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Epinephelus hexagonatus (Bloch &. Schneider, 1801)
Hexagon Rockcod; Sharpspotted Grouper; Star-spotted Grouper; Starspotted Grouper; White-speckled Grouper; Wirenetting Cod; Serranus stellans Richardson, 1842; Holocentrus hexagonatus Bloch and Schneider, 1801

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Serranidae   Epinephelus

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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Serranidae  
 Genus Epinephelus  
  Epinephelus hexagonatus    (Forster, 1801) 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Epinephalus hexagonatus Epinephelus hexagonathus Epinephelus stellans Holocentrus hexagonatus Serranus hexagonatus Serranus parkinsonii Serranus stellans   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Character: Dorsal fin with XI spines and 15 to 17 rays, the fifth to ninth spines subequal (their length contained 2.5 to 2.8 times in head length) and slightly shorter than longest rays, the interspinous membranes incised; anal fin with III spines and 8 rays, the second spine contained 2.1 to 2.5 times in head length, distinctly longer than third spine or depth of peduncle; pectoral-fin rays 17 to 19; pectoral-fin length contained 1.6 to 1.9 times in head length; pelvic fins not reaching past anus, their length contained 1.8 to 2.1 times in head length; caudal fin rounded. Lateral-body scales ctenoid, with auxiliary scales; lateral-line scales 61 to 70; ateral-scale series 93 to 114. 
Habitat: Common in exposed outer-reef areas in relatively shallow water. Well-camouflaged grouper, solitary. Feeds mainly on fishes and crustaceans (stomatopods and brachyuran crabs). 
Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: none have been taken on the African coast, except for the specimen recorded by Randall and Heemstra 1991 from Kenyan coast north of Kilifi Creek. It is an insular species found in most tropical Indo-Pacific islands. Absent in the Red Se 
Utility: Probably of some important as a food in artisanal fisheries because of its abundance at most island. 
Name Code: 382542
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
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Number of matches : 2
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Epinephelus hexagonatus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

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Epinephelus hexagonatus
Epinephelus hexagonatus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0665 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

Epinephelus hexagonatus
Epinephelus hexagonatus
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0666 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster , 1801)

Starspotted grouper Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Epinephelus hexagonatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Google image Image of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Starspotted grouper) Epinephelus hexagonatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Forster .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 4319 ), usually 6 - ? m (Ref. 37816 ).   Tropical; 33°N - 31°S, 30°E - 130°W (Ref. 5222 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: none have been taken on the African coast, except for the specimen recorded by Randall and Heemstra 1991(Ref. 4787 ) from Kenyan coast north of Kilifi Creek. It is an insular species found in most tropical Indo-Pacific islands. Absent in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 19.0   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48600 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-17; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body depth 2.8-3.5 in SL (10-17 cm SL individuals); head length 2.5-2.6 in SL; preopercle rounded, ventral serrae slightly enlarged; upper edge of operculum convex; midlateral part of lower jaw with 3-5 rows of teeth; gill rakers of first gill arch 7-9 + 17-19; dorsal spines 5th-9th subequal (2.5-2.8 in HL); second anal spine 2.1-2.5 in HL, distinctly longer than third spine or depth of peduncle; caudal fin rounded; pectoral-fin rays 17-19, fin length 1.6-1.9 in HL; pelvic fins 1.8-2.1 in HL; lateral-line scales 61-70; lateral scale series 93 to 114. Colour: head and body covered with polygonal (mostly hexagonal) brown spots that tend to merge, leaving only conspicuous triangular white dots at corners of the polygons; dark spots on belly and ventral part of head more rounded and separated, and often reddish brown; 4 or 5 brownish black saddle blotches (formed by groups of darker spots) on dorsal part of body and caudal peduncle, the first 4 extending onto base of dorsal fin; irregular dark bar, formed by darker polygonal spots, on lower part of body below each saddle blotch; large brown or olive spot just behind eye, often joined to similar spot on opercle; fins with close-set dark brown or reddish brown spots and white dots, except distal half of pectoral fins with faint dark spots and no white dots; pelvic and anal fins with pale edge and dark brown submarginal band; interspinous dorsal-fin membranes with dark brown triangle and short white or pale yellow filament behind tip of each spine (Ref. 39231 , 90102 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common in exposed outer-reef areas in relatively shallow water. Well-camouflaged grouper, solitary (Ref 37816). Feeds mainly on fishes and crustaceans (stomatopods and brachyuran crabs) (Ref. 5222 ). This fish is too small to be of commercial importance except as a food fish in artisanal fisheries. It is caught with hook-and-line, traps, spear, and gill nets (Ref. 39231 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall , 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 28 January 2018

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 2803 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00541 - 0.01611), b=3.00 (2.85 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.1   ±0.67 se; Based on food items. Generation time: 1.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.9). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (17 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Capuli, Estelita Emily Modified by Pablico, Grace Tolentino Fish Forum
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