The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Dorsal fin with XI spines and 13 to 16 rays, the third to fifth spines longest, their length contained 3.1 to 4.7 times in head length and distinctly shorter than longest dorsal-fin rays; interspinous dorsal-fin membranes incised: anal fin with III spines and 8 rays; pectoral-fin rays 18 to 19, pectoral-fin length contained 1.7 to 2.4 times and pelvic-fin length contained 2.2 to 2.8 times in head length; caudal fin rounded. Midlateral-body scales ctenoid in juveniles; scales smooth in adults, except for small patch covered by pectoral fin; lateral-line scales 63 to 74; lateral-scale series 95 to 112. Pyloric caeca 16 to 18.
prefers clear water areas on coral reefs; juveniles have been taken on reef flats and in tidepools, but adults are found in deeper water (to 50 m). Randall (1980a) found that adults from Oceania were almost exclusively piscivorous; only
occurs from the Red Sea to South Africa and eastward to Ducie in the Pitcairn Group, the easternmost atoll of Oceania; in the western Pacific it ranges from Japan to New South Wales and Lord Howe Island.
Where it is abundant
is certainly of importance to artisanal fisheries, but separate statistics for this species are not available.
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Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and eastward to Ducie in the Pitcairn Group, north to Japan, south to New South Wales and Lord Howe Island. Migration report from the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ref.
) may be based on
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 61 - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
: 8. Color of head and body pale greenish grey or brown with round dark spots that vary from dull orange-red to dark brown, centers darker than the edges. A large black blotch (or group of black spots) often visible on body at the base of last 4 dorsal-fin spines. Five sub vertical dark bars may be present on body. Dark spots on soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins of juveniles are so close that the pale interspaces form a white reticulum. 95-112 scales in longitudinal series. Scales on body ctenoid in juveniles, becoming cycloid in adults except the area beneath and posterior to pectoral fins. Pyloric caeca 16-18. Further characterized by: elongate body, depth contained 3.0-3.6 times in SL; large head, length is 2.1-2.4 times in SL; snout length 2.0-2.4 times in upper-jaw length; interorbital area narrow, flat to slightly concave, interorbital width 6.8-8.1 times in HL and 3.1-4.0 times in upper jaw length; broadly rounded preopercle, serrae at angle of preopercle slightly enlarged; upper edge of operculum almost straight; posterior nostrils distinctly larger than anterior nostrils; maxilla reaching well past eye, greatest width about twice suborbital depth, maxilla width 6.8-8.1% of standard length; upper-jaw length 21-24% of SL; 2-5 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; inner teeth at symphysis of upper jaw are longer than the fixed canines at front of jaw (Ref.
). Differs from
by its more elongate body and closer-set spots (Ref.
Adults prefer clear water areas on coral reefs; juveniles have been taken from reef flats and in tide pools, adults found in deeper waters. Solitary and common in lightly fished areas (Ref.
). Adults from Oceania almost exclusively feed on fishes (holocentrids, mullid, and pomacentrid); and occasionally, crustaceans (Ref.
). Present in the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref.
). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874. Occasionally ciguatoxic (Ref.
). Reports of sizes in excess of 80 cm total length for
are probably based on misidentifications of
; these species grow much bigger than
pers. comm. 09/04
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall
, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 19.6 - 28.2, mean 26.2 (based on 1115 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00959 - 0.02178), b=3.05 (2.93 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.1 ±0.68 se; Based on food items.
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.1-0.17; tm=5-6; Fec = 354,989).
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Binohlan, Crispina B.
Luna, Susan M.
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