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Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacépède, 1802)
FOURLINE TONGUE SOLE
Fourlined Tonguesole; Sind Tongue-sole; Two-lined Tongue Sole; Two-lined Tongue-sole; Achirus bilineatus Lacépède, 1802

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Cynoglossidae   Cynoglossus

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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/828787eb-f405-4dde-94f6-79857e559197 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/828787eb-f405-4dde-94f6-79857e559197
https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/828787eb-f405-4dde-94f6-79857e559197 ---> http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d4cba434-313a-4f47-950a-2a1e7b8b0305;jsessionid=BA99A4593628885F036168E6FCAD0206
http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d4cba434-313a-4f47-950a-2a1e7b8b0305;jsessionid=BA99A4593628885F036168E6FCAD0206 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d4cba434-313a-4f47-950a-2a1e7b8b0305;jsessionid=BA99A4593628885F036168E6FCAD0206
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Pleuronectiformes  
 Family Cynoglossidae  
 Genus Cynoglossus  
  Cynoglossus bilineatus    (Lacepède, 1802) 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Achirus bilineatus Arelia bilineata Arelia diplasios Arelia quadrilineata Cynoglossus bilinetaus Cynoglossus diplasios Cynoglossus quadrilineata Cynoglossus quadrilineatus Cynoglossus quinquelineatus Cynoglossus sindensis Plagusia quadrilineata   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-鰈形目(李&王, 1995)
Character: Dorsal-fin rays 110-120; anal-fin rays 85-95; caudal-fin rays 11-12. Eyed side brown with an irregular dark blotch on gill cover, blind side white. Blind side with 2 lateral lines. Body elongate, its depth 3.45 to 4.55 times in standard length. Eyes with a small scaly interorbital space. Snout rounded. Rostral hook short. Corner of mouth reaching posteriorly beyond lower eye, nearer to gill opening than to tip of snout. Midlateral-line scales 88 to 96. Scales ctenoid on eyed side of body. Cycloid on blind side. Scale rows between lateral lines on eyed side of body 13 to 16.  
Habitat: Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms of continental shelves. Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates. 
Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: off Pakistan, the west coast of India and Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, and the north and east coasts of Australia. Taiwan: West. 
Utility: Commercial fishery species. Utilized as a food fish. 
Name Code: 382728
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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Cynoglossus&speciesname=bilineatus ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Cynoglossus-bilineatus.html
http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Cynoglossus-bilineatus.html ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Cynoglossus-bilineatus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède , 1802)

Fourlined tonguesole Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Cynoglossus bilineatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Cynoglossus bilineatus (Fourlined tonguesole) Cynoglossus bilineatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae (Tonguefishes) > Cynoglossinae
Etymology: Cynoglossus: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Lacepède .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 10 - 400 m (Ref. 11441 ).   Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 11441 ), off Pakistan, the west coast of India and Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, and the north and east coasts of Australia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559 ); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2872 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 107-113; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 80 - 88. Eyed side brown with an irregular dark blotch on gill cover, blind side white. Blind side with 2 lateral lines (dorsal and medial). Body elongate, its depth 22 to 29% SL. Eyes with a small scaly interorbital space. Snout rounded. Rostral hook short. Corner of mouth reaching posteriorly beyond lower eye, nearer to gill opening than to tip of snout. Caudal-fin rays usually 12. Midlateral-line scales 88 to 96. Scales ctenoid on eyed side of body. Cycloid on blind side. Scale rows between lateral lines on eyed side of body 13 to 16 (Ref 9895).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in coastal areas and estuaries. May ascend upstream into the freshwater tidal zone of the Mekong (Ref. 12693 ). Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms of continental shelves. Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 3391 ). Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 3391 ). Marketed fresh in the Mekong delta (Ref. 12693 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Menon, A.G.K. , 1977. A systematic monograph of the tongue soles of the genus Cynoglossus Hamilton-Buchanan (Pisces: Cynoglossidae). Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (238):1-129. (Ref. 5297 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

    Not Evaluated  

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 16.9 - 28, mean 23.8 (based on 942 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.37 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 2,223-225,557). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Capuli, Estelita Emily Modified by Torres, Armi G. Fish Forum
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