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Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepede, 1802)
BLUE AND YELLOW GROUPER
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Serranidae   Epinephelus


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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Serranidae  
 Genus Epinephelus  
  Epinephelus flavocaeruleus    (Lacepède, 1802) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Bodianus macrocephalus Cynichthys flavopurpuratus Epinephelus flavo-caeruleus Epinephelus flavocoeruleus Holocentrus caerulescens Holocentrus flavocaeruleus Holocentrus gymnosus Perca flavopurpurea Serranus areolatus Serranus borbonicus Serranus flavocaeruleus details
Citation:
Name Code: 383369
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Epinephelus&speciesname=flavocaeruleus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Epinephelus&speciesname=flavocaeruleus
https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Epinephelus&speciesname=flavocaeruleus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Epinephelus-flavocaeruleus.html

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède , 1802)

Blue-and-yellow grouper Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Epinephelus flavocaeruleus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Blue-and-yellow grouper) Epinephelus flavocaeruleus
Picture by Field, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Lacepède .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 150 m (Ref. 9710 ).   Tropical; 19°N - 36°S, 23°E - 98°E (Ref. 5222 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden south to Port Alfred, South Africa and east to the northwest tip of Sumatra, Indonesia. Also found in the islands of western Indian Ocean, including Cargados Carajos and Rodriguez. Not known from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 49 - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4319 ); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450 ); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 4319 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-17; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 8. Adults have yellow fins. Small juveniles about half blue, half yellow (Ref. 48635 ); distinguished by having sky blue color of head and body in juveniles to dark bluish violet or dark greyish blue in adults; yellow upper lip; ctenoid scales on body except cycloid scales anterodorsally above lateral line and on thorax and abdomen; body of adult with numerous auxiliary scales; moderately deep bodied, greatest depth 2.4-2.8 in SL; truncate to slightly emarginate caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.7-2.0 in head length (Ref. 90102 ); further characterized by having head length 2.4-2.7 times in SL; preorbital depth 6.8-8.8 times in head length for fish 36-66 cm SL; interorbital area convex; adults posterior nostrils 4-5 times larger than anterior nostrils; subangular preopercle, serrae at angle enlarged; straight to slightly convex upper edge of operculum; maxilla reaches to or slightly past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Juveniles inhabit shallow reefs while adults are found on deeper reefs. Feeds on a variety of fishes, crabs, shrimps, spiny lobsters, squids, and small octopi. Solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall , 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 22 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 23.3 - 28.1, mean 26.1 (based on 78 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.55 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Capuli, Estelita Emily Modified by Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei Fish Forum
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