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Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes, 1828)
RED GROUPER
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Serranidae   Epinephelus


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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Epinephelus&speciesname=morio ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Epinephelus-morio.html
http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Epinephelus-morio.html ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Epinephelus-morio.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes , 1828)

Red grouper Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Epinephelus morio   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Sounds | Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Epinephelus morio (Red grouper) Epinephelus morio
Picture by Corbetta, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Valenciennes .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 330 m (Ref. 13442 ), usually 70 - 330 m (Ref. 13442 ).   Subtropical; 35°N - 27°S, 98°W - 33°W (Ref. 5222 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to southern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Bermuda; strays occur north to Massachusetts.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 50.0 , range 35 - 98 cm
Max length : 125 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340 ); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217 ); max. published weight: 23.0 kg (Ref. 9710 ); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 5222 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-17; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 8 - 10. Color of head and body dark reddish brown, shading to pink or reddish below. Opercle with 3 flat spines, the middle one being the largest. Vertical fins angulate in larger fish. Pelvic fins shorter than pectorals and inserted slightly behind ventral and pectoral-fin base. Bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin. No saddle on caudal peduncle. Interspinous membranes not incised (Ref. 26938 ); head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; convex interorbital; subangular preopercle, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; straight upper edge of operculum; posterior and anterior nostrils subequal (Ref. 89707 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults occur mainly over rocky and muddy bottoms. Uncommon around coral reefs. Usually rest on the bottom (Ref. 9710 ). Juveniles may be found in shallow water, but adults are usually taken from depths of 70-330 m (Ref. 13442 ). Feed on a wide variety of fishes and invertebrates. Are protogynous hermaphrodites (Ref. 55367 ). Most females transform to males between ages 7 to 14. Susceptible to red tide toxin ( Ptychodiscus brevi ) (Ref. 5222 ). Marketed fresh or frozen. The world record for hook and line, 39 lbs., from Cape Canaveral, Florida (Ref. 13442 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Sex change occurs at 75.5 cm TL and 9.5 years of age (Ref. 55367 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall , 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bd); Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other (Ref. 5222 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
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Aquaculture profile
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Allele frequencies
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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 11.5 - 25.7, mean 19.1 (based on 233 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00950 - 0.02198), b=3.01 (2.89 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies. Generation time: 8.9 (6.9 - 10.9) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 15 growth studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.1-0.18; tm=4-6; tmax=25; Fec=1.4 million). Prior r = 0.60, 95% CL = 0.40 - 0.90, Based on 2 stock assessments. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
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