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Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782)
PRUSSIAN CARP
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Cyprinidae   Carassius


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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Carassius gibelio (Bloch , 1782)

Prussian carp Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Carassius gibelio (Prussian carp) Carassius gibelio
Picture by Jawad, L.A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Bloch .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.1 - 7.5; dH range: 12 - ?; potamodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - ? m.   Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059 ); 62°N - 35°N, 10°W - 155°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: usually considered as native from central Europe to Siberia or introduced to European waters from eastern Asia. Clear and definite data on original distribution in Europe are not available due to introduction, confusion with Carassius auratus and complex modes of reproduction. At present, widely distributed and commonly stocked together with Cyprinus carpio which is transported throughout Europe. Absent in northern Baltic basin, Iceland, Ireland, Scotland and Mediterranean islands.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 10.3 , range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 46.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 88166 ); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556 ); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 556 ); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 59043 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having the following characters: body silvery-brown in color; last simple anal and dorsal rays strongly serrated; 37-52 gill rakers; lateral line with 29-33 scales; freed edge of dorsal concave or straight; anal fin with 5½ branched rays; and peritoneum black (Ref. 59043 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits a wide variety of still water bodies and lowland rivers, usually associated with submerged vegetation or regular flooding. Can strongly tolerate low oxygen concentrations and pollution (Ref. 59043 ). Lake dwelling individuals move into river mouths to avoid low oxygen water in winter (Ref. 39176 ). Feeding larvae and juveniles occur in high-complexity habitats as reed belts. Feeds on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus. Spawns in shallow, warm shores on submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043 ). Able to reproduce from unfertilized eggs (gynogenesis) (Ref. 41851 ). Life span reaches up to about 10 years (Ref. 59043 ). Eastern European or wild form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Females spawn with several other species, for example Cyprinus carpio and Carassius carassius , but the eggs just develop without being actually fertilized resulting in a female only population (Ref. 2059 ). In Europe, populations considered as triploid and only females. But in some populations, it should be possible to find up to 25% of males which should be diploid (Ref. 40476 ). "There are also all-female populations in which all individuals are triploids. Triploids are sperm parasites of other cyprinid species such as Cyprinus carpio , Rutilus rutilus and Abramis brama . Older individuals spawn earlier in season than younger ones. Males move to spawning sites before females. Males follow ripe females, often with much splashing. Sticky eggs are attached to water plants or submerged objects" (Ref. 59043 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof , 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

    Not Evaluated  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest (Ref. 83969 )




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
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Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
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Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
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References
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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.01201 - 0.01587), b=3.01 (2.97 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  2.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.13; tm=1-4). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Reyes, Rodolfo B. Fish Forum
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