Body long and slender; dorsal rays 34-42; anal rays 32-38; bases of dorsal and anal fins very long; pectoral rays 21-24; sucking disc on head with 18-28 plates; tail fin slightly rounded; lower jaw projecting.
Grey, white edged black stripe along side from tip of lower jaw through eye to tail fin, stripe broader at front.
Size: reaches 100 cm.
Often see around reefs. Attaches to a variety of hosts, including sharks, rays, large fishes, turtles and whates, but frequently free-living.
Depth: 0-50 m.
Circumtropical; throughout our region.
Attributes Abundance: Common. Cites: Not listed. Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ). Depth Range Max: 50 m. Depth Range Min: 0 m. Diet: Pelagic crustacea; bony fishes; ectoparasites; zooplankton. Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=40. Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva. Feeding Group: Carnivore; Ectoparasite cleaner; Planktivore. FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated. Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species. Habitat: Large fishes (billfishes, rays, sharks, etc), turtles & whales; Water column; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom). Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Offshore; In & Offshore. IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed. Length Max: 100 cm. Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species. Residency: Resident. Salinity: Marine; Brackish. Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Water column only;
Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Body elongate, depth of body contained 8 to 14 times in standard length. Jaws broad, the lower projecting beyond the upper. First dorsal fin replaced by a transversal, laminated, oval cephalic disc with 21 to 28 laminae; second dorsal fin and anal fin long, lacking spines, the anal fin with 31 to 41 soft rays; pectoral fins short, high on body, pointed; caudal fin lanceolate in young, the middle rays elongate and filamentous; caudal fin almost truncate in adults, with the upper and lower lobes longer than the middle rays. A dark longitudinal band on sides bordered with white; juveniles with upper and lower margins of fins white.
Occurs near as well as far from the coast. Often found free-swimming in shallow inshore areas and around coral reefs. Attaches temporarily to a variety of hosts including sharks, rays, large bony fishes or sea turtles, whales, dolphins and also to ships.
Worldwide in tropical and temperate seas, except for Pacific American coast. It is common in waters around Taiwan.
Not commonly seen in fish markets; gamefish; aquarium fishes.
Most abundant remora in warm waters (Ref.
). Occurs near as well as far from the coast (Ref.
). Often found free-swimming in shallow inshore areas and around coral reefs (Ref.
). Attaches temporarily to a variety of hosts including sharks, rays, large bony fishes or sea turtles, whales, dolphins and also to ships. May follow divers (Ref.
); reported to attach itself to a diver's leg (Ref.
). Feeds on small fishes, bits of its host's prey and host's parasites (Ref.
). Juveniles occasionally act as reef station-based cleaners, where they service parrotfishes (Ref.
). Sometimes used by natives to aid in fishing; a line is tied to the caudal peduncle of the remora and then is released; upon attaching to another fish, the remora and its host are hauled in by the fisher (Ref.
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley
, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 18.3 - 28.6, mean 27.2 (based on 566 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.7539 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00112 - 0.00679), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.7 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000).
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei
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