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Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy &. Gaimard, 1824)
Black Tip Shark; Black-tip Reef Shark; Black-tip Shark; Blacktip Shark; Guliman; Eulamia melanopterus Quoy and Gaimard, 1824; Eulamia menaloptera Quoy and Gaimard, 1824; Mapolamia melanopterus Quoy and Gaimard, 1824; Prionodon melanopterus Quoy and Gaimard, 1824; Squalus melanopterus Quoy and Gaimard, 1824; Carcharinus melanopterus Quoy and Gaimard, 1824; Mapolamia spallanzani Péron and Lesueur, 1822; Carcharias melanopterus Quoy and Gaimard, 1824

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carcharhinidae   Carcharhinus

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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d7850ed9-bf25-4a4e-98a2-5903684b71e1 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d7850ed9-bf25-4a4e-98a2-5903684b71e1
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

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Australian Faunal Directory

You are here:  Environment home » Biodiversity » ABRS » AFD » ANIMALIA (Kingdom) » CHORDATA (Phylum) » VERTEBRATA (Subphylum) » GNATHOSTOMATA (Higher Taxon) » PISCES (Higher Taxon) » CHONDRICHTHYES (Class) » ELASMOBRANCHII (Subclass) » CARCHARHINIFORMES (Order) » CARCHARHINIDAE (Family) » Carcharhinus Blainville, 1816 (Genus) » Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)

Species Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)


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External Links

CAAB : 37018036 Taxon concept Carcharhinus_melanopterus last modified 2013-11-14 15:07:08.442

Species Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)

Blacktip Reef Shark , Black Tip Shark, Black-tip Reef Shark, Black-tip Shark, Blacktip Shark, Guliman


Generic Combinations


Miscellaneous Literature Names



The species was placed on the IUCN Red List as Near Threatened in 2005.




Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia

Extra Distribution Information

Shark Bay to Moreton Bay, QLD and Muirray Island, Torres Strait; tropical, Indo-west-central Pacific.

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)


Cape Province (20), Cocos (Keeling) Island Province (22), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Other Regions

Torres Strait Islands terrestrial, marine & freshwater

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Continental shelf, coral reef, inshore, marine, pelagic.

Extra Ecological Information

Normally shallow in upper few metres, but reported to 75 m


General References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [487]

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World . London : Collins 368 pp. [302]

Compagno, L.J.V. & Niem, V.H. 1998. Family Carcharhinidae. pp. 1312-1360 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp. [1343]

Garrick, J.A.F. 1982. Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus . National Marine Fisheries Service (U.S.). Technical Report 445 : 1-194 figs 1-83 [96]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [250]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. [267]

McCulloch, A.R. 1929. A check-list of the fishes recorded from Australia. Part I. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 5 : 1–144 [10]

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [8] (53, as C. spallanzani )

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. [20]

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 557 pp. figs. [20]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [33] (59 as Mapolamia spallanzani )


Common Name References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [488] ( Blacktip Reef Shark )

Grant, E.M. 2002. Guide to Fishes . Redcliffe : EM Grant Pty Ltd 880 pp. [57] (Black-tip Reef Shark)

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [250] (Blacktip Shark, Guliman)

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [8] (Black-tip Shark)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Blacktip Reef Shark )

Whitley, G.P. 1945. New sharks and fishes from Western Australia. Part 2. The Australian Zoologist 11 (1): 1-42 figs 1-15 [7] (Black Tip Shark)


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Aug-2012 14-Nov-2013 MODIFIED
16-Apr-2012 16-Apr-2012 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

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Last modified: Thursday, 14 November 2013 3:07:08 PM AEDT

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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Carcharhinidae  
 Genus Carcharhinus  
  Carcharhinus melanopterus    (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Carcharhinus melanoptures Carcharias commersoni Carcharias elegans Carcharias marianensis Carcharias melanopterus Carcharias playfairii Carcharinus melanoptera Carcharinus melanopterus Hypoprion playfairi Mapolamia spallanzanii Squalus carcharias minor details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: A moderately-sized, fairly stocky species. Eyes fairly large, its length 2-3% of total length. Gill slits moderately-sized, length of the 3rd 2.6-4.2% of total length and less than a third of the 1st dorsal base. Rows of anteroposterior teeth in each jaw half 11-13/10-12. upper teeth with narrow, strongly serrated, high cusps, and crown feet with coarse serrations and cusplets. Lower teeth with erect to oblique narrow serrated cusps and transverse roots. Interdorsal ridge absent. First dorsal fin large, with a rounded apex. Origin of 1st dorsal fin usually over pectoral free rear tips. Inner margin of 1st dorsal fin slightly more or less than half dorsal base. Second dorsal fin large and high, its height 3.4-4.1% of total length, its inner margin short and 0.8-1.1 times its height. Origin of 2nd dorsal fin over anal origin. Length of pectoral fin anterior margins about 18-19% of total length. Total vertebral centra 193-214, precaudal centra 111-122. Colour light brown above, white below. First dorsal fin and ventral caudal lobe with a conspicuous black apical blotch. A conspicuous white band on flank. 
Habitat: This is a common, wideranging tropical Indo-Pacific shark. This species is an active, strong-swimming shark, found near the bottom and midwater in deeper water. Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta, number of young 2-4, usually 4. gestation period estimat 
Distribution: Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Indian Ocean including South Africa, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Madagascar to Red Sea, the Gulf, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Andaman, and Maldive Islands. Western Pacific from Thailand to China, including Japan, Taiwan, The Phil 
Utility: Apparently regularly caught in fisheries where the common inshore shark occurs. The details of its utilization and gear used are limited. 
Name Code: 383077
  IUCN Red List:NT       Marine     
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https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Carcharhinus&speciesname=melanopterus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Carcharhinus-melanopterus.html
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard , 1824)

Blacktip reef shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Carcharhinus melanopterus (Blacktip reef shark) Carcharhinus melanopterus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on authors: Quoy & Gaimard .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 20 - 75 m (Ref. 37816 ).   Subtropical; 35°N - 25°S, 7°E - 134°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964 ), Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and the Tuamoto Archipelago. North to Japan and south to Australia. Apparently rare or absent in the more easterly groups. Also eastern Mediterranean (through the Suez Canal).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 91 - 120 cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5578 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A small shark with a short, bluntly rounded snout, oval eyes, and narrow-cusped teeth; 2nd dorsal fin large; no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578 ). Yellow-brown above, white below; all fins conspicuous with black or dark brown tips also anterior and posterior dark edging on pectoral fins and upper lobe of caudal fin; a prominent black tip of first dorsal fin set off abruptly by a light band below it; a conspicuous dark band on flanks, extending rearward to pelvic fins (Ref. 9997 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits shallow water close inshore on coral reefs and in the intertidal zone (reef flats), near reef drop-offs and close offshore (Ref. 244 , 58302 ). Also found in mangrove areas, moving in and out with the tide (Ref. 6871 ) and even in fresh water, but not in tropical lakes and rivers far from the sea (Ref. 9997 ). Occurs singly or in small groups (Ref. 244 , 54301 ). Prefers fishes but also feeds on crustaceans, cephalopods and other mollusks (Ref. 6871 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). May become aggressive to spear fishers and has been reported to bite people wading in shallow water (Ref. 6871 ). Reported to cause poisoning (Ref. 4690 ). 2 to 4 young of 46 to 52 cm are born per litter (Ref. 1602 ). Generally marketed fresh (as fillet), may be dried, salted, smoked (Ref. 5284 ) or frozen (Ref. 9987 ). Fins are valued for shark-fin soup (Ref. 9987 ); liver as source of oil (Ref. 9997 ). This species is commonly seen in public aquaria (Ref. 54301 ). Maximum reported weight from IGFA was 13.550 kg (Ref. 40637 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449 ). Litter size 2-4 pups (Ref. 244 ) after an 8-9 months gestation period (up to 16 months in some localities) (Ref.58048). Size at birth ranges from 33-52 cm (Ref. 244 ); 48-50 cm TL (Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ). Precopulatory and courtship involve the male closely following near the female's vent which could possibly be guided by their sense of smell (Ref. 49562 , 47987 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  ; Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690 )

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 23.8 - 28.4, mean 27.4 (based on 397 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00237 - 0.00840), b=3.05 (2.90 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.9   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=2). Prior r = 0.26, 95% CL = 0.14 - 0.48, Based on 3 stock assessments. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Casal, Christine Marie V. Fish Forum
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