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Echidna nebulosa (Ahl, 1789)
STARRY MORAY
Bosch's Reef-eel; Clouded Eel; Clouded Moray; Clouded Reef Eel; Snowflake Moray; Starry Eel; Muraena echidna Gmelin, 1789; Muraena variegata Richardson, 1848; Muraena nebulosa Ahl, 1789

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Muraenidae   Echidna

Echidna nebulosa
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Echidna nebulosa

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Echidna nebulosa
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Echidna nebulosa
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Overview
Main identification features
  • eye and front nostril yellow
  • white + 2 rows dark blotches and yellow spots
  • teeth short, conical
Dorsal and anal fin rays developed as skin-covered ridges, but clearly evident; tip of tail blunt, with a skin-covered fin; short stout conical teeth at front of jaws; side of jaws with 1-2 rows of small close-set compressed nodular teeth.

White, with two rows of dendritic black blotches containing small yellow spots, these blotches sometimes forming more or less complete bars on head region; numerous small black spots between large blotches; front nostrils yellow.

Size: to 80 cm.

Habitat: rocky and rubble bottoms.

Depth: 1-30 m.

Widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific from East Africa to the Americas; the central-west Gulf of California, and from central Mexico to Colombia, and all the oceanic islands.



Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 30 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=29; Southern limit=-2; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=31; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Estuary; Mangrove; Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef and soft bottom.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 80 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Brackish.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Ahl, J. N., 1789., Specimen ichthyologicum de Muraena et Ophichtho, quod venia exp. fac. Med. ups. Praeside Carol. Pet. Thunberg, etc. Upsala., Spec. Muraena Ophichtho., :1-14.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. , Balart , E. F. and Arvizu-Martínez, J., 1995., Contribución al conocimiento del origen y distribución de la ictiofauna del Golfo de California, México., Hidrobiologica, 5:57-78.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1990., Ictiofauna Indopacifica asociada a los corales de la Isla de Gorgona., Revista de Ciencias, 2:97-105.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.

Acknowledgements

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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Echidna&speciesname=nebulosa ---> http://192.134.151.83/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Echidna&speciesname=nebulosa
http://192.134.151.83/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Echidna&speciesname=nebulosa ---> https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Echidna&speciesname=nebulosa
https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Echidna&speciesname=nebulosa ---> https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/summary/Echidna-nebulosa.html
Echidna nebulosa, Starry moray : fisheries, aquarium
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Echidna nebulosa ( Ahl , 1789 )

Starry moray Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Echidna nebulosa   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos | Google image Image of Echidna nebulosa (Starry moray) Echidna nebulosa
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Anguilliformes (Eels and morays) > Muraenidae (Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Echidna: Greek, echidna = viper, 1847 (Ref. 45335 ) .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 48 m (Ref. 58302 ), usually ? - 10 m (Ref. 30404 ). Tropical; 32°N - 33°S, 27°E - 76°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 33390 ) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964 ) to the Society Islands, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to Lord Howe Island; throughout Micronesia. Eastern Central Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico and from Costa Rica to northern Colombia (Ref. 9324 ). Also found in Southeast Atlantic.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635 ); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3258 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0; Vertebrae : 119 - 126. Body white with 2 rows of large dendritic black blotches; black spots between blotches become irregularly linear with age. Yellow eyes (Ref. 48635 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found between rocks and corals of intertidal reef flats, also in shallow lagoon and seaward reefs to depths of at least 10 m (Ref. 9710 , 58302 ). Benthic (Ref. 58302 ). Nocturnal (Ref. 68964 ). Feed mainly on crustaceans. Protogynous hermaphroditism unconfirmed for this species (Ref. 84746 ). Safely kept with small aquarium fishes (Ref. 9710 ). Solitary, seen usually in the open or with only head exposed (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Protogyny unconfirmed (Ref. 84746 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen , 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 16 August 2011

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201 ): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3674 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00034 (0.00022 - 0.00052), b=3.31 (3.19 - 3.43), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.71 se; based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (60 of 100). Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium . Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 27.5 [14.8, 48.7] mg/100g; Iron = 0.421 [0.252, 0.924] mg/100g; Protein = 18.8 [16.5, 21.4] %; Omega3 = 0.102 [0.046, 0.288] g/100g; Selenium = 45.1 [24.8, 87.6] μg/100g; VitaminA = 58.5 [17.3, 181.5] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.886 [0.630, 1.224] mg/100g (wet weight);

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