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Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)
CRUCIAN CARP
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Cyprinidae   Carassius


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Carassius carassius (Linnaeus , 1758)

Crucian carp Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Carassius carassius   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Carassius carassius (Crucian carp) Carassius carassius
Picture by Busse, K.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 5 - ? m (Ref. 2163 ).   Temperate; 2°C - 22°C (Ref. 1672 ); 69°N - 35°N, 10°W - 169°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eurasia: North, Baltic, White, Barents, Black and Caspian Sea basins; Aegean Sea basin only in Maritza drainage; eastward to Kolyma drainage (Siberia); westward to Rhine and eastern drainages of England. Absent from North Sea basin in Sweden and Norway. In Baltic basin north to about 66°N. Widely introduced to Italy, England and France but possibly often confused with Carassius gibelio (Ref. 59043 ). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6114 ); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556 ); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 556 ); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 59043 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-22; Anal spines : 2-3; Anal soft rays : 5 - 7; Vertebrae : 32. Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having the following characters: body golden-green shining color; last simple anal and dorsal rays weakly serrated; 23-33 gill rakers; lateral line with 31-36 scales; free edge of dorsal convex; anal fin usually with 6½ branched rays; and peritoneum white (Ref. 59043 ). Caudal fin with 18-20 rays (Ref. 2196 ). No barbels. The third dorsal and anal-fin rays are strong and serrated posteriorly.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults occur in shallow ponds, lakes rich in vegetation and slow moving rivers. They burrow in mud in the dry season or during winter (Ref. 2163 ). Usually restricted to densely vegetated backwaters and oxbows of lowland rivers. Can survive at high temperatures and at very low oxygen concentrations during summer and under ice cover (Ref. 59043 ). Tolerates cold, organic pollutants, and low oxygen levels in the water (Ref. 30578 ). Feeds all day but mainly at night on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant materials and detritus. Usually does not occur in waters with rich ichthyofauna and abundant predatory species, but very abundant in the absence of other fish species. Spawns in dense submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043 ). Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988 ). Live up to about 10 years. There is a gradual but continuing extirpation in many water bodies, especially in Danube drainage and central Europe, possibly to due competition with introduced Carassius gibelio in non-optimal habitats (Ref. 59043 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808 ). Reproduction in May-June in shallow water with dense vegetation, eggs 130000-250000/female adhere to plants, hatch after 4-8 days (Ref. 2163 ). Individual female spawn with several males. Males follow ripe females, often with much splashing. Eggs are sticky and are attached to water plants (Ref. 59043 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof , 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest (Ref. 13686 )




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial; bait: occasionally FAO(Aquaculture: production , species profile ; fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.01061 - 0.01494), b=2.98 (2.94 - 3.02), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.1   ±0.24 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
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