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Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller &. Henle, 1839)
Eastern Sand Shark; Inky-tail Shark; Inkytail Shark; Long-nose Grey Shark; Long-nosed Grey Shark; Longnose Grey Shark; Smooth-fanged Shark; Smoothfang Shark; Aprionodon brevipinna Müller and Henle, 1839; Carcharhinus nasutus Whtiely, 1943; Longmania brevipinna Müller and Henle, 1839; Squalus brevipinna Müller and Henle, 1839; Carcharhinus fowleri Whitley, 1944; Longmania calamaria Whitley, 1944; Uranga nasuta Whitley, 1943; Carcharias brevipinna Müller and Henle, 1839

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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/577f0ed1-4fae-4881-8d4e-57340172c176 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/577f0ed1-4fae-4881-8d4e-57340172c176
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Species Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle, 1839)


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CAAB : 37018023 Taxon concept Carcharhinus_brevipinna last modified 2014-03-13 14:41:28.159

Species Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle, 1839)

Spinner Shark , Eastern Sand Shark, Inky-tail Shark, Inkytail Shark, Long-nose Grey Shark, Long-nosed Grey Shark, Longnose Grey Shark, Smooth-fanged Shark, Smoothfang Shark


Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy


Generic Combinations


Miscellaneous Literature Names



In 2005, Carcharhinus brevipinna was listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN.




New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia

Extra Distribution Information

Walpole, WA (ca 35°06'S, 116°49'E) to Jervis Bay, NSW; tropical, temperate, Atlantic-Indo-west Pacific.

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)


Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Southwest Shelf Province (31), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Continental shelf, inshore, marine, pelagic.

Extra Ecological Information

Surface to 75 m.


General References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [466]

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World . London : Collins 368 pp. [293]

Compagno, L.J.V. & Niem, V.H. 1998. Family Carcharhinidae. pp. 1312-1360 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp. [1332]

Garrick, J.A.F. 1982. Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus . National Marine Fisheries Service (U.S.). Technical Report 445 : 1-194 figs 1-83

Hutchins, J.B. & Swainston, R. 1986. Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete field guide for anglers and divers . Perth : Swainston Publishing 180 pp. [24]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [237]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. [254]

Macbeth, W.G., Vandenberg, M. & Graham, K.J. 2008. Identifying Sharks and Rays; A guide to Commercial Fishers . Sydney : New South Wales Department of Primary Industry pp. 71. [21]

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [8] (49, Aprionodon brevipinna , 56, as Carcharhinus nasutus and p. 11, 71 as Carcharhinus fowleri, in part)

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. [19]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [33] (54, in part; 61 and 62, as Longmania brevipinna )


Common Name References

Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. [42] (Long-nosed Grey Shark)

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [466] ( Spinner Shark )

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes . Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp. [42] (Eastern Sand Shark, Smooth-fanged Shark)

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [237] (Longnose Grey Shark, Smoothfang Shark)

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [9] (Inky-tail Shark)

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. [19] (Long-nose Grey Shark)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Spinner Shark )

Whitley, G.P. 1944. New sharks and fishes from Western Australia. The Australian Zoologist 10 (3): 252-273 figs 1-6 [258] (Inkytail Shark)


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Aug-2012 26-Nov-2013 MODIFIED
16-Apr-2012 16-Apr-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

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Last modified: Thursday, 13 March 2014 2:41:28 PM AEDT

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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Carcharhinidae  
 Genus Carcharhinus  
  Carcharhinus brevipinna    (Müller & Henle, 1839) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Aprion brevipinna Aprionodon brevipinna Aprionodon caparti Carcharhinus amblyrhinchoides Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides Carcharhinus brevipina Carcharhinus johnsoni Carcharhinus maculipinnis Carcharhinus pleurotaenia Carcharias brevipinna Carcharias pleurotaenia details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: A large, slender species. Size up to about 2.8 m. Snout long and pointed. Eyes small, 1.1-2% of total length. Rows of anteroposterior teeth in each jaw half 15-18/14-17. Upper teeth with narrow, finely serrated, long cusps, and crown feet with serrations but no cusplets. Lower teeth with erect, smooth-edged narrow cusps and transverse roots. Interdorsal ridge absent. First dorsal fin small, its origin usually over or slightly posterior to pectoral free rear tip, inner margin of 1st dorsal fin short, a third of dorsal base or slightly less. Second dorsal fin moderately large, its height 1.8-2.6% of total length, its inner margin short and 1.4-1.9 times its height. Origin of 2nd dorsal fin over or usually slightly behind anal fin origin. Total vertebral centra 155-185, precaudal centra 84-96. Black tips usually present on pectorals, 2nd dorsal, anal and ventral caudal lobe. A conspicuous white band on flanks. 
Habitat: A common coastal-pelagic, warm-temperate and tropical shark species. Ranging close inshore and offshore. Spinner shark is a schooling, active species. Viviparous, with a yolk-placenta, number of embryos 3-15, with larger females carrying more young. Gesta 
Distribution: Western Atlantic including northern Carolina to Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, northern Gulf of Mexico, British Guiana, southern Brazil. Eastern Atlantic including Mediterranean, Cape Verde Islands, Senegal, Guinea and Sierra Leone, Togo and Nigeria, Angola. Ind 
Utility: Commonly caught in fisheries where found, with pelagic longlines, fixed bottom nets, and on hook-and-line. This species also distributed in northeastern Taiwan waters and fished by longline fisheries. 
Name Code: 383070
  IUCN Red List:NT       Marine     
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https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Carcharhinus&speciesname=brevipinna ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Carcharhinus-brevipinna.html
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Common name (e.g. trout)

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Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle , 1839)

Spinner shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Carcharhinus brevipinna   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Carcharhinus brevipinna (Spinner shark) Carcharhinus brevipinna
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335 ) ;   brevipinna: Named after André Capart, head of the Belgian Oceanographic Expedition in the south Atlantic (Ref. 377 ) .  More on authors: Müller & Henle .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 27000 ), usually 0 - ? m (Ref. 55179 ).   Subtropical; 40°N - 38°S, 100°W - 155°E (Ref. 55179 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Atlantic, Mediterranean and Indo-West Pacific, warm temperate and tropical. Often referred to as Carcharhinus limbatus in the past.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 210.0 , range 170 - 266 cm
Max length : 300 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999 ); common length : 250 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573 ); max. published weight: 89.7 kg (Ref. 40637 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A slender shark with a long, narrow, pointed snout, long gill slits and small, narrow-cusped teeth; first dorsal fin small; no interdorsal ridge; labial furrows longer than in any other grey shark (Ref. 5578 ). Grey above, white below, with a conspicuous white band on sides; second dorsal, anal, undersides of pectorals and lower caudal-fin lobe black or dark grey-tipped in subadults and adults, but unmarked or nearly so in small individuals (Ref. 9997 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on the continental and insular shelves from close inshore to offshore (Ref. 244 ). Makes vertical spinning leaps out of the water as a feeding technique in which the sharks spins through a school of small fish with an open mouth and then breaks the surface (Ref. 9997 ). Feeds mainly on pelagic bony fishes, also small sharks, cuttlefish, squids, and octopi (Ref. 244 , 5578 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Forms schools (Ref. 244 ). Highly migratory off Florida and Louisiana and in the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 244 ). Regularly caught in fisheries where found (Ref. 244 ). Utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption (Ref. 244 ). Fins probably used in the oriental shark fin trade, and livers for vitamin oil production (Ref. 9997 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta; bears up to 20 young (Ref. 5578 ); 3-15 pups (Ref.58048). Size at birth 60 to 80 cm (Ref. 6871 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A1bd+2d); Date assessed: 30 June 2000

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 5485 )

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 22 - 29, mean 27.4 (based on 3950 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00239 - 0.00605), b=3.07 (2.94 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies. Generation time: 5.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=3). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (62 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Casal, Christine Marie V. Fish Forum
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