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Common name (e.g. trout)
Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) >
(Minnows or carps) > Labeoninae
Latin, cirrus = curl fringe (Ref.
. More on author:
(Hamilton, 1822) is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. May 2011: Ref. 86870) following Menon (1999: Ref.
). Please send references, or more studies are needed.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref.
); depth range 5 - ? m (Ref.
). Tropical; 28°N - 7°N
Asia: native to large rivers in the Indian subcontinent (Ref.
). Has been so widely transported in connection to aquaculture that its natural distribution can no longer be determined (Ref.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. published weight: 12.7 kg (Ref.
: 39. Body plain greyish; 12-15 branched dorsal rays (Ref.
Adults inhabit fast flowing streams and rivers (Ref.
). Can tolerate high levels of salinity. Juveniles are omnivorous to about 5 cm TL, adults are almost entirely herbivorous. Feed on plankton, but also grazes on algae. Spawning occurs in marginal areas of the water body with a depth of 50-100 cm over a sand or clay substrate. A 6 kg female can lay a million eggs (of 1 mm diameter) (Ref.
). Widely cultured in India but fails to breed naturally in ponds, thus induced breeding is done. Fishery harvests 40 cm fish weighing 1000 g and of about 3 years. A very active fish that thrives in ponds but spawns in swift rivers. Fingerlings are in great demand for stocking ponds between July and November (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
, 1997. Systematic revision of the tropical Asian labeon cyprinid fish genus
, with descriptions of new species and biological observations on
. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 45:171-203. (Ref.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref.
(D2); Date assessed:
17 March 2011
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Check for Aquarium maintenance
Check for Species Fact Sheets
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Alien/Invasive Species database
Websites from users
Catalog of Fishes
) | GloBI |
IGFA World Record
Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes
| Reef Life Survey |
Tree of Life
World Records Freshwater Fishing
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00688 - 0.01006), b=3.02 (2.97 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 2.4 ±0.17 se; Based on food items.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.12-0.29).
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Binohlan, Crispina B.
Luna, Susan M.
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