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Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz, 1953
FOURSADDLE GROUPER
Four-saddle Rockcod; Spotty Cod

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Serranidae   Epinephelus


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/9dd2bf95-0b7f-44cc-8554-9f9b0860066d/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/9dd2bf95-0b7f-44cc-8554-9f9b0860066d/
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Serranidae  
 Genus Epinephelus  
  Epinephelus spilotoceps    Schultz, 1953 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Epinephelus salonotus Epinephelus spiloteceps   details
Citation: The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Character: Dorsal fin with XI spines and 14 to 16 rays, the third or fourth spine longest, its length 2.8 to 3.6 times in head length and distinctly shorter than longest dorsal-fin ray; anal fin with III spines and 8 rays, the second spine usually longest, its length contained 2.4 to 3.7 times in head length and usually more than peduncle depth; pectoral-fin rays 17 to 19; pectoral-fin length 21 to 24% of standard length, contained 1.7 to 2.1 times in head length; pelvic-fin length contained 1.9 to 2.4 times in head length; caudal-peduncle depth contained 3.5 to 4.1 times in head length: caudal fin rounded; middle caudal-fin rays contained 1.7 to 2.0 times in head length. Lateral-body scales ctenoid, with auxiliary scales; lateral-line scales 59 to 69; lateral-scale series 86 to 100. 
Habitat: Like the other “reticulated groupers,” E. spilotoceps is a shallow-water coral-reef species. Nothing has been published on the biology of this species. 
Distribution: E. spilotoceps is widely distributed in the tropical Indo-Pacific region, from the east coast of Africa (from Zanzibar south to Ponta Zavora, Mozambique) to the Line Islands in the central Pacific (Fig. 408). Except for its occurrence along the Afr 
Utility: E. spilotoceps is probably of importance to artisanal fisheries where it is common, but there are no statistics available for this species. 
Name Code: 382559
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Epinephelus&speciesname=spilotoceps ---> https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Epinephelus&speciesname=spilotoceps
https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Epinephelus&speciesname=spilotoceps ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Epinephelus-spilotoceps.html

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Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz , 1953

Foursaddle grouper Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Epinephelus spilotoceps   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Google image Image of Epinephelus spilotoceps (Foursaddle grouper) Epinephelus spilotoceps
Picture by Seycek, O.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Schultz .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 9710 ).   Tropical; 12°N - 24°S, 55°E - 154°W (Ref. 5222 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West-Pacific: East coast of Africa to the Line Islands. Except for its occurrence along the African coast (Zanzibar, Tanzania to Ponta Zavora, Mozambique) it seems to be primarily an insular species, occurring at most (probably all) of the islands of tropical Indian and west-central Pacific. Not known from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, or Australian waters (however, it is found at Rowley Shoals off Western Australia).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 19 - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30874 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-16; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 8. Preopercle rounded, with a shallow notch; the serrae are enlarged but covered with skin; upper edge of the operculum almost straight. The head and body mostly covered with close-set dark brown, olive, or reddish brown spots. Those on the dorsolateral parts of the head, body, and on median fins polygonal and close-set, with the interspaces forming a white reticulum. Those on the ventral portions are more rounded, more separated and often more reddish. Three dark blotches are often visible at the base of the dorsal fin and one forming a saddle blotch on the caudal peduncle. These blotches differentiates it from E. merra and E. quoyanus (Ref. 5222 ). Small conspicuous dark spots on snout and sometimes between or below the eyes (Ref. 37816 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in lagoon patch reefs, the upper slopes of channels, and reef margins (Ref. 1602 ). Carnivorous (Ref. 81697 ). Nothing has been published on its biology. Solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall , 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 06 November 2017

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 26.1 - 29.3, mean 28.6 (based on 1392 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00563 - 0.01619), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.7   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Binohlan, Crispina B. Modified by Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei Fish Forum
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