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Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch, 1790)
HIGHFIN GROUPER
Blackfin Cod; Brown-spotted Rock-cod; Marbled Rock-cod; Marbled Rockcod; Spotty Cod; Trout Cod; Epinephelus madurensis Günther, 1873; Epinephelus fario Thunberg, 1793; Serranus medurensis Günther, 1873; Holocentrus maculatus Bloch, 1790

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Serranidae   Epinephelus


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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/cfac8107-451b-45ab-bb85-3f0760127620 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/cfac8107-451b-45ab-bb85-3f0760127620
https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/cfac8107-451b-45ab-bb85-3f0760127620 ---> http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/60418629-b874-40bb-af5b-63884135d859;jsessionid=FBD75C67AEDB358B253F6DF395348080
http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/60418629-b874-40bb-af5b-63884135d859;jsessionid=FBD75C67AEDB358B253F6DF395348080 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/60418629-b874-40bb-af5b-63884135d859;jsessionid=FBD75C67AEDB358B253F6DF395348080
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Serranidae  
 Genus Epinephelus  
  Epinephelus maculatus    (Bloch, 1790) 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Epinephelus maculates Holocentrus albo-fuscus Holocentrus maculatus Plectropoma kulas Serranus medurensis Serranus sebae   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Character: Dorsal fin with XI spines and 15 to 17 rays; anal fin with III spines and 8 soft rays. Head, body and fins of adult pale brown, covered with small, round to hexagonal, close-set, dark brown spot, extending on to ventral part of body and head front portion of spinous dorsal fin about 50% taller than on other species at all sizes. Small juveniles black with white blotches, becoming more spotted with age. 
Habitat: Juveniles are found in shallow coral rubble, adults in isolated coral heads of lagoon and seaward reefs to depths of 82 m. Feeds mainly on sand-dwelling fishes and crustaceans, sometimes on octopuses. In the Hong Kong live fish markets. May be ciguatoxic  
Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Islands and Indonesia; South China Sea to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island; throughout Micronesia. 
Utility: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums. 
Name Code: 382545
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
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https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Epinephelus&speciesname=maculatus ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Epinephelus-maculatus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch , 1790)

Highfin grouper Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Epinephelus maculatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Epinephelus maculatus (Highfin grouper) Epinephelus maculatus
Picture by Kochzius, M.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Bloch .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 100 m (Ref. 37816 ).   Tropical; 29°N - 34°S, 96°E - 170°W (Ref. 5222 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Pacific Ocean: Cocos-Keeling Islands to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to southeastern Australia and Lord Howe Island (Ref. 37816 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 35 - ? cm
Max length : 60.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5525 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-17; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 8. Brown spots evenly distributed and packed into hexagonal shapes only on adults which are generally larger (>25 to 45 cm); front portion of spinous dorsal fin about 50% taller than on other species at all sizes (Ref. 37816 ); small juveniles black with white blotches, becoming more spotted with age (Ref. 48635 ); further characterized by having ctenoid scales on body; auxiliary scales on body; greatest depth of body 2.7-3.1 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.7-2.0 in head length (Ref. 90102 ); head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; flat to slightly convex interorbital area, convex dorsal head profile; preopercle with shallow indentation just above the enlarged serrae at angle; straight or slightly convex upper edge of operculum, posterior and anterior nostrils subequal; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of eye, ventral edge with blunt hook-like process distally in fish larger than 35 cm SL; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Juveniles are found in shallow coral rubble, adults in isolated coral heads of lagoon and seaward reefs to depths of 82 m. Feeds mainly on sand-dwelling fishes and crustaceans, sometimes on octopuses. In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253 ). May be ciguatoxic in certain areas (Ref. 37816 ). Solitary, often seen on open sand and base of reefs (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall , 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 24 January 2017

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 24.3 - 28.8, mean 27.6 (based on 698 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00646 - 0.01622), b=3.03 (2.90 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.0   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies. Generation time: 3.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.28). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Binohlan, Crispina B. Modified by Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei Fish Forum
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