeding in golden carp, Carassius auratus , from South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 103 (6): 137-144

Morgan, D.L., Gill, H.S., Maddern, M.G. & Beatty, S.J. 2004. Distribution and impacts of introduced freshwater fishes in Western Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38 : 511-523

Morgan, D.L. & Beatty, S.J. 2007. Feral Goldfish ( Carassius auratus ) in Western Australia: a case study from the Vasse River. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 90 : 151-156

Paxton, J.R., Hoese, D.F., Allen, G.R. & Hanley, J.E. (eds) 1989. Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Pisces: Petromyzontidae to Carangidae . Canberra : Australian Government Publishing Service Vol. 7 665 pp. [216]

Wager, R. & Unmack, P.J. 2000. Fishes of the Lake Eyre Catchment of Central Australia . Brisbane : Department of Primary Industries and Queensland Fisheries Service 88 pp. [65]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [35] (289)

Yearsley, G.K., Last, P.R. & Ward, R.D. (eds) 1999. Australian Seafood Handbook . Hobart : CSIRO Marine Research 460 pp. [78]

 

Common Name References

Allen, G.R. 1982. Inland Fishes of Western Australia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 86 pp. 6 figs 20 pls. [27] ( Goldfish )

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes . Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp. [534] (Golden Carp, Prussian Carp)

Haling, G., Kennedy, T., Last, P. & Palmer, R. 1988. Recommended Marketing Names for Fish . Canberra : Australian Government Publishing Service 238 pp. [74] ( Goldfish )

McDowall, R.M. (ed.) 1996. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia . Sydney : Reed Books 247 pp. [85] (incorrect use) (Carp, Crucian Carp)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Goldfish )

Yearsley, G.K., Last, P.R. & Ward, R.D. (eds) 1999. Australian Seafood Handbook . Hobart : CSIRO Marine Research 460 pp. [78] (Native Carp)

 

History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
07-May-2013 20-Jul-2015 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

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Last modified: Wednesday, 26 April 2017 3:31:48 PM AEST

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Following modified from Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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陳育賢 (cyst007@pchome.com.tw) 2009-07-29 21:32:35    [modify]
還有我(陳育賢)拍的那張。
此外,所有"本處同仁"請都改為"陽明山國家公園管理處員工" (380625)
 
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Carassius+auratus+auratus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Carassius+auratus+auratus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Carassius auratus auratus
Carassius auratus auratus
Goldfish
ID: 0091 3183 0935 0105 [detail]
John H. Tashjian
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Carassius&speciesname=auratus ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Carassius-auratus.html
http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Carassius-auratus.html ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Carassius-auratus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Carassius auratus (Linnaeus , 1758)

Goldfish Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Carassius auratus (Goldfish) Carassius auratus
Picture by Winter, T.J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335 ) ;   auratus: From the words carassius --Latin of karass (common name for these fishes in Eurasia) and auratus , meaning gilded (Ref. 10294 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; potamodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898 ).   Subtropical; 0°C - 41°C (Ref. 35682 ); 53°N - 22°N

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Asia: central Asia and China (Ref. 7050 ) and Japan (Ref. 6390 ). Introduced throughout the world. Asian form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739 ). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27549 ); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987 ); max. reported age: 41 years (Ref. 72468 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-20; Anal spines : 2-3; Anal soft rays : 4 - 7; Vertebrae : 30. Body stout, thick-set, caudal peduncle thick and short (Ref. 1998 ). Head without scales (Ref. 39167 , 1998 ), broadly triangular (Ref. 1998 ), interorbital space broad, snout longer than eye diameter, maxillary reaching posterior nostril or not quite to eye (Ref. 39166 ), barbels lacking on upper jaw (Ref. 39104 , 1998 ). Lateral line complete. Dorsal and anal fins with serrate bony spines, pelvic fins short, broad and thoracic. Nuptial tubercles of male fine, on opercle, sometimes on back and a few on pectoral fins. Hybridize readily with carp, hybrids intermediate in most characteristics (Ref. 1998 ). Caudal fin with 17-19 rays (Ref. 2196 ). Last simple anal ray osseous and serrated posteriorly; no barbels (Ref. 43281 ). Pigmentation: Wild-caught specimens, olive brown (Ref. 39168 , 39104 ), slate olive, olive green, with a bronze sheen (Ref. 39104 ), silvery, grayish yellowish, gray-silver (Ref. 39169 ), through gold (often with black blotches) to creamy white (Ref. 1998 ); yellowish white or white below. Cultured forms vary through scarlet, red-pink, silver, brown, white, black and combinations of these colors (Ref. 39104 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit rivers, lakes, ponds and ditches (Ref. 5258 , 10294 ) with stagnant or slow-flowing water (Ref. 30578 ). Occur in eutrophic waters, well vegetated ponds and canals (Ref. 59043 ). Live better in cold water. Feed mainly on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus (Ref. 59043 ). Goldfish lay eggs on submerged vegetation. Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808 ). Oviparous, with pelagic larvae. They last long in captivity (Ref. 7248 ). Maximum recorded salinity is 17 ppt (Ref. 39171 ), but unable to withstand prolonged exposure above 15 ppt (Ref. 39172 , 39174 ). Used as an experimental species (Ref. 4537 ). Valued as ornamental fish for ponds and aquaria; edible but rarely eaten (Ref. 9987 ). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm (Ref. 51539 ). Reported individual hooked by an angler in a lake in Poole, Dorset measured 40 cm (16 in), weighing 2.3 kg (Practical Fishkeeping, 2010).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Cold water temperatures during the winter months are necessary for proper ova development (Ref. 44091 ). Spawning takes place in shallow water among weeds, often where willow roots grow exposed in water (Ref. 39171 ), also meadows inundated by spring flood (Ref. 39176 ). Spawning activity begin just before dawn (Ref. 39168 ), to midafternoon (Ref. 39177 ). Individual fish spawn 3-10 lots of eggs at intervals of 8-10 days (Ref. 39180 ). Juveniles need high temperature to grow. Eggs are sticky, attached to water plants or submerged objects (Ref. 59043 ). Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo , 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 04 August 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: highly commercial; bait: occasionally FAO(Aquaculture: production ; fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.01178 - 0.01545), b=3.00 (2.96 - 3.04), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  2.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.17; tm=1; tmax=30). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (24 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Torres, Armi G. Fish Forum
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