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Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker, 1856)
Black-vee Whaler; Fowler's Whaler Shark; Graceful Shark; Graceful Whaler Shark; Longnose Blacktail Shark; School Shark; Eulamia amblyrhynchos Bleeker, 1856; Carcharinus amblyrhynchus Bleeker, 1856; Galeolamna coongoola Whitley, 1964; Galeolamna fowleri Whitley, 1944; Galeolamna tufiensis Whitley, 1949; Carcharias amblyrhynchos Bleeker, 1856

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carcharhinidae   Carcharhinus

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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/48b61b50-7536-4074-967f-0d1b81843dea/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/48b61b50-7536-4074-967f-0d1b81843dea/
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Carcharhinidae  
 Genus Carcharhinus  
  Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos    (Bleeker, 1856) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
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Synonyms: Carcharhinus amblyrhinchos Carcharhinus amblyrhynchus Carcharhinus menisorrah Carcharhinus spallanzani Carcharhinus wheeleri Carcharias amblyrhynchos Carcharias nesiotes Carcharinus amblyrhynchos Eulamia melanoptera Galeolamna coongoola Galeolamna fowleri details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: A medium-sized fairly stocky species. Eyes fairly large its horizontal length 2-2.7% of total length. Gill slits moderate sized, the third 2.8-4.2% of total length and less than 2/5 of first dorsal fin base. Rows of anteroposteral teeth in each jaw half 13-14/13-14. Upper teeth with narrow, strongly serrated, high cusps, and crown feet with coarser serrations and often distal cusplets. Lower teeth with erect or semioblique, narrow serrated cusps and transverse roots. Interdorsal ridge absent usually. Origin of 1st dorsal fin over or just in front of pectoral free rear tips. Inner margin of 1st dorsal moderately long, but less than a half dorsal base. Second dorsal fin moderately large and high, its height 2.7-3.4% of total length, its inner margin length 1.2-1.6 times its height. Origin of 2nd dorsal about over anal origin. Length of anterior margins of pectoral fin about 18-21% of total length. Total verebral centra 211-221, precaudal centra 110-119. Colour grey above, white below, pectorals, 2nd dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins with blackish of dusky tips. 
Habitat: A coastal-pelagic and inshore species. This is an active, strong-swimming species, that forms daytimes schools or aggregations in favoured areas such as reef passes, lagoons, or palces near passes. Viviparous, with a yolk-placenta, number of young 1-16 pe 
Distribution: Indian Ocean including Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, India. Western central Pacific including Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Taiwan, The Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, Hawaiian Islands. 
Utility: This species sometimes fished in northeastern Taiwan waters by longline fishery. Flesh utilized fresh for human consumption. 
Name Code: 383068
  IUCN Red List:NT       Marine     
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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Carcharhinus&speciesname=amblyrhynchos ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Carcharhinus&speciesname=amblyrhynchos
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Carcharhinus&speciesname=amblyrhynchos ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Carcharhinus-amblyrhynchos.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker , 1856)

Blacktail reef shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Bleeker .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 55178 ), usually 0 - 280 m (Ref. 6871 ).   Tropical; 29°N - 35°S, 33°E - 151°W (Ref. 55178 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific to Central Pacific: Madagascar and the Mauritius-Seychelles area to Tuamoto Archipelago; north to southern China; south to northern Australia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 130.7 , range 96 - 142 cm
Max length : 255 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334 ); 172.0 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 33.7 kg (Ref. 4699 ); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 37816 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. Dark grey or bronze-grey above, white below; caudal fin with a conspicuous wide black posterior margin; undersides of pectoral and pelvic fins with black tips and posterior margins, but fins otherwise not conspicuously black or white-tipped except for white-tipped first dorsal in some individuals (Ref. 9997 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs on continental and insular shelves and oceanic waters adjacent to them (Ref. 244 ). Common on coral reefs, often in deeper areas near drop-offs to the open sea, in atoll passes, and in shallow lagoons adjacent to areas of strong currents (Ref. 244 ). Coastal-pelagic near the bottom, near drop-offs at 1-275 m (Ref. 58302 ). Forms daytime schools or aggregations in favored areas (Ref. 244 ). Although active during the day, it is more active nocturnally (Ref. 244 ). Viviparous, with 1-6 pups (Ref. 37816 ). Feeds on reef fishes, squids, octopi, crabs, lobsters and shrimps (Ref. 244 , 5578 ). Tends to be aggressive under baited conditions (Ref. 6871 ) and readily enters into a frenzy feeding pattern, at which time it may become quite dangerous. Repeatedly incriminated in human attacks. Utilized for human consumption, fishmeal, and other shark products. Minimum depth from Ref. 6871. Maximum length of female taken from Ref. 5213.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449 ). 1-6 pups in a litter (Ref. 244 ). Gestation period about 12 months (Ref. 244 ). Size at birth 50 to 60 cm (Ref. 26346 , 37816 ) or 75 cm (Ref. 244 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  ; Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4716 )

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 17.5 - 29, mean 27.5 (based on 4022 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00297 - 0.00846), b=3.13 (2.99 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.1   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tm=7; tmax=25; K=0.05-0.86; Fec=1-6). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Sampang-Reyes, Arlene G. Fish Forum
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