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Chaenogaleus macrostoma (Bleeker, 1852)
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Hemigaleidae  
 Genus Chaenogaleus  
  Chaenogaleus macrostoma    (Bleeker, 1852) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Hemigaleus balfouri Hemigaleus macrostoma Negogaleus balfouri   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: Body small and slender. Snout wedge-shaped in dorsoventral view. Eyes large with nictitating eyelids. Gill slits very long, about twice eye length or more. Lower teeth with long, hooked smooth-edge cusps. Lower teeth protrude prominently when mouth is closed. Tooth row counts 33-38/34-36. 2nd dorsal fin about 2/3 the size of first. Second dorsal origin opposite or slightly ahead of anal origin. Anal fin smaller than 2nd dorsal fin and without preanal lateral ridges. Transverse, cresentic pre-caudal pits present, and light grey or bronze colour with no prominent markings. 
Habitat: A common coastal and inshore tropical shark of the continental and insular shelves, usually caught at depths down to 59 m. viviparous species, with a yolk-sac placenta, number of embryos 4 per litter. Size of maximum length about 100 cm, size at birth at  
Distribution: Indo-West Pacific including Pakistan, India, SriLanka, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Taiwan, Java and Sulawesi. 
Utility: Commonly caught in inshore and offshore areas by longline and bottom trawler fisheries. Flesh utilized fresh for human consumption. 
Name Code: 383092
  IUCN Red List:VU  A2bd+3bd      Marine     
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Chaenogaleus macrostoma (Bleeker , 1852)

Hooktooth shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Chaenogaleus macrostoma   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Chaenogaleus macrostoma (Hooktooth shark) Chaenogaleus macrostoma
Picture by Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO)

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Hemigaleidae (Weasel sharks)
Etymology: Chaenogaleus: Greek, chaeno = to yawn + Greek, galeos = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Bleeker .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 59 m (Ref. 244 ).   Tropical; 30°N - 10°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 13567 ), Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Taiwan, Java and Sulawesi in Indonesia. This name has been used indiscriminately for the three species of hemigaleids in Indo-Pakistani waters other than Hemipristis elongatus .

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 68 - 97 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. Bronzy-grey above, white below when fresh, fading to greyish or greyish brown in preservation, dorsal fins often with dusky or black tips (Ref. 13567 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A common inshore and offshore shark found on the continental and insular shelves (Ref. 13567 ). Probably feeds on small fishes, cephalopods, and crustaceans (Ref. 244 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Caught irregularly by inshore gillnet fisheries and occasionally by small-scale longlining (Ref.58048). Probably taken by artisanal fisheries wherever it occurs (Ref. 13567 ). Utilized fresh for human consumption and by-products processed into fishmeal (Ref. 244 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous (with a yolk-sac placenta), with 4 young in a litter (Ref. 244 ). Size at birth at least 20 cm (Ref. 244 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bd+3bd); Date assessed: 01 December 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 13567 )

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 1082 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 1.0039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00224 - 0.00468), b=3.02 (2.92 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.57 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen Fish Forum
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