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Coelioxys sodalis Cresson, 1878
Coelioxys tristis Provancher, 1882; Coelioxys ribis Cockerell, 1900; Coelioxys ribis var kincaidii Cockerell, 1904

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Megachilidae   Coelioxys
Subgenus: Coelioxys

Coelioxys sodalis, female, face
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Coelioxys sodalis, female, face

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Coelioxys sodalis, female, side
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Coelioxys sodalis, female, side
Coelioxys sodalis, female, top
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Coelioxys sodalis, female, top

Coelioxys sodalis, female, wing
Smithsonian Institution, Entomology Department · 9
Coelioxys sodalis, female, wing
Coelioxys sodalis fem lat comp ps
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Coelioxys sodalis fem lat comp ps

Coelioxys sodalis male lat comp ps
© Copyright Laurence Packer 2014 · 7
Coelioxys sodalis male lat comp ps
Coelioxys sodalis, F, side, Maine, Hancock County ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Coelioxys sodalis, F, side, Maine, Hancock County ---.. ZS PMax

Coelioxys sodalis, F, back, Maine, Hancock County ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Coelioxys sodalis, F, back, Maine, Hancock County ---.. ZS PMax
Coelioxys sodalis, F, face, Maine, Hancock County ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Coelioxys sodalis, F, face, Maine, Hancock County ---.. ZS PMax

Coelioxys sodalis, M, Back, NY, pullout by river ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Coelioxys sodalis, M, Back, NY, pullout by river ---.. ZS PMax
Coelioxys sodalis, M, Face, NY, Pullout by river ---.. ZS PMax
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Coelioxys sodalis, M, Face, NY, Pullout by river ---.. ZS PMax

Coelioxys sodalis, M, Side, NY, Pullout by river ---.. ZS PMax--histogram=f.flash=.
© Copyright source/photographer · 5
Coelioxys sodalis, M, Side, NY, Pullout by river ---.. ZS PMax--histogram=f.flash=.
Coelioxys sodalis, Barcode of Life Data Systems
Barcode of Life Data Systems · 1
Coelioxys sodalis, Barcode of Life Data Systems

Coelioxys sodalis, female, abdapex
© NC Agriculture State Experiment Station Technical Bulletin Number 152, T. B. Mitchell, 1962 · 1
Coelioxys sodalis, female, abdapex
Coelioxys sodalis, male, T6
© NC Agriculture State Experiment Station Technical Bulletin Number 152, T. B. Mitchell, 1962 · 1
Coelioxys sodalis, male, T6
Overview
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 152.


FEMALE—Length 11-13 mm.; entirely black, including tegulae and legs; eyes somewhat convergent below; lateral ocelli slightly nearer margin of vertex than to each other, and slightly nearer each other than to eyes; cheeks slightly narrower than eyes, carinate posteriorly, much narrowed and densely pubescent below, obscuring the inferior angle, clypeus nearly flat, apical margin straight, with 4 or 5 small denticles and a rather dense fringe of short, yellowish hairs interspersed with a few elongate hairs; median length of labrum subequal to basal width; mandibles quite slender, middle tooth about equal to the others; punctures quite coarse and deep, close but not crowded across vertex, becoming densely crowded on cheeks, coarsely reticulate just below anterior ocellus, face below antennae and clypeus finely sub-rugose; pubescence of head and thorax entirely pale, somewhat yellowish and quite dense on face, short and subappressed on clypeus, but more or less erect elsewhere, whitish and rather elongate on cheeks below, yellowish-white and rather copious on dorsum of thorax and on propodeum, somewhat more whitish but copious on pleura; transverse carinae of tubercles very low, barely evident beneath the dense pubescence; posterior margin of scutellum quite strongly outcurved, posterior face not sharply differentiated from dorsal face; axillae acute, rather slender apically, produced conspicuously from sides of scutellum, but tips not exceeding median length of scutellum; front coxal spines reduced to very short and inconspicuous, blunt tubercles; wings hyaline basally, becoming very faintly clouded along apical margin, recurrent veins reaching 2nd submarginal cell subequally distant from base and apex; punctures of scutum slightly separated medially, rather shallow and not very sparse, becoming somewhat finer and densely crowded laterally; punctures of scutellum much coarser and contiguous, those on axillae much finer toward base, becoming inevident on the minutely roughened tips; punctures of pleura not especially coarse, slightly separated below, surface more reticulate above; lateral faces of propodeum dull, finely reticulate, posterior face somewhat more finely reticulate, dorsal area smooth and velvety, but becoming rather broadly and very finely rugose along upper margin; basal abdominal tergum shining over the median 3rd, densely and copiously pale pubescent on each side, punctures very fine and rather sparse medially, becoming somewhat closer toward sides, apical margin only slightly depressed and subfasciate; transverse grooves of terga 2 and 3 submedian at mid-line, becoming more basal laterally, the more basal punctures quite deep, distinct and relatively close, the broader apical areas very sparsely, irregularly, and finely punctate, apical margins rather deeply depressed, with entire, whitish, apical fasciae; terga 4 and 5 sparsely and finely punctate except at extreme sides, apical margins very narrowly depressed and narrowly white fasciate; tergum 6 triangular in outline, the sides straight, very slightly grooved just beyond the mid point but neither incurved nor angulate, with a very fine, median, longitudinal ridge extending from near the base toward the tip, surface quite deeply excavated on each side near the tip which is narrowly rounded, surface somewhat shining at base, very finely and rather closely punctate, punctures becoming crowded toward apex which is more tessellate or subrugose (fig. 65); sternum 6 quite broad at base, abruptly narrowed toward the rather slender, narrowly rounded apex, the sides thus markedly incurved but not notched; sterna 1-4 rather sparsely and shallowly punctate medially, punctures becoming very close and relatively deep at sides, apical margins rather broadly impressed, yellowish-hyaline and rather densely white fasciate; sternum 4 triangular in outline, very finely punctate medially at base, becoming somewhat more coarsely so laterally, punctures becoming densely crowded, minute and obscure toward apex, the margins narrowly white fasciate.


MALE—Length 8-12. mm.; entirely black, including tegulae and legs; eyes somewhat convergent below; lateral ocelli slightly, nearer margin of vertex than to each other, and considerably nearer each other than to eyes; cheeks subequal to eyes in width, not noticeably carinate posteriorly, with a rather deep, bare concavity below, upper margin produced rather conspicuously below lower end of eye as a distinct tubercle, lower margin with a fringe of elongate hairs; clypeus nearly flat, apical margin straight, with 5 small denticles, rather conspicuously fringed with elongate, pale hairs; median length of labrum subequal to basal width; mandibles rather slender, median tooth well developed; punctures quite coarse and deep, distinct and slightly separated in part across vertex, cheeks more densely rugose, and face below ocelli densely and rather finely rugose, especially below antennae and on clypeus; pubescence of head and thorax entirely pale and somewhat yellowish, quite long and copious around antennae, between ocelli and over lower part of face, more definitely white but rather short on cheeks, whitish and copious over pleura and propodeum, somewhat more yellowish, elongate and rather thin over dorsum of thorax; transverse carinae of tubercles very low and inconspicuous, barely evident, obscured by pubescence; posterior margin of scutellum rather broadly out- curved, posterior and lateral surfaces not differentiated; axillae acute apically, rather short, projecting but little from margin of scutellum; coxal spines short but well developed, rather robust, tips narrowly rounded, densely long pubescent posteriorly; wings subhyaline, recurrent veins reaching 2nd submarginal cell subequally distant from base and apex; punctures of scutum quite deep and distinct throughout, rather coarse and slightly separated medially, becoming much finer and densely crowded laterally; punctures of scutellum quite densely crowded, not much coarser than those of scutum; axillae with much finer and densely crowded punctures, being nearly rugose; pleura rugose or rather finely reticulate below, becoming more coarsely reticulate above; lateral faces of propodeum finely reticulate and dull, posterior face finely, obscurely and closely punctate, dorsal area smooth, more velvety, becoming very narrowly, irregularly striate along upper margin; basal abdominal tergum shining, punctures rather fine and close but deep and distinct, quite regular, surface bearing rather copious, elongate, white pubescence, apical margin narrowly depressed and rather loosely pale fasciate; terga 2 and 3 markedly depressed across base but without definite grooves, punctures deep and distinct but rather fine and close, evenly distributed in general, but becoming considerably finer and closer on each side of mid-line on tergum 2, foveae completely lacking, apical margins rather deeply depressed, narrowly yellowish-hyaline, with entire whitish fasciae; terga 4 and 5 rather evenly, deeply and distinctly punctate, rather closely so on 4, somewhat more sparse on 5, apical margins narrowly depressed, yellowish hyaline, with entire white fasciae; tergum 6 deeply excavated in center toward apex, dorsal protuberances very short, subtriangular, compressed and nearly parallel, overlying base of the ventral spines which are more elongate, the tips narrowly truncate, intervening space rounded, lateral spines robust, tips very slightly curved, surface of tergum shining, finely and closely punctate medially, punctures becoming somewhat coarser and more sparse on each side (fig. 66); sterna 1-4 shining, closely, deeply and not very coarsely punctate, punctures evenly distributed, apical margins narrowly yellowish-hyaline, rather densely white fasciate; disc of sternum 4 not appreciably emarginate, but the depressed apical margin very slightly incurved medially; sternum 5 largely hidden, submembraneous, apical margin rather broadly and deeply in- curved medially, densely pubescent on each side of this apically; sterna 6 and 8 entirely retracted, largely membraneous, 8 rather regularly rounded apically; penis valves of genital armature fully equal to the gonocoxites in length, gonocoxites slightly swollen, bearing numerous, elongate, erect hairs.

DISTRIBUTION—British Columbia and Northwest Territory to Nova Scotia, Wisconsin, New York and the New England states; May to August.

FLOWER RECORDS—Rhodora and Rubus.

HOST — Megachile wootoni (melanophoea} Smith.







Reprinted with permission from: Baker J. R. 1975. Taxonomy of five nearctic subgenera of Coelioxys (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 50(12):649-730.


FEMALE. (1) Length 11-13 mm; (2) integument very finely rugulose. moderately shiny between punctures; black, antenna, legs, tegula, metasoma black to piceous; (3) pubescence white, pale ochraeous on face, mesosoma, golden on tarsi; (4) ocular hairs long (about 0.15 mm); (5) clypeus convex, almost hidden by appressed setae, longer, erect, scattered setae; margin with 6 small denticles (Fig. 45A); (6) clypeoantennal distance shorter than lateral margin of clypeus; (7) paraocular area almost hidden by setae up to 0.35 mm long; (8) rest of face rugose except for a small impunctate median area, closely punctured UI) to ocellar area; (9) clypeoantennal distance subequal to antennocular distance, less than interantennal distance; (10) ocellar area closely punctate; (11) interocellar distance greater than ocelloccipital distance, less than ocellocular distance; (12) vertex closely punctured; (13) gena narrower than eye. constricted below; ventral angle greater than 900; (14) hypostomal area of gena with setae subequal to or longer than those on disc; (15) mandible with short teeth (Fig. 45A); (16) scutum closely punctured; erect, slender setae on disc about 033 mm long; (17) lateral surface of mesepisternum closely punctured, with erect, slender setae about 035 mm long; (18) scutellum with posterior margin strongly rounded (Fig. 45C) or slightly produced, carina separating dorsal and posterior surfaces indistinct; (19) axilla sometimes less produced than shown in Figure 45C; (20) metanotal setae erect; (21) fore coxal spine small (about 0.08 mm), triangular, directed anteriorly; (22) terga 1-5 with apical fasciae less conspicuous than shown in Figure 21, punctured as in Figure 21 but with slightly smaller punctures; tergum 6 elongate (Fig. 45E); (23) sterna 1 to basal portion of sternum 5 moderately punctured, apical portion of sternum 5, sternum 6 very closely punctured; sternum 6 constricted subapically (Fig. 45E).

MALE. (24) Length 8-12 mm; (25) integument as in female (2 above); (26) pubescence white, golden on tarsi; (27) ocular hairs long (about 0.15 mm); (28) clypeus hidden by setae about 0.6 mm long; surface rugose, shiny; margin as in female (5 above); (29) clypeoantennal distance as in female (6 above); (30) paraocular area almost hidden by setae tip to 0.6 mm long; (31) rest of face closely punctured, almost hidden by setae up to 0.6 mm long; (32) clypeoantennal, antennocular, interantennal distances as in female (9 above); (33) ocellar area closely punctate; (34) interocellar distance sub- equal to ocelloccipital distance, less than ocellocular distance; (35) vertex closely punctured, sometimes with small, irregular, impunctate areas lateral to ocelli; (36) gena as in female (13 above); (37) hypostomal area of gena with distinct excavation (Fig. 5) covered with setae shorter than those on disc; (38-39) mandible, scutum as in female (15-16 above): (40) lateral surface of mesepisternum with setae about 0.45 mm long; (41-43) scutellum, axilla, metanotal setae as in female (18-20); (44) front coxal spine long (about 033 mm), narrow (about 0.12 mm) with setae on dorsal and ventral surfaces; rounded apically; directed anteriorly; (45) terga 1-5 with fasciae and punctures as in female (22 above); tergum 2 with postgradular area very closely punctured and rounded to densely punctured and slightly hut broadly sunken laterally; tergum 6 with dorsal spines slender (Fig. 45G); tergum 7 slightly protuberant apically (Fig. 46A); (46) sterna 1-4 moderately punctured, inconspicuous seta in each puncture; (47) margin of sternum 4, sternum 5 as in Figure 26B except denticles of sternum 4 more rounded; sternum 6 with shoulders inconspicuous (Fig. 46B); sternum 7 represented by 2 small sclerites; sternum 8 with narrow base (Fig. 46C); gonocoxite with long setae, gonobase complete (Fig. 46D).

HOST RECORDS. Graenicher (1927) reared Coelioxys sodalis from nests of Megachile melanophoea wootoni. Medler (1968) reared C. sodalis from the cells of Al. texana. Hobbs (1968) reared C. sodalis from a third host bee, M. rotundata.

DISTRIBUTION AND SEASON OF FLIGHT. Coelioxys sodalis, like C. juneraria and C. moesta, ranges from Alaska to high altitudes in Arizona and eastward in the north to Nova Scotia (Fig. 47). This bee is in flight at least from April 17 (Arizona) and June 5 (Yukon Territory) to September 8 (Alberta).

HABITAT. Coelioxys sodalis has been collected mainly from areas classified as coniferous forests, although it does range down into sagebrush steppe (Artemisia, Agropyron) in the northwestern United States. In Canada it has been collected in the ecotone between tundra and coniferous forest, in the boreal forest, in the coastal or moist coniferous forest, and in coniferous and deciduous forest combinations in the east. In the Southwest, C. sodalis is associated with various coniferous forests dominated mainly by pine (Pinus).

GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION. Specimens of Coelioxys sodalis from the southern part of its range tend to have more distinct setal fasciae. In addition, the foveal area on the second metasomal tergum of males tends to be more closely punctured and very slightly and broadly sunken in males from the Southwest. Western specimens closely resemble specimens of the Old World Coelioxys quadridentata in that western specimens of C. sodalis are more coarsely punctured.

COMPARATIVE COMMENTS. Coelioxys sodalis is a fairly large, dark bee which resembles C. funeraria and dark specimens of C. rufitarsis. Females of C. sodalis differ from the latter two species by the unnotched sixth metasomal sternum. Males of C. sodalis differ from C. funeraria and C. rufitarsis by the lack of a distinct fovea on the second metasomal tergum.

Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Asteraceae  Agoseris glauca @ BBSL (1)

Aster sp @ RMBL_ENT (1)

Dugaldia hoopesii @ DART_ENT (1)

Encelia farinosa @ BBSL__KWC (1)

Erigeron speciosus @ DART_ENT (1)

Erigeron specisosus @ DART_ENT (1)

Heterotheca villosa @ DART_ENT (1)

Senecio sp @ BBSL (1)

Senecio @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Symphyotrichum ascendens @ RMBL_ENT (1)
Boraginaceae  Hackelia floribunda @ RMBL_ENT (1)

Phacelia heterophylla @ RMBL_ENT (1)
Fabaceae  Acmispon nevadensis @ UCRC_ENT (14)

Astragalus fremontii @ BBSL__KWC (1)

Lotus nevadensis @ BBSL__KWC (3)

Melilotus officinalis @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Geraniaceae  Geranium richardsonii @ RMBL_ENT (2); DART_ENT (1)
Herndon, j.d.  1537 @ JRYA__OLYM (1)

1799 @ JRYA__OLYM (1)
Onagraceae  Epilobium angustifolium @ RMBL_ENT (1)
Polemoniaceae  Polemonium foliosissimum @ DART_ENT (1)
Rykken, j.  1535 @ JRYA__OLYM (2)

1537 @ JRYA__OLYM (1)

1562 @ JRYA__OLYM (1)

1564 @ JRYA__OLYM (1)
_  Withheld @ BBSL (26); BBSL__YOSE (10)

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Updated: 2018-11-14 22:10:00 gmt
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