- To +40cm tall, from stout taproot, branching, herbaceous, erect, single or multiple from base, carinate, with appressed pubescence. Hairs of stem bifurcate and oriented parallel to stem axis.
- Early season leaves in basal rosette. Blades to +10cm long and +1cm broad. Tips of basal leaves often curled or hooked. Leaves of stem alternate, gradually reduced upward, coarsely toothed to sub-entire, linear to narrowly oblong, tapering to base, sessile to short petiolate, with bifurcate appressed pubescence above and below.
- Terminal racemes, sub-compact in flower and elongating in fruit to +25cm long.
- Petals 4, clawed, yellow to bicolored with yellow and white. Claw to 6mm long. Limb of petal 3-4mm long, -2mm broad, glabrous. Stamens 6. Filaments glabrous, whitish, to 6mm long. Anthers -1mm long, greenish-yellow. Ovary to 5mm long, 4-angled, .5mm broad. Style wanting. Sepals 4, distinct, pubescent as stem and leaves, to -6mm long, 1.1mm broad, linear, light green with lighter margins near apex, erect.
- Siliques to 7.5cm long, 4-angled, widely spreading to erect, with pubescence as stem and leaves, beaked, many seeded. Beak to 4mm long. Pedicels thick, to 5mm long, typically at nearly right angles to axis of stem.
- Still another of the many introduced members of the
! This plant is extremely common and can be found almost anywhere. The flowers can be solid yellow or bicolored as seen above. The taproot can get quite large for the size of the plant, especially if there is not much water near the surface of the ground.
Photographs taken at the Kansas City Zoo, 4-20-00, and at Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, Boone County, MO., 4-11-04.
This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of
Weeds of the U.S.
Linnaeus, Demonstr. Pl. 17. 1753.
of leaves 2-rayed, mixed with fewer 3-rayed ones.
erect, unbranched or branched basally, (0.4-)1.5-4.5(-7) dm.
(often withered by fruiting), similar to cauline.
(proximal and median) petiolate and (distal) sessile, (petiole (0.3-) 0.5-2(-3) cm); blade [linear, narrowly oblanceolate, elliptic, or oblong, (1-)2-8(-11) cm × (2-)5-12(-17) mm, base attenuate], margins sinuate or coarsely dentate to denticulate or repand, (distal) entire or denticulate, (apex acute).
considerably elongated in fruit.
divaricate, stout, as wide as fruit, 2-4(-6) mm.
: sepals linear-oblong, 4-6 mm, lateral pair not saccate basally; petals yellow, narrowly oblanceolate to spatulate, 6-8 × 1.5-2 mm, claw 3-6 mm, apex rounded; median filaments 4-6 mm; anthers narrowly oblong, 0.8-1.3 mm.
widely spreading to divaricate-ascending, narrowly linear, straight or curved upward, somewhat torulose, (2-)3-8(-10) cm × 1.5-2 mm, 4-angled, not striped; valves with prominent midvein, pubescent outside, trichomes 2-rayed and, fewer, 3-rayed, often glabrous, sometimes pubescent inside; ovules (40-)50-80(-90) per ovary; style cylindrical or subclavate, stout, 1-4 mm, sparsely pubescent; stigma slightly 2-lobed, lobes as long as wide.
oblong, 1.1-1.5 × 0.6-0.7 mm; not winged or, rarely, winged distally.
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