Snout moderately short and broadly rounded, length before mouth 5.4-7.1% of total length; ridge on back between dorsal fins usually present; origin of first dorsal fin slightly before inner rear corner of pectoral fins; first dorsal fin very large, with broadly rounded tip, its height 9.2-15.2% of total length; pectoral fins extremely long (length of front edge 20.2- 27.1% of total length), with broad round tips; origin of second dorsal in front of or over anal fin origin.
Brownish grey on back, becoming white ventrally; tips of first dorsal fin, paired fins, and caudal fin lobes broadly mottled white; anal fin usually blackish at tip and second dorsal fin may be dusky at tip; juveniles with most fins tipped with black.
Grows to 396 cm; 60-65 cm at birth.
Habitat: oceanic epipelagic.
Depth: 0-200 m.
Circumtropical; Southern California to the SW Gulf of California to Ecuador and the oceanic islands.
Attributes Abundance: Common. Cites: Not listed. Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo). Depth Range Max: 200 m. Depth Range Min: 0 m. Diet: Pelagic crustacea; bony fishes; octopus/squid/cuttlefish; sea snakes/mammals/turtles/birds. Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-3; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=36; Longitudinal range=40. Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva. Feeding Group: Carnivore. FishBase Habitat: Pelagic. Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species. Habitat: Water column. Inshore Offshore: Offshore; Offshore Only. IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed. Length Max: 396 cm. Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species. Residency: Resident. Salinity: Marine; Marine Only. Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;
Balart , E. F. , Castro-Aguirre , J. L. , Aurioles-Gamboa , D. , García-Rodriguez , F. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C., 1995., Adiciones a la ictiofauna de Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México., Hidrobiologica, 5:79-85.
Bellido-Millán, J.M. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C.J., 2002., Pesqueria artesanal de tiburon en la region central del Golfo de California. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:143-152.
Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo . Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
Poey, F., 1860., Memorias sobra la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba, acompañadas de sumarios Latinos y extractos en Francés. Tomo 2. La Habana., Mem. Hist. Nat. Cuba, 2:97-336.
Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
was placed on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable.
New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia
Extra Distribution Information
Cape Leeuwin, WA to southern NSW and one record from SA; tropical, circumglobal.
Southeast Transition (11), Central Eastern Province (12), Tasman Basin Province (13), Lord Howe Province (14), Central Eastern Transition (15), Northeast Province (18), Northeast Transition (19), Cape Province (20), Norfolk Island Province (21), Christmas Island Province (23), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Northwest Transition (3), Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Southwest Shelf Province (31), Spencer Gulf Shelf Province (33), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northwest Province (4), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41), Central Western Transition (5), Central Western Province (6), Southwest Transition (7)
A large, stocky shark species. Snout short and broadly rounded. Eyes small, its length 0.9-2.5% of total length. Gill slits moderately long, length of 3rd 3.1-4.1% of total length and less than a third of 1st dorsal base. Rows of anteroposterior teeth in each jaw half 13-14/13-15. Upper teeth with very broad, triangular, strongly serrated cusps that merge into crown feet with slightly coarser serrations but no cusplets. Lower teeth with erect to slightly oblique, stout serrated cusps and transverse or moderately arched roots. Interdorsal ridge usually present. First dorsal fin very large and distally expanded, with a broadly rounded apex. Origin of 1st dorsal fin just anterior to the pectoral free rear tips. Inner margin of 1st dorsal fin moderately long, about half dorsal base. Second dorsal fin large and high, its length 2.7-3.9% of total length, its inner margin short and 1-1.1 times its height. Origin of 2nd dorsal over or slightly anterior to anal origin. Pectoral fin very large and elongated, with broadly rounded apices, length of anterior margins about 19-29% of total length. Number of total vertebral centra 228-244, precaudal centra 123-131. Colour grey-bronze above, white below. White mottling usually present on fins, particularly pectorals, 1st dorsal, pelvics, and caudal tips.
A very common, oceanic-epipelagic, tropical and warmtemperate shark, usually found far offshore in the open sea. This is a slow-moving but quite active shark species. It often cruises slowly at or near the surface with its huge pectoral fins outspread. Vi
This species primarily distributed in tropical and warm-temperate oceanic maters including Atlantic ocean, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Pacific Ocean.
This species is regularly caught with pelagic longlines. It is utilized fresh, smoked and dried salted for human consumption, hides for leather, fins for shark-fin soup, liver for vitamins.
Circumglobal (tropical to warm temperate, Ref. 244). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 180 - 200 cm
Max length : 400 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 270 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. published weight: 167.4 kg (Ref.
); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref.
: 0. A stocky shark with a huge, rounded 1st dorsal fin, and long, wide-tipped pectoral fins; snout bluntly rounded; upper teeth triangular; interdorsal ridge present (Ref.
). Back usually dark grey with a bronze tinge, sometimes brown or bluish; belly whitish, sometimes with a yellow tinge; tips off first dorsal, pectorals, and lower lobe of caudal often white or with white spots (sometimes absent); ventral surface of pelvic fins, apices of anal and second dorsal, and ventral lobe of caudal often with black spots; black or dusky saddle-marks in front of second dorsal, upper margin of caudal and between dorsal fins (especially in young) (Ref.
An oceanic deep-water species which sometimes comes close to shore (Ref.
). Found surface to depths of at least 150 m (Ref.
). Epipelagic usually over water depths of >184 meters (Ref.
). Frequently accompanied by
, pilot fishes (Ref.
), and tortoises. Feeds oceanic bony fishes, also threadfins, stingrays, sea turtles, sea birds, gastropods, squid, crustaceans, mammalian carrion and garbage (Ref.
), including tuna and mahimahi (Ref.
). Viviparous (Ref.
). There is pronounced partial segregation by size and sex in some areas. This is an active, almost fearless shark also charged in human attacks (Ref.
). Probably responsible for many open-ocean attacks after air or sea disasters (Ref.
). Utilized fresh, frozen (Ref.
), smoked, and dried-salted for human consumption; hides for leather, fins for fin soup, liver oil for vitamins, also processed into fishmeal (Ref.
). 1 to 15 young, 60 to 65 cm, are born per litter (Ref.
, 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 17.9 - 28.9, mean 26.8 (based on 6810 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00617 - 0.01621), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.1(?); tm=7; tmax=22; Fec=1).
Prior r = 0.06, 95% CL = 0.04 - 0.10, Based on 2 stock assessments.
): Very high vulnerability (79 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Carpenter, Kent E.
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