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Echeneis naucrates Linnaeus, 1758
SHARKSUCKER
Australian Remora; Gapu; Slender Sucker-fish; Slender Suckerfish; Slender Sucking Fish; Striped Suckerfish; Live Sharksucker

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Echeneidae   Echeneis

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Echeneis naucrates
© Copyright Clay Bryce, 2006 · 0
Echeneis naucrates

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Overview
Main identification features Body long and slender; dorsal rays 34-42; anal rays 32-38; bases of dorsal and anal fins very long; pectoral rays 21-24; sucking disc on head with 18-28 plates; tail fin slightly rounded; lower jaw projecting.

Grey, white edged black stripe along side from tip of lower jaw through eye to tail fin, stripe broader at front.

Size: reaches 100 cm.

Often see around reefs. Attaches to a variety of hosts, including sharks, rays, large fishes, turtles and whates, but frequently free-living.

Depth: 0-50 m.

Circumtropical; throughout our region.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 50 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: Pelagic crustacea; bony fishes; ectoparasites; zooplankton.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore; Ectoparasite cleaner; Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Large fishes (billfishes, rays, sharks, etc), turtles & whales; Water column; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom).
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 100 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Brackish.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
   Top | See original

http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/bc5397e4-0505-461c-8022-d2706695ac3b/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/bc5397e4-0505-461c-8022-d2706695ac3b/
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

 
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Echeneidae  
 Genus Echeneis  
  Echeneis naucrates    Linnaeus, 1758 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Echeneis chiromacer Echeneis fasciata Echeneis fusca Echeneis guaican Echeneis lunata Echeneis metallica Echeneis naucratus Echeneis neucrates Echeneis scaphecrates Echeneis vittata Echensis naucrates details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Character: Body elongate, depth of body contained 8 to 14 times in standard length. Jaws broad, the lower projecting beyond the upper. First dorsal fin replaced by a transversal, laminated, oval cephalic disc with 21 to 28 laminae; second dorsal fin and anal fin long, lacking spines, the anal fin with 31 to 41 soft rays; pectoral fins short, high on body, pointed; caudal fin lanceolate in young, the middle rays elongate and filamentous; caudal fin almost truncate in adults, with the upper and lower lobes longer than the middle rays. A dark longitudinal band on sides bordered with white; juveniles with upper and lower margins of fins white. 
Habitat: Occurs near as well as far from the coast. Often found free-swimming in shallow inshore areas and around coral reefs. Attaches temporarily to a variety of hosts including sharks, rays, large bony fishes or sea turtles, whales, dolphins and also to ships.  
Distribution: Worldwide in tropical and temperate seas, except for Pacific American coast. It is common in waters around Taiwan. 
Utility: Not commonly seen in fish markets; gamefish; aquarium fishes. 
Name Code: 381644
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Echeneis&speciesname=naucrates ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Echeneis&speciesname=naucrates
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Echeneis&speciesname=naucrates ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Echeneis-naucrates.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Echeneis naucrates Linnaeus , 1758

Live sharksucker Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Echeneis naucrates   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Echeneis naucrates (Live sharksucker) Echeneis naucrates
Picture by Bryan, D.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Echeneidae (Remoras)
Etymology: Echeneis: Greek, echein = to hold + Greek, nays = ship; remora, suckling fish; 1774 (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 85 m (Ref. 86942 ).   Subtropical; 45°N - 45°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumtropical. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and Bermuda to Uruguay (Ref. 7251 , 26938 ). Eastern Central Atlantic: Madeira Island (Ref. 74541 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710 ); common length : 66.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10970 ); max. published weight: 2.3 kg (Ref. 40637 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 32-42; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 29 - 41.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Most abundant remora in warm waters (Ref. 4389 ). Occurs near as well as far from the coast (Ref. 5217 ). Often found free-swimming in shallow inshore areas and around coral reefs (Ref. 26938 ). Attaches temporarily to a variety of hosts including sharks, rays, large bony fishes or sea turtles, whales, dolphins and also to ships. May follow divers (Ref. 9710 ); reported to attach itself to a diver's leg (Ref. 57809 ). Feeds on small fishes, bits of its host's prey and host's parasites (Ref. 26938 ). Juveniles occasionally act as reef station-based cleaners, where they service parrotfishes (Ref. 40095 ). Sometimes used by natives to aid in fishing; a line is tied to the caudal peduncle of the remora and then is released; upon attaching to another fish, the remora and its host are hauled in by the fisher (Ref. 9682 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley , 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 23 August 2012

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 18.3 - 28.6, mean 27.2 (based on 566 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.7539   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00112 - 0.00679), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.7   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   High .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei Fish Forum
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