Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 152.|
FEMALE—Length 13 mm.; black, tegulae yellowish-hyaline, scape and pedicel of antennae, legs and venter of abdomen in large part ferruginous; eyes nearly parallel; lateral ocelli subequally distant from margin of vertex, from eyes and each other; cheeks very narrow, subcarinate posteriorly, carinate margin meeting the hypostomal carinae below at a distinct angle, this area not excavated; clypeus very slightly convex, apical margin nearly straight, very finely tuberculate, with a dense fringe of rather short, whitish pubescence; median length of labrum somewhat greater than basal width; median tooth of mandible somewhat smaller than the others; punctures quite deep and distinct, not very coarse, but well separated across vertex, becoming somewhat closer and more obscure on cheeks, area surrounding anterior ocellus markedly swollen and impunctate, a narrower impunctate band extending from this to upper margins of eyes; supraclypeal area rather deeply, distinctly and closely punctate, clypeus more irregularly rugose, with shining, irregular anastomosing lines; pubescence entirely pale, somewhat yellowish and rather copious around bases of antennae and on sides of face, very sparse and more whitish on cheeks; pubescence sparse on pleura, with thin fringes anteriorly and posteriorly, scutello-mesothoracic suture narrowly yellowish tomentose, posterior surface of scutellum densely tomentose and scutum with a pair of anterior, transverse curved lines of tomentum which are somewhat broader toward median line, with a few scattered, scale-like hairs between; propodeum with finer, more erect and elongate, quite dense pubescence; transverse carinae of tubercles erect and conspicuous, yellowish-hyaline, extending along anterior margin of scutum for a considerable distance; posterior margin of scutellum broadly angulate, posterior and dorsal surfaces quite sharply differentiated but not carinate; axillae well developed, acute apically, tips about equaling the median length of the scutellum (fig. 64) ; front coxal spines reduced to very short and inconspicuous, blunt or subcarinate tubercles; wings subhyaline at base becoming faintly infuscated apically, recurrent veins reaching 2nd submarginal cell subequally distant from base and apex; scutum rather dull, punctures coarse, deep and distinct, slightly separated in the broad, median area, becoming very close laterally; punctures of scutellum somewhat smaller and closer than those of scutum, and axillae with a few, scattered, indistinct punctures; punctures of pleura rather shallow, coarse and widely separated in general, becoming close only just below the tegulae; lateral faces of propodeum rather smooth, surface obscured by rather dense pubescence, posterior face rather dull, with minute, indefinite, scattered punctures, dorsal area velvety, becoming quite deeply, abruptly and narrowly striate across upper margin; basal abdominal tergum shining, coarsely and deeply punctate, punctures slightly separated but not sparse throughout, margin of basal concavity conspicuously yellowish fasciate, and apical margin with an entire, narrow, yellowish fascia; terga 2 and 3 with submedian, slightly oblique, transverse grooves on each side, these widely interrupted medially, quite densely pale tomentose, forming a rather distinct, submedian fascia, punctures quite coarse and deep, well separated medially, becoming somewhat closer laterally, apical margins narrowly depressed, yellowish-hyaline, with entire yellowish fasciae; tergum 4 faintly impressed on each side, but not definitely grooved, with only a few scattered, scale-like hairs, punctures somewhat finer and closer at extreme base, becoming rather sparse and somewhat coarser toward depressed apical margin which has an entire, pale yellowish fascia; tergum 5 rather dull, punctures rather fine and close basally, becoming somewhat more sparse toward apical margin, this depressed and thinly, yellowish fasciate; terguni 6 rather broad at base, apex triangularly pointed, each side thus slightly outcurved, upper surface quite flat, rather dull, finely and closely punctate at base, punctures becoming more sparse apically, apical and sublateral margins bearing scattered, coarse and elongate punctures, being almost striate (fig. 65); sternum 6 nearly parallel-sided, apex broadly rounded, produced considerably beyond apex of tergum; sterna 1-4 shining, deeply and coarsely punctate, punctures well separated medially, becoming closer laterally, apical margins rather broadly yellowish-hyaline and loosely white fasciate; sternum 5 broadly rounded apically, coarsely punctate across extreme base, but the median, apical areas with very minute and close punctures interspersed with somewhat coarser and more sparse punctures on a shining surface, thus doubly punctate, apical margin rather broadly hyaline, not definitely fasciate.
MALE—Length 11-12 mm.; black, tegulae yellowish-hyaline, scape and pedicel of antennae, legs and venter of abdomen in large part ferruginous; eyes slightly convergent below; lateral ocelli slightly nearer each other than to eyes, much nearer eyes than to margin of vertex; cheeks much narrower than eyes, inferior angle rounded, this area not excavated; clypeus slightly convex, apical margin nearly straight, with a pair of submedian tubercles which are slightly separated; median length of labrum somewhat greater than basal width; mandibles distinctly 3-dentate; punctures deep and distinct, rather coarse, slightly separated across vertex, becoming somewhat closer and rather obscure on cheeks, very fine and close below, surface becoming somewhat shining below mandibles; area surrounding anterior ocellus markedly swollen and impunctate and upper margin of eye with a similar impunctate area, these areas subcontiguous; punctures of face beneath the dense pubescence close and fine, clypeus somewhat more coarsely and irregularly, but deeply punctate; pleura sparsely pubescent with thin anterior and posterior fringes, the scutello-mesothoracic suture narrowly yellowish tomentose, posterior margin of scutellum densely tomentose, scutum with a pair of slightly curved, transverse, anterior lines of tomentum that are somewhat broadened at inner end, with a few, scattered, scale-like hairs between; pubescence of propodeum more erect and elongate, whitish, rather dense along posterior, lateral margins; transverse carinae of tubercles erect, well developed, yellowish-hyaline, extended considerably along anterior margin of scutum; posterior margin of scutellum broadly rounded or subangulate, posterior and dorsal faces quite sharply differentiated but not carinate; axillae quite robust, acute apically, tips not exceeding median length of scutellum; coxal spines reduced to acute tubercles; wings hyaline basally, becoming faintly infuscated apically, recurrent veins reaching 2nd submarginal cell subequally distant from base and apex; scutum somewhat shining, punctures coarse, deep and distinct, well separated across posterior half of disc and in center, becoming rather close but irregular at each side anteriorly; punctures of scutellum deep and distinct, somewhat finer and closer than those of scutum; punctures of axillae quite coarse, not very close; pleura somewhat shining below, punctures rather shallow but coarse, rather widely separated in general, becoming close only just below tegulae; lateral faces of propodeum dull, rather finely and deeply punctate beneath the copious pubescence, posterior face finely and closely punctate, dorsal area velvety, becoming irregularly and finely rugoso-striate along upper margin; basal abdominal tergum shining, punctures deep and distinct, rather coarse, well separated throughout, margin of concavity quite distinctly yellowish fasciate, but this interrupted medially, apical margin slightly depressed, with complete, whitish, apical fascia; tergum 2 with very short, transverse, sub- basal grooves toward sides, these widely separated medially, filled with scale-like, pale pubescence forming an indefinite fascia, median punctures deep and distinct but very sparse, becoming quite fine and close between inner end of groove and the apical margin, but coarser and less close toward sides, apical margin deeply depressed and impunctate but not definitely fasciate; terga 3-5 with dense, basal fasciae which are interrupted medially, apical margins deeply depressed and impunctate, not fasciate, punctures coarse and sparse medially becoming quite close at extreme sides; tergum 6 fasciate across base, deeply excavated in center, dorsal protuberance irregular, short, somewhat flared and multidentate or crenulate, ventral spines short but acute, strongly divergent and widely separated, dorsal surface shining, rather deeply and finely punctate, punctures quite close within the central cavity (fig. 66) ; sterna 1-4 shining, deeply, coarsely, quite closely and regularly punctate, apical margins depressed, yellowish-hyaline, thinly whitish fasciate; depressed apical margin of sternum 4 with a rather deep, median emargination, acutely angulate on each side of this; sternum 5 largely retracted, apical margin very shallowly in- curved medially; sterna 6 and 8 entirely retracted, submembraneous; gonocoxites slightly exceeding penis valves in length, somewhat swollen apically, bearing only extremely short, fine and obscure hairs toward apex.
DISTRIBUTION—Primarily southwestern, occurring in Mexico and Arizona, reaching Minnesota in the north and Florida in the south; March to September.
FLOWER RECORDS — Acacia, Aster, Bidens, Borrichia, Cercocarpus, Coccoloba, Eriogonum, Gaillardia, Indigofera, Lepidium, Mimosa and Viguiera.
Another form of this species, vegana Cockerell, has been described from New Mexico, making the subspecific designation of this typical form of texana desirable.
Reprinted with permission from: Baker J. R. 1975. Taxonomy of five nearctic subgenera of Coelioxys (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 50(12):649-730.
FEMALE. (1) Length 9-14 mm; (2) integument between punctures granular on vertex, weakly so on thorax, dull on metanotum and propodeum, shiny elsewhere; black; scape, pedicel, apical portion of labrum, pronotal lobe, tegula, front coxal spine, trochanters, femora, tibiae, ventral or medioventral portion of hind coxa, lateroposterior margins of terga 1-4, sometimes 5, and posterior portions of sterna 1-5 ferruginous to reddish brown; (3) pubescence white, slightly brown below antenna, golden on tarsi, brown on apices of tergum 6 and sternum 6; (4) ocular hairs short (about 0.05 mm); (5) clypeus visible medially, margin irregular (Fig. 14A); (6) clypeoantennal distance subequal to lateral margin of clypeus; (7) paraocular area hidden laterally by setae about 0.2 mm long; (8) rest of face punctured up to ocellar area; (9) clypcoantennal and interantennal distances equal, greater than antennocular distance (Fig. 11A); (10) ocellar area with impunctate areas broad (Figs. 10, 11A); (11) ocelloccipital distance subequal to ocellocular distance, greater than or subequal to interocellar distance (Fig. 10); (12) vertex moderately punctate (Figs. 10, 11A); (13) gena narrower than eye, setae not obscuring integument, ventral angle about 90°; (14) hypostomal area of the gena with setae shorter than on disc; (15) mandible short, broad (Fig. 11A); (16) scutum with conspicuous fasciae (Fig. 10); (17) lateral surface of mesepisternum with punctures well separated, many more minute punctures than punctures, pubescence short; (18) scutellum with posterior margin of dorsal surface subangulate in dorsal view (Fig. 10); (19) axilla well produced (Fig. 10); (20) metanotal setae appressed medially, erect laterally; (21) front coxal spine subtriangular, flattened, directed ventrally or slightly forward, inconspicuous:
(22) terga 1-5 with conspicuous fasciae, tergum 6 rounded (Fig. 10); (23) sterna 1-5
fasciate apically, fasciae less conspicuous posteriorly, punctures on sterna 1-4 with short setae, punctures exceedingly small and close medially on sternum 5 arid sub. apically on sternum 6, ventral apical margin of sternum 6 hare, shining, broadly rounded (Fig. 10).
MALE. (24) Length 10-12.3 mm; (25) integument as in female (2 above); (26) pubescence white, golden on tarsi; (27) ocular hairs of medium length (about 0.075 mm, Fig. 12A); (28) clypeus hidden by setae in some specimens, coarsely rugose; clypeal margin as in female (5 above); (29) clypeoantennal distance is in female (6 above); (30) paraocular area hidden by setae about 0.3 mm long: (31) rest of face hidden up to ocellar area; (32) antennocular distance less than clypeoantennal distance which is less than interantennal distance; (33) ocellar area as in female (10 above); (34) interocellar and ocellocular distances equal, less than ocelloccipital distance (Fig. 12A); (35) vertex as in female but longer (12 above, Fig. 12A); (36) gena as in female (13 above); (37) hypostomal area of the gena with setae as long as on discs; (38) mandible as in female (15 above); (39) scutum as in female (16 above) but with slender erect setae on disc; (40-43) mesepisternum, scutellum, axilla, metanotum as in female (17-20 above); (44) front coxal spine about twice as long as broad; (45) terga 1-6 fasciate, carina of tergum 6 crenulate, or with sharp denticles, deeply emarginate, often asymmetric (Fig. 12B.-C), tergum 7 with apical spine (Fig. 13A); (46) sterna 1.4 evenly punctate with squamose setae filling most punctures, sterna 1.3 apically with irregular fasciae about 0.35 mm wide; (47) sternum 4 submarginally carinate, apex bidentate (Fig. 13B); margin of sternum 5 slightly emarginate (Fig. 13B); sternum 6 with unbranched setae medioapically (Fig. 13C); sternum 7 simple (Fig. 13D); sternum 8 with small, unbrandd setae medially (Fig. 13E); genital armature with area at base of penis calves (arrow on Fig. 13F) sometimes
HOST RECORDS. Krombein (1967) reported rearing Coelioxys terana from trap nests provisioned by Megachile policaris.
DISTRIBUTION AND SEASON OF FLIGHT. Coelioxys texana is most abundant in the southwestern United States (Fig. 15). Exceptionally long series have been taken at the Southwestern Research Station five miles west of Portal, Arizona.
This bee has been collected from March 27 to November 2 in Texas. One specimen of Coelioxys texana was taken November 17 at Ciudad Victoria, Tamualipas, Mexico.
HABITAT. Coelioxys texana has been taken at altitudes ranging from close to sea level (Indian Wells, California) to 9,000 feet. Habitats range from humid areas such as mangrove and floodplain forests of Florida to xeric habitats in Arizona and southern California where major vegetational types include Larrea, Opuntia, Cercidiurn, Bouteloua, Hilaria, Quercus, Juniperas, Flourensia, and Franseria. Coelioxys texana is apparently not common at higher altitudes although specimens from two localities indicate it may range up into coniferous forests (Shannon Peak, Pinalena Mountains, Arizona, 9,000 feet and Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, 4,800 feet).
GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION. Specimens of Coelioxys texana from Florida have wings which are noticeably darker and a deeper yellow than wings of C. texana from other areas. All (seven) males from Florida also have the margin of the carina of the sixth tergum produced into sharp denticles (Fig. 12 C); elsewhere the margin of the sixth tergum is crenulate (Fig. 12 B). A single female from the Lower Matecumbe Key with dark, yellowish wings (but typical in other characters) has been associated with these males.
COMPARATIVE COMMENTS. In both sexes of Coelioxys texana the antennal scape and pedicel are usually ferruginous, a condition found in no other North American Coelioxys spp. Of the females in this group, C. texana has the lateral ocelli furthest removed from the occipital margin (subequally distant from the occipital margin and eye).