FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
A medium-sized fairly stocky species. Eyes fairly large its horizontal length 2-2.7% of total length. Gill slits moderate sized, the third 2.8-4.2% of total length and less than 2/5 of first dorsal fin base. Rows of anteroposteral teeth in each jaw half 13-14/13-14. Upper teeth with narrow, strongly serrated, high cusps, and crown feet with coarser serrations and often distal cusplets. Lower teeth with erect or semioblique, narrow serrated cusps and transverse roots. Interdorsal ridge absent usually. Origin of 1st dorsal fin over or just in front of pectoral free rear tips. Inner margin of 1st dorsal moderately long, but less than a half dorsal base. Second dorsal fin moderately large and high, its height 2.7-3.4% of total length, its inner margin length 1.2-1.6 times its height. Origin of 2nd dorsal about over anal origin. Length of anterior margins of pectoral fin about 18-21% of total length. Total verebral centra 211-221, precaudal centra 110-119. Colour grey above, white below, pectorals, 2nd dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins with blackish of dusky tips.
A coastal-pelagic and inshore species. This is an active, strong-swimming species, that forms daytimes schools or aggregations in favoured areas such as reef passes, lagoons, or palces near passes. Viviparous, with a yolk-placenta, number of young 1-16 pe
Indian Ocean including Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, India. Western central Pacific including Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Taiwan, The Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, Hawaiian Islands.
This species sometimes fished in northeastern Taiwan waters by longline fishery. Flesh utilized fresh for human consumption.
: 0. Dark grey or bronze-grey above, white below; caudal fin with a conspicuous wide black posterior margin; undersides of pectoral and pelvic fins with black tips and posterior margins, but fins otherwise not conspicuously black or white-tipped except for white-tipped first dorsal in some individuals (Ref.
Occurs on continental and insular shelves and oceanic waters adjacent to them (Ref.
). Common on coral reefs, often in deeper areas near drop-offs to the open sea, in atoll passes, and in shallow lagoons adjacent to areas of strong currents (Ref.
). Coastal-pelagic near the bottom, near drop-offs at 1-275 m (Ref.
). Forms daytime schools or aggregations in favored areas (Ref.
). Although active during the day, it is more active nocturnally (Ref.
). Viviparous, with 1-6 pups (Ref.
). Feeds on reef fishes, squids, octopi, crabs, lobsters and shrimps (Ref.
). Tends to be aggressive under baited conditions (Ref.
) and readily enters into a frenzy feeding pattern, at which time it may become quite dangerous. Repeatedly incriminated in human attacks. Utilized for human consumption, fishmeal, and other shark products. Minimum depth from Ref. 6871. Maximum length of female taken from Ref. 5213.
Viviparous, placental (Ref.
). 1-6 pups in a litter (Ref.
). Gestation period about 12 months (Ref.
). Size at birth 50 to 60 cm (Ref.
) or 75 cm (Ref.
). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref.
, 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 17.5 - 29, mean 27.5 (based on 4022 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00297 - 0.00846), b=3.13 (2.99 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.1 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tm=7; tmax=25; K=0.05-0.86; Fec=1-6).
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Carpenter, Kent E.
Sampang-Reyes, Arlene G.
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