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Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes, 1830)
Bar-breasted Rock-cod; Gilbert's Rock-cod; Honeycomb Cod; Honeycomb Rockcod; Long Finned Rock Cod; Long-finned Cod; Long-finned Rock-cod; Long-finned Rockcod; Longfin Cod; Longfin Grouper; Spotted Groper; Wirenet Cod; Epinephelus gilberti Richardson, 1842; Epinephelus megachir Richardson, 1846; Serranus carinatus Alleyne and Macleay, 1877; Serranus gilberti Richardson, 1842; Serranus megachir Richardson, 1846; Serranus quoyanus Valenciennes, 1830

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Serranidae   Epinephelus

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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Serranidae  
 Genus Epinephelus  
  Epinephelus quoyanus    (Valenciennes, 1830) 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Cephalopholis megachir Epinephelus gilberti Epinephelus quoyans Perca melanocelidota Serranus alatus Serranus carinatus Serranus gilberti Serranus megachir Serranus pardalis Serranus quoyanus   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Character: Dorsal fin with XI spines and 16 to 18 rays, the fourth spine usually longest, its length contained 2.3 to 3.0 times in head length and shorter than the longest dorsal-fin ray; anal fin with III spines and 8 rays, the second and third spines subequal, their length contained 2.8 to 3.8 times in head length and less than or subequal to depth of peduncle; pectoral-fin rays 17 to 19; pectoral-fin length 26 to 35% of standard length, contained 1.2 to 1.7 times in head length: pelvic-fin length 1.6 to 2.1 times in head length; caudal-peduncle depth contained 3.1 to 3.6 times in head length; caudal fin rounded; length of middle caudal-fin rays contained 1.35 to 2.0 times in head length. Lateral-body scales ctenoid; auxiliary scales present; lateral-line scales 48 to 52; lateral-scale series 80 to 96. Pyloric caeca 21. 
Habitat: A sedentary little grouper, E. quoyanus is usually found on inshore silty reefs; we found no records from depths greater than 50 m. this species feeds on crustaceans, fishes, and worms, and it is the second most common inshore grouper of the Hong K 
Distribution: E. quoyanus is a western Pacific species which occurs from southern Japan to Australia, including Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, Philippines, Viet Nam, Thailand, Indonesia, New Guinea and associated islands, and north coast of Australia. 
Utility: E. quoyanus is of some economic importance in fisheries at Hong Kong and Taiwan (and probably at other places where it is common). In the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, it is the most common grouper species at the Makung market, and it is often sold alive. 
Name Code: 382554
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes , 1830)

Longfin grouper Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Epinephelus quoyanus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Google image Image of Epinephelus quoyanus (Longfin grouper) Epinephelus quoyanus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Valenciennes .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 50 m (Ref. 5222 ).   Tropical; 35°N - 32°S, 110°E - 156°E (Ref. 5222 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Pacific: Japan to Australia. Unknown from the Indian Ocean except for the Andaman Islands record (as Serranus merra ). Unreported from islands of Micronesia, Melanesia and central Pacific. Often misidentified as Epinephelus macrospilos or Epinephelus hexagonatus .

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 18 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-18; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: whitish color; head, body and fins with numerous large close-set hexagonal to roundish dark brown to blackish spots; ctenoid body scales except cycloid dorsoanteriorly above lateral line, on thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.7-3.2 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.7-2.1 in head length (Ref. 90102 ); head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; evenly curved dorsal head profile; snout subequal to eye diameter, snout length 4.6-5.3 times in HL; rounded preopercle or subangular; upper edge of operculum almost straight; posterior nostril diameter about twice that of anterior nostrils; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-3 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; lower jaw barely projecting in front of upper jaw (Ref. 89707 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits inshore silty reefs; there are no records from depths greater than 50 m. Feeds on shrimps, small fishes, worms and crabs (Ref. 89707 ). The enlarged fleshy pectoral fins appear to have resulted from its habit of sitting on the substrate. Solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall , 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 23 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298 )

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 24.5 - 28.9, mean 27.7 (based on 504 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00680 - 0.01852), b=3.03 (2.89 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.0   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Capuli, Estelita Emily Modified by Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei Fish Forum
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