Reprinted with permission from: Daly, H. V. 1973. Bees of the genus Ceratina in America North of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). University of California Publications in Entomology 74: 1-114. The Regents of the University of California. Published by the University of California Press.
Ceratina dallatorreana Friese, 1896
Female.—Measurements and ratios: wing, 4.5 mm; hamuli, 5; eye, 125:115:112:105; clypeus, 62 x 87:33:87; interocellar, 25:35:15:40, diameter 20.0; frontal carina, 60; malar area 4 x 45; interalveolar, 30:27:42:51; diameter 17; antenna, 45:18:11:8:6:8, diameter 15; subpleural signum, 15 x 3.5 (California, Solano Co., Dixon, 5.6 mi. S.; Calif. Insect Survey).
Structure: Head heart-shaped in cephalic view with profile concave above, narrowly rounded below; eyes slightly convergent, narrowly rounded above, subtruncate at malar area; frontal carina simple, partly obscured by punctation in interalveolar area, sulciform beneath median ocellus; circumantennal area shallowly depressed; alveolocellar area slightly convex; vertex and supraorbital area limited posteriorly by angulate, but not carinate preoccipital ridge; gena unmodified; median portion of hypostomal carina when viewed laterally of low uniform height and anteriorly unmodified, when viewed ventrally angle between median and lateral portions sub perpendicular. Pronotum without a transverse carina; dorsolateral angle poorly developed, rounded, not carinate; lateral carina absent; pronotal pit not sulciform; scutum with caudal end of admedian line and cephalic end of parapsidal line overlapping on imaginary transverse line; notauli well defined caudad; metapleural line carinate; propodeal angle about 140°, apex of angle sharp laterally, rounded medially; lateral procoxal angle narrowly rounded; protibia and mesotibia with simple, single apical spines; basitibial plate spiniform, its elevated apex at basal 0.42 of tibial length. Metasoma widest at segments 3—4; tergum I with cephalic and dorsal surfaces at about 130° angle when viewed laterally, apex of angle rounded; terga 2—5 constricted at distinct graduli, each less constricted subapically; gradulus of tergum 4 terminating laterally at the caudal end of the spiracle; posterolateral angle of tergum 4 about 120°, apex of angle rounded; tergum 6 with a median longitudinal ridge and slight lateral depressions; gradulus of sternum 2 slightly arcuate, gradulus of sternum 3 slightly biarcuate; wax glands half-moon shaped.
Sculpture and vestiture: Head shiny between dense punctures, impunctate only on clypeal disc, lowest paraocular area, subantennal area, and small area above antenna; elsewhere with dense fine punctures less than a puncture width apart and with largely simple setae; punctures more widely spaced on gena, sparse on mandible base; sparse setae longer in interalveolar area, vertex, labral disc and apically on mandible. Sides of pronotum finely punctured often less than a puncture width apart, except for lines; scutellum densely and finely punctured less than a puncture width apart, except sparser on disc; metanotum densely and finely punctured throughout, less than a puncture width apart; mesopleuron densely and finely punctured less than a puncture width apart laterally, becoming more widely spaced posteroventrally, setae nearly simple, becoming longer posteroventrally; hypoepimeral area sparsely punctate in lower third; metapleuron densely and finely punctured, less than a puncture width apart; small impunctate area before metapleural pit; propodeal triangle reticulate to rugulose; angle of propodeum impunctate, minutely rugulose to coriaceous; sides finely punctured, becoming closer and smaller laterad, with erect, narrowly plumose setae. Loose scopa of mostly three-branched setae on outer surface of tibia. Metasomal tergum 1 finely punctured on dorsal surface about a puncture width apart, virtually impunctate on anterior surface but with small setae; terga 2—5 with fine punctures 4—10 punctures in width on pregradular area near gradulus, postgradular punctures fine, about a puncture width apart on discs of more anterior terga, becoming denser to less than a puncture width apart laterally and apically, each with a short appressed simple seta; ground shiny, but subapically minutely roughened on tergum 4; tergum 5 finely punctured, less than a puncture width apart and papillate; tergum 6 finely punctured less than a puncture width apart but punctures obscured basally by dense spiculate papillae which become less conspicuous subapically on each side of median ridge; setae short, simple. Sterna densely and finely punctured, about a puncture width apart or less; setae simple, fine, suberect, dense at very apex of abdomen; setae of wax glands appressed.
Color: Body metallic dark gray olive green (ISCC-NBS 128) with minor bluish or yellowish reflections; metallic colors lacking on labrum, mandibles, and wax glands. Ivory marks: amygdaliform on clypeus, extending almost full length; basal broad stripe extending half the length of the protibia, spot at base of mesotibia, larger spot at base of metatibia; pronotal lobes. Antennae fuscous, lighter beneath; legs proximally very dark fuscous, tarsi apically testaceous; wing membrane slightly fuliginous, venation and tegula dark testaceous. Body setae pale flavescent to testaceous.
Ceratina dallatorreana, a native of the Mediterranean region, was first collected in California in 1949 (fig. 18). Reproduction in California is by thelytokous parthenogenesis and males are extremely rare. The medium-sized bees are easily recognized by the dull appearance resulting from the uniform punctation which covers virtually the entire body surface. The outer surface of the protibia is marked with a cream-colored stripe extending from the base to midlength. Body color varies from bright golden-green to dark green, blackish green, or entirely black. The color forms are presumably distinctive clones which have arisen since the introduction. Old World bees are bisexual and known to be only metallic green or golden-green. Details of the biology, geographic distribution, and evidence of parthenogenesis have been described elsewhere (Daly, 1966b).