Ningaloo Reef (22°45'S) to Cassini Island (13°56'S), Rowley Shoals (17°20'S) and Scott Reef (14°03'S), WA, Ashmore Reef, Timor Sea (12°15'S), Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Raine Island (11°36'S) to Moreton Bay (27°56'S), QLD, also Boot Reef, Ashmore Reef, Osprey Reef, Coringa-Herald Cays and Lihou Reef, Coral Sea; tropical, Indo-west-central Pacific.
Northeast Province (18), Northeast Transition (19), Timor Province (2), Cape Province (20), Cocos (Keeling) Island Province (22), Christmas Island Province (23), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Northwest Transition (3), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)
Coral Sea Islands Territory, Territory of Ashmore & Cartier Islands
Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea(Randall et al.,1990)
Dorsal-fin rays VIII, 27-31 ; anal-fin rays III, 24-28 ; pectoral-fin rays 16-17. Body dark olive-brown with orange spots on head. Pectoral fin yellowish, caudal and ventral fins brown, anterior part of caudal fin pale. Each side of caudal peduncle with sharp, forward-pointing erectile spine which folds down into a horizontal groove. Scales minute. Juveniles with 8 - 12 pale stipes inclining downward and backwards on body. Teeth movable, slender, tips incurved and expanded.
It occurs in silty coastal habitats, as well as along outer reef slopes. May occur singly or in small to forming large schools, often mixed-species aggregations. Feeds on surface film of blue-green algae and diatoms as well as on various small invertebrat
Indo-Pacific: throughout the region except the Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands, and Easter Island Record from Baker Island based on a photograph. Also absent from Malden and Jarvis Islands. Austral, Rapa, Line and Society Islands. Taiwan: South, Hsiao
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Indo-Pacific: throughout the region except the Hawaiian, Marquesas and Easter islands. Record from Baker Island (US Minor Islands) based on a photograph (Ref.
). Absent from Malden and Jarvis islands (Ref.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. reported age: 36 years (Ref.
: 24 - 28. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body deep and compressed, its depth 1.9-2.3 times in standard length or SL; mouth small, teeth numerous (> 30 in jaws of adults), movable, slender and elongate, with expanded incurved tips which are denticulate on the lateral margin (6 denticulations on upper and 4 on lower teeth); total gill rakers on first gill arch 27-36; a continuous unnotched dorsal fin with VIII,27-31; AIII,24-28; caudal fin lunate, concavity 3.7-6 times in SL; a lancet-like spine on caudal peduncle which folds into a deep horizontal groove; colour dark olive to yellowish brown with blue or blue-grey lengthwise lines on body and small orange spots on head and nape; dorsal and anal fins with about 5 lengthwise dark bluish bands; pectoral fins pale with brownish yellow rays; a small blackish spot at rear base of dorsal fin of juveniles and small adults (Ref.
Inhabits reef flats and lagoon and seaward reefs to a depth of over 30 m. Occurs over coral (Ref.
), rock, pavement, or rubble substrates. May occur singly or in small to very large, often mixed-species aggregations (Ref.
). Feeds on surface film of blue-green algae and diatoms (making this species a key link in the ciguatera food chain) as well as on various small invertebrates.
Life cycle and mating behavior
In Tahiti, spawning starts near full moon with the formation of schools of several thousand fish at various depths. The fish remain almost motionless for between 1 to 3 hrs, then change their normal color to pale grey. About 4 or 5 fishes rise a few yards above main school & swim around each other discharging milt & eggs, then return to former place & replaced by another group to spawn.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 24.6 - 29, mean 27.8 (based on 1078 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02344 (0.01925 - 0.02855), b=2.97 (2.92 - 3.02), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax = 36; K=0.87).
Prior r = 0.44, 95% CL = 0.29 - 0.66, Based on 1 stock assessment.
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
Luna, Susan M.
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