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Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål, 1775)
Greasy Cod; Greasy Grouper; Reef Cod; Perca tauvina Forsskål, 1775

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Serranidae   Epinephelus

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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Serranidae  
 Genus Epinephelus  
  Epinephelus tauvina    (Forsskål, 1775) 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Cephalopholis tauvina Epinephalus tauvina Epinephelus chewa Epinephelus coralicola Epinephelus elongatus Holocentrus pantherinus Perca tauvina Serranus altivelioides Serranus corallicola Serranus goldiei Serranus jansenii details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Character: Dorsal fin with XI spines and 13 to 16 rays, the third to fifth spines longest, their length contained 3.1 to 4.7 times in head length and distinctly shorter than longest dorsal-fin rays; interspinous dorsal-fin membranes incised: anal fin with III spines and 8 rays; pectoral-fin rays 18 to 19, pectoral-fin length contained 1.7 to 2.4 times and pelvic-fin length contained 2.2 to 2.8 times in head length; caudal fin rounded. Midlateral-body scales ctenoid in juveniles; scales smooth in adults, except for small patch covered by pectoral fin; lateral-line scales 63 to 74; lateral-scale series 95 to 112. Pyloric caeca 16 to 18. 
Habitat: E. tauvina prefers clear water areas on coral reefs; juveniles have been taken on reef flats and in tidepools, but adults are found in deeper water (to 50 m). Randall (1980a) found that adults from Oceania were almost exclusively piscivorous; only  
Distribution: E. tauvina occurs from the Red Sea to South Africa and eastward to Ducie in the Pitcairn Group, the easternmost atoll of Oceania; in the western Pacific it ranges from Japan to New South Wales and Lord Howe Island. 
Utility: Where it is abundant E. tauvina is certainly of importance to artisanal fisheries, but separate statistics for this species are not available. 
Name Code: 382561
  IUCN Red List:DD       Marine     
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Number of matches : 3
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Epinephelus tauvina%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Epinephelus tauvina
Epinephelus tauvina
Greasy Grouper
ID: 0091 3183 0986 0116 [detail]
Dr. Antonio J. Ferreira
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Epinephelus tauvina
Epinephelus tauvina
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0208 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

Epinephelus tauvina
Epinephelus tauvina
ID: 4444 4444 1106 0621 [detail]
© 2006 Moorea Biocode

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål , 1775)

Greasy grouper Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Epinephelus tauvina   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Epinephelus tauvina (Greasy grouper) Epinephelus tauvina
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Forsskål .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 1 - 300 m (Ref. 28016 ).   Subtropical; 30°N - 32°S, 29°E - 123°W (Ref. 5222 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and eastward to Ducie in the Pitcairn Group, north to Japan, south to New South Wales and Lord Howe Island. Migration report from the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 6489 , 5385 ) may be based on Epinephelus coioides specimens.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 61.1 , range 61 - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89972 ); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-16; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 8. Color of head and body pale greenish grey or brown with round dark spots that vary from dull orange-red to dark brown, centers darker than the edges. A large black blotch (or group of black spots) often visible on body at the base of last 4 dorsal-fin spines. Five sub vertical dark bars may be present on body. Dark spots on soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins of juveniles are so close that the pale interspaces form a white reticulum. 95-112 scales in longitudinal series. Scales on body ctenoid in juveniles, becoming cycloid in adults except the area beneath and posterior to pectoral fins. Pyloric caeca 16-18. Further characterized by: elongate body, depth contained 3.0-3.6 times in SL; large head, length is 2.1-2.4 times in SL; snout length 2.0-2.4 times in upper-jaw length; interorbital area narrow, flat to slightly concave, interorbital width 6.8-8.1 times in HL and 3.1-4.0 times in upper jaw length; broadly rounded preopercle, serrae at angle of preopercle slightly enlarged; upper edge of operculum almost straight; posterior nostrils distinctly larger than anterior nostrils; maxilla reaching well past eye, greatest width about twice suborbital depth, maxilla width 6.8-8.1% of standard length; upper-jaw length 21-24% of SL; 2-5 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; inner teeth at symphysis of upper jaw are longer than the fixed canines at front of jaw (Ref. 89707 ). Differs from E. howlandi by its more elongate body and closer-set spots (Ref. 37816 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults prefer clear water areas on coral reefs; juveniles have been taken from reef flats and in tide pools, adults found in deeper waters. Solitary and common in lightly fished areas (Ref. 37816 ). Adults from Oceania almost exclusively feed on fishes (holocentrids, mullid, and pomacentrid); and occasionally, crustaceans (Ref. 89707 ). Present in the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253 ). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874. Occasionally ciguatoxic (Ref. 37816 ). Reports of sizes in excess of 80 cm total length for E. tauvina are probably based on misidentifications of E. coioides , E. malabaricus , and E. lanceolatus ; these species grow much bigger than E. tauvina (Ref. 5222 , Heemstra pers. comm. 09/04 ). .

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall , 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Data deficient (DD)  ; Date assessed: 21 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 9710 )

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Aquaculture: production ; fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 19.6 - 28.2, mean 26.2 (based on 1115 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00959 - 0.02178), b=3.05 (2.93 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.1   ±0.68 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.1-0.17; tm=5-6; Fec = 354,989). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Binohlan, Crispina B. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
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