Wijk, R. van der, W. D. Margadant & P. A. Florschütz 1959. Index Muscorum. 1(A–C). Regnum Veg. 17. xxviii + 548 pages.
Ochyra, R. 1999. Antipodal mosses: XIII. A neotypification and the taxonomic status of Barbula validinervia(Pottiaceae), with a note on muscological research on Îles Kerguelen. Fragm. Florist. Geobot. 44: 245–253.
Ochyra, R. 1998. Moss Fl. King George Island Antarctica xxiv + 278 pp.
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2007. Bryophytes: Mosses. Fl. N. Amer. 27(1): i–xxi, 1-711.
Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond., 136, plate 36. 1801;
in open to dense tufts, turfs, or mats, green, dark green, brownish green, light green or yellow-green, usually darker proximally, often tinged reddish brown or purple.
crowded, erect-patent to contorted or somewhat crisped, rarely straight when dry, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or triangular-lanceolate, 0.35-2.8 mm, margins recurved to near apex or rarely plane, irregularly serrate to uneven or smooth distally, apices acute to short-acuminate or, rarely, obtuse; costa strong, sub-percurrent to excurrent, sometimes as a long, smooth awn, medial laminal cells (6.5-)8-12(-14) µm, cell walls even, usually of medium thickness, often somewhat thicker and rounded at the cell angles.
1-3(-4) cm, various shades of red, orange, or yellow.
oblong to long-cylindric, (1-)2-2.5(-3) mm, smooth to strongly sulcate when dry; free to united at their nodes, finely papillose to spinulose-papillose, dark red and bordered to completely pale and absent borders.