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Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garman, 1884
Eel Shark; Frill-gill Shark; Frill-gilled Shark; Frilled Shark

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Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

You are here:  Environment home » Biodiversity » ABRS » AFD » ANIMALIA (Kingdom) » CHORDATA (Phylum) » VERTEBRATA (Subphylum) » GNATHOSTOMATA (Higher Taxon) » PISCES (Higher Taxon) » CHONDRICHTHYES (Class) » ELASMOBRANCHII (Subclass) » HEXANCHIFORMES (Order) » CHLAMYDOSELACHIDAE (Family) » Chlamydoselachus Garman, 1884 (Genus) » Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garman, 1884

Species Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garman, 1884


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CAAB : 37006001 Taxon concept Chlamydoselachus_anguineus last modified 2015-01-21 09:49:25.0

Species Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garman, 1884

Frill Shark , Eel Shark, Frill-gill Shark, Frill-gilled Shark, Frilled Shark




New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria

Extra Distribution Information

Off Sydney, NSW (33°47'S) to off eastern, southern and western TAS; temperate, discontinuous (antitropical, eastern North Atlantic, southern Africa, Japan, California, New Zealand). A shark was caught in January 2015 from 700m off Lakes Entrance, VIC.

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)


Tasmania Province (10), Southeast Transition (11), Central Eastern Province (12)

Ecological Descriptors

Benthic, continental shelf, continental slope, marine.

Extra Ecological Information

120–1500 m


General References

Bass, A.J. 1979. Records of little-known sharks from Australian waters. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 103 (4): 247-254 figs 1-5 [1978]

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(1) pp. 1-249. [14]

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World . London : Collins 368 pp.

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [36]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. [34]

Nakaya, K. & Bass, A.J. 1978. The frill shark Chlamydoselachus anguineus in New Zealand seas. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 12 (4): 397-398

Smith, J.L.B. 1967. The lizard shark Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garman, in South Africa. Occasional Papers. Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University 10 : 105-114 fig. 1 pls 19-23

White, W. 2008. Shark Families Heterodontidae to Pristiophoridae. pp. 32-100 in Gomon, M.F., Bray, D.J. & Kuiter, R.H. (eds). Fishes of Australia's Southern Coast . Sydney : Reed New Holland 928 pp. [75]


Common Name References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(1) pp. 1-249. [14] (FAO) (Frilled Shark)

Daley, R.K., Stevens, J.D., Last, P.R. & Yearsley, G.K. 2002. Field Guide to Australian Sharks & Rays . Hobart : CSIRO Marine Research 84 pp. [70] (Frill-gill Shark)

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [36] ( Frill Shark , Frill-gilled Shark)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. ( Frill Shark )

Stead, D.G. 1963. Sharks and Rays of Australian Seas . Sydney : Angus & Robertson 211 pp. 63 figs. [199] (Eel Shark)


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Apr-2012 21-Jan-2015 MODIFIED
12-Feb-2010 (import)

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Last modified: Wednesday, 21 January 2015 9:49:25 AM AEDT

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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Hexanchiformes  
 Family Chlamydoselachidae  
 Genus Chlamydoselachus  
  Chlamydoselachus anguineus    Garman, 1884 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Chlamydoselache anguinea Chlamydoselachus anguineum Didymodus anguineus   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: A body slender and eel-like shark species, with a prominent keels on both sides of abdomen. Head with 6 pairs of gill slits, the lower ends of the first gill slits connected to each other across throat. Snout very short and truncated, mouth terminal on head. Teeth alike in both upper and lower jaws, with three strong cusps and a pair of intermediate cusplets, not saw or bladelike. One dorsal fin. Anal fin larger than dorsal fin. Caudal fin without a subterminal notch. 
Habitat: A very rare, little known deepwater shark. Benthic on the outer continental and insular shelves and upper slopes, at depth 120-1280. Ovoviviparous, number of embryos 8-12. Maximum size about 196 cm, size at birth estimated to be about 39 cm. Size at matur 
Distribution: Eastern Atlantic from northern Norway to the Atlantic Slope off northern Scotland and western Ireland, France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Mauritania, Madeira, Angola, northern Namibia. Western Indian Ocean off South Africa. Western Pacific off Japan, Taiwa 
Utility: This species were taken incidentally in bottom trawls catches. Stock size is very limited. Utilized for fishmeal for human consumption. 
Name Code: 383116
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garman , 1884

Frilled shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Chlamydoselachus anguineus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Chlamydoselachus anguineus (Frilled shark) Chlamydoselachus anguineus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Hexanchiformes (Frill and cow sharks) > Chlamydoselachidae (Frilled sharks)
Etymology: Chlamydoselachus: Greek, chlamys, -idos = cloak, cape + Greek, selachos = shark (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Garman .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 0 - 1570 m (Ref. 10290 ), usually 120 - 1280 m (Ref. 247 ).   Deep-water; 74°N - 58°S, 169°W - 180°E (Ref. 84631 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Wide-ranging but with patchy distribution. Western Indian Ocean: off South Africa. Western Pacific: off Japan to New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to northern Chile. Eastern Atlantic: northern Norway to northern Namibia, possibly the eastern Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Three specimens have been recorded from the western Atlantic (Ref. 13608 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 135 - 150 cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26346 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0; Vertebrae : 146 - 171. Eel-like shark with 6 gill slits, the lower ends of the first gill slits connected t each other across throat (Ref. 247 ). Dark brown or grey in color, sometimes paler below (Ref. 26346 ). Dorsal fin small and lobe-like originating over pelvic fin bases to behind anal fin origin (Ref. 6871 ). Anal fin larger than dorsal fin (Ref. 6871 ). Pectoral fins small and paddle-shaped (Ref. 6871 ). Caudal fin with weak ventral lobe and without subterminal notch (Ref. 6871 ). Terminal mouth with tricuspid teeth in both jaws (Ref. 247 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

An uncommon primitive shark (Ref. 26346 ) found on outer continental and insular shelves and upper slopes, usually between 120 and 1,280 m but occasionally caught at the surface (Ref. 247 ). Feeds on other sharks, squid and bony fish (Ref. 26346 ). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449 ), litter size ranges from 2 to 10 (Ref. 37390 ). Not dangerous but teeth are sharp enough to inflict lacerations on the hands of the unwary scientist examining its mouth (Ref. 247 ). Incidental in bottom trawl catches and utilized as fishmeal and as food fish (Ref. 247 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449 ). Number of young 2 to 15 (Ref. 26346 ). Gestation period is probably very long, one to two years (Ref. 39551 ). Size at birth 40-60 cm (Ref. 6871 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 20 February 2015

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 247 )

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(fisheries: species profile ; publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 2.3 - 16.4, mean 7.4 (based on 1257 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 1.0156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=2). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (82 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
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