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Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
SPOTFIN PORCUPINEFISH
Few-spined Porcupine-fish; Spotfin Burrfish; Spottedfin Burrfish; Diodon reticulatus Linnaeus, 1758

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Diodontidae   Chilomycterus

Chilomycterus reticulatus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Chilomycterus reticulatus

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Chilomycterus reticulatus
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Chilomycterus reticulatus
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • head and body: a few short, immovable spines
  • adults: fins spotted
  • 1-2 spines top base of tail
Dorsal rays 12-14; anal rays 11-14; pectoral rays 19-22; head and body with short immovable spines, about 8-10 in an approximate row from snout to dorsal fin; top of tail base with 1-2 spines; nasal organ is an open cup lined with pits.

Grey on back grading to whitish ventrally; scattered black spots on head, body, and median fins; also several diffuse, dusky brown bars on head and body.

Size: grows to about 75 cm; the young lead a pelagic existence until about 20 cm.

Inhabits coral and rocky reefs, but also trawled on soft bottoms.

Depth: 1-141 m.

Circumtropical and temperate distribution; California to the Baja, and the southwest and central eastern Gulf of California to Chile, and all the oceanic islands except Clipperton.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 141 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=38; Southern limit=-7; Western limit=-123; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=45; Longitudinal range=45.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef and soft bottom; Reef (rock &/or coral).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 75 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. , Balart , E. F. and Arvizu-Martínez, J., 1995., Contribución al conocimiento del origen y distribución de la ictiofauna del Golfo de California, México., Hidrobiologica, 5:57-78.
  • Chirichigno, N., 1998., Clave para identificar los peces marinos del Peru., Instituto del Mar del Peru, Informe., 44(2 Ed.):1-387.
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • De la Cruz Agüero, J., 1997., Catálogo de los peces Marinos de Baja California Sur., Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas:341.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Garrison, G., 2000., Peces de la Isla del Coco., Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad:393.
  • Grove , J.S. and Lavenberg, R. J., 1997., The fishes of the Galápagos islands., Stanford University Press:863 pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lea, R.N. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 2000., Observations on fishes associated with the 1997-1998 El Niño off California., CalCOFL Rep., 41:117-129.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Long, D. J., 1994., The Pacific burrfish, Chilomycterus affinis (Tetraodontiformes: Diodontidae) in the northern Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez)., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42:386-387.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Rubio , E.E. , Gutierrez , B. and Frank, R., 1987., Pesces de la Isla Gorgona., Centro de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia., (1-315):1-315.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1990., Ictiofauna Indopacifica asociada a los corales de la Isla de Gorgona., Revista de Ciencias, 2:97-105.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Chilomycterus reticulatus, Spotfin burrfish
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Chilomycterus reticulatus ( Linnaeus , 1758 )

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Chilomycterus reticulatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos | Google image Image of Chilomycterus reticulatus (Spotfin burrfish) Chilomycterus reticulatus
Picture by Hernández-González, C.L.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) > Diodontidae (Porcupinefishes (burrfishes))
Etymology: Chilomycterus: Greek, cheilos = lip + Greek, mykter, -eros = nose (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 100 m (Ref. 9680 ).   Subtropical; - 24°S, 98°W - 34°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumglobal: Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 69.7 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 89467 ); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12-14; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 11 - 14. Adults grey to brown with a black gular band and small black spots on upper surfaces and fins; pelagic juveniles blue with dark spots above, the spots descending to belly (Ref. 4423 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults found in reefs and over soft bottoms to depths of 100 m, but may occur deeper in the tropics (Ref. 30573 ). Often found washed up on beaches. Known to brace themselves against the substrate to sleep at night (Ref. 4930 ). Appear to be active during the day. Juveniles often with floating weeds (Ref. 48637 ). Solitary. Juveniles pelagic in oceanic surface waters (Ref. 30573 ). Feed on hard-shelled invertebrates. Not usually marketed.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Leis, J.M. , 2001. Diodontidae. Porcupine fishes (burrfishes). p. 3958-3965. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9680 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 06 June 2011

CITES (Ref. 123416 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 18.4 - 28.3, mean 27 °C (based on 959 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5313   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.04677 (0.01914 - 0.11431), b=2.82 (2.61 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.41 se; based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  . Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) . Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 25.1 [9.6, 60.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.8 [0.4, 1.6] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.6 [17.5, 21.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.167 [0.082, 0.318] g/100g ; Selenium = 20.4 [9.5, 47.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.8 [4.7, 74.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.701 [0.423, 1.139] mg/100g (wet weight);

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