Western Atlantic: Gulf Stream waters off Massachusetts, USA to southern Brazil. Caribbean including Antilles (Ref.
). Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Liberia (Ref.
). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref.
). Reported from Sao Tome Island (Ref.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
Generally found in surface waters near the coast (Ref.
). Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for long distances above the surface (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Parin, N.V. and R.H. Gibbs Jr.
, 1990. Exocoetidae. p. 583-591. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 20.2 - 28, mean 26.2 °C (based on 456 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00160 - 0.01085), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref.
Trophic level (Ref.
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Reyes, Rodolfo B.
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